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Asyut[spelling 1] (Arabic: أسيوط‎ Asyūṭ  pronounced [ʔɑsˈjuːtˤ], Coptic: ⲥⲓⲟⲟⲩⲧ Siowt) is the capital of the modern Asyut Governorate
Asyut Governorate
in Egypt, which has one of the largest Coptic Catholic bishopric churches in the country; the ancient city of the same name, which is situated nearby. The modern city is located at 27°11′00″N 31°10′00″E / 27.18333°N 31.16667°E / 27.18333; 31.16667, while the ancient city is located at 27°10′00″N 31°08′00″E / 27.16667°N 31.13333°E / 27.16667; 31.13333.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Names and etymology 1.2 Ancient Asyut

2 Modern Asyut

2.1 Coptic Catholic Eparchy

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Notable people 5 Twinnings 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 Sources and external links

History[edit] Names and etymology[edit] The name of the city is derived from early Egyptian Zawty (Z3JW.TJ) (late Egyptian, Səyáwt) adopted into the Coptic as Syowt ⲥⲓⲟⲟⲩⲧ, which means "Guardian" of the northern approach of Upper Egypt.[2] In Graeco-Roman
Graeco-Roman
Egypt, it was called Lycopolis or Lykopolis (Greek: Λυκόπολις, "ἡ Λύκων πόλις"),[3] ('wolf city') Lycon,[4] or Lyco.[5] Ancient Asyut[edit]

Statue of the chief royal scribe Yuny of Asyut
Asyut
and his wife Renenutet, 1290–1270 BCE early Dynasty 19.

Ancient Asyut
Asyut
was the capital of the Thirteenth Nome of Upper Egypt (Lycopolites Nome) around 3100 BC. It was located on the western bank of the Nile. The two most prominent gods of Ancient Egyptian
Ancient Egyptian
Asyut were Anubis
Anubis
and Wepwawet, both funerary deities. During the First Intermediate Period, the rulers of "Zawty" (Khety I, Tefibi, and Khety II) were supporters of the Herakleopolitan kings, of whose domain the Nome formed the southern limits. The conflict between this Nome and the southern Nomes under the rule of the Eleventh dynasty ended with the victory of Thebes and the decline of Asyut's importance.

Skull of Khety from Asyut, 1950 BCE.

Lycopolis has no remarkable ruins, but in the excavated chambers of the adjacent rocks mummies of wolves have been found, confirming the origin of its name, as well as a tradition preserved by Diodorus Siculus,[6] to the effect that an Ethiopian army, invading Egypt, was repelled beyond the city of Elephantine
Elephantine
by packs of wolves. Osiris
Osiris
was worshipped under the symbol of a wolf at Lycopolis. According to a myth, he had come "from the shades" as a wolf to aid Isis
Isis
and Horus
Horus
in their combat with Typhon.[7] Other Ancient Egyptian
Ancient Egyptian
monuments discovered in Asyut
Asyut
include; the Asyut
Asyut
necropolis (west of the modern city), tombs which date to dynasties Nine, Ten and Twelve, and the Ramessid tombs of Siese
Siese
and Amenhotep.

Asyut in hieroglyphs

In Graeco-Roman
Graeco-Roman
times, there was a distinct dialect of Coptic spoken in Asyut, known as "Lycopolitan", after the Greek name for the city. Lesser-used names for this dialect are "Sub-Akhmimic" and "Assiutic". A large Byzantine Treasure was discovered near the city in the early twentieth century and is now dispersed amongst a number of museums in the West. The hoard is composed of some of the most elaborate jewellery to survive from late antiquity. Asyut
Asyut
was the end of 40 Day Road that connected the city to Darfur through the Selima and Kharga
Kharga
Oases. The history of the road, known by local herders as Darb al-Arba'in, goes back over 700 years. It was used as a pathway for great caravans of up to 12,000 camels at its peak in the 14th century.[8] Modern Asyut[edit] Today, the city of Asyut
Asyut
has almost 400,000 inhabitants.[9] It is the Egyptian city with one of the highest Coptic Christian concentration of approximately 50%.[10] It is also home to the University
University
of Assiut, one of the largest universities in Egypt, to the Assiut Barrage, and to the Lillian Trasher
Lillian Trasher
Orphanage. The city is one of the only cities in the world that still makes silver appliqué-work shawls and is home to a large textile industry. The city also produces fine pottery, inlaid woodwork, and rugs.[11] The Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
is reported to have appeared in Asyut
Asyut
on 17 August 2000. This apparition is recognized as an official Marian apparition by the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
and remembered in the Deir el-Muharraq, Monastery of the Virgin Mary.[citation needed] Asyut
Asyut
is the terminus of the Ras Shukheir- Asyut
Asyut
oil pipeline, the terminus of the Cairo- Asyut
Asyut
gas pipeline and the beginning of the proposed Asyut- Qena
Qena
gas pipeline, the last two being part of the Nile Valley Gas Company Pipeline Project.[12] Aysut is next to the Aysut Dam across the Nile
Nile
river in the neighboring port of Al-Hamra. The dam was built in 1902 and a hydroelectric plant was added in the 1980s.[11] Coptic Catholic Eparchy[edit] On 10 August 1947, a Coptic Catholic eparchy (Eastern Catholic Diocese) of Assiut (or Lycopolis) was established on southern Egyptian territory split off from the Coptic Catholic Eparchy of Luqsor, each suffragan of Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria. Its episcopal see is the cathedral of the Mother of Divine Love, in Assyut.

Suffragan
Suffragan
Eparchs (Bishops) of Assiut

(all Coptic Rite)

Alexandros Scandar (9 August 1947 – death 29 December 1964) Youhanna Nueir, Friars Minor
Friars Minor
(O.F.M.) (26 March 1965 – retired 20 March 1990); previously Auxiliary Eparch
Auxiliary Eparch
of Luqsor of the Copts (Egypt) (8 December 1955 – 26 March 1965) & Titular Bishop
Titular Bishop
of Phatanus (8 December 1955 – 26 March 1965) Kyrillos Kamal William Samaan, O.F.M. (16 May 1990 – present)

Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Köppen-Geiger climate classification system
Köppen-Geiger climate classification system
classifies its climate as hot desert (BWh). It is the driest city of Egypt.[13] Luxor, Minya, Qena
Qena
and Asyut
Asyut
have the widest difference of temperatures between days and nights of any city in Egypt, with almost 16 °C (29 °F) difference. The city of Asyut
Asyut
is sandwiched between two mountain ranges of about 600m height. There is also a lowering in elevation in mid Egypt, from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the Red Sea. This gives the city and nearby towns and villages the similar properties of a continental climate, meaning that the city has harsh and chilly cold winter weather, and very hot but non-humid summers. During summer the temperature can exceed 42 °C (108 °F). Yet, in winter Asyut
Asyut
gets below 0 °C (32 °F) temperatures during the night and frost can easily form, while hail or snow are rare because of the low average of the city's precipitation and general low humidity. The highest record temperature was 51 °C (124 °F), recorded on July 23, 1994, while the lowest record temperature was −2 °C (28 °F), recorded on January 16, 2008.[14]

Climate data for Asyut

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 32.2 (90) 39.8 (103.6) 44.2 (111.6) 44.6 (112.3) 47.8 (118) 48.4 (119.1) 44.3 (111.7) 45.2 (113.4) 43.5 (110.3) 41.5 (106.7) 37.6 (99.7) 32.2 (90) 48.4 (119.1)

Average high °C (°F) 19.3 (66.7) 21.7 (71.1) 25.1 (77.2) 31.4 (88.5) 35.2 (95.4) 37.1 (98.8) 36.5 (97.7) 36.0 (96.8) 34.2 (93.6) 30.5 (86.9) 25.1 (77.2) 20.3 (68.5) 29.4 (84.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 11.7 (53.1) 13.9 (57) 17.4 (63.3) 23.2 (73.8) 27.2 (81) 29.6 (85.3) 29.6 (85.3) 29.0 (84.2) 26.9 (80.4) 23.4 (74.1) 17.4 (63.3) 13.3 (55.9) 21.9 (71.4)

Average low °C (°F) 4.7 (40.5) 6.3 (43.3) 9.7 (49.5) 14.5 (58.1) 18.6 (65.5) 21.3 (70.3) 22.0 (71.6) 21.7 (71.1) 19.6 (67.3) 16.2 (61.2) 10.7 (51.3) 6.7 (44.1) 14.3 (57.7)

Record low °C (°F) 0.0 (32) 1.2 (34.2) 0.7 (33.3) 6.2 (43.2) 11.3 (52.3) 15.4 (59.7) 17.9 (64.2) 18.0 (64.4) 13.8 (56.8) 10.7 (51.3) 3.0 (37.4) 0.9 (33.6) 0.0 (32)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3

Average relative humidity (%) 52 42 36 28 25 27 32 36 40 42 48 52 38.3

Mean daily sunshine hours 9 9 10 10 11 12 12 12 11 10 9 8 10.3

Source #1: NOAA[15]

Source #2: Weather2Travel for sunshine[16]

Notable people[edit]

Coluthus, 5th century Greek poet. Gamal Abdel Nasser, the second Egyptian president. Shenouda III, the Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
from 1971 to 2012. Samir Ghanem, a comedian, singer, and entertainer. Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, Egyptian nationalist. Meletius of Lycopolis, founder of the Meletians.[17] al-Suyuti, a Sunni Muslim theologian who died in 1505.

Twinnings[edit]

Iaşi, Romania

See also[edit]

Tulle bi telli

Notes[edit]

^ More often[citation needed] spelled Assiout or Assiut.

References[edit]

^ "UNdata - record view - City population by sex, city and city type". Data.un.org. Retrieved 22 November 2014.  ^ Wilkinson, Toby (2013). The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 1408852985.  ^ Ptol. iv. 5. § 63; Steph. B. s. v.; Strabo
Strabo
xvii. p. 813) ^ (Plin. v. 9. s. 11) ^ (Itin. Anton. p. 157) ^ (ii. 88; comp. Aelian. Hist. An. x. 28) ^ (Champollion, Descript. de l'Egypte, vol. i. p. 276; Jollois, Egypte, vol. ii. ch. 13.) ^ Stephens, Angela. "Riding the Forty Days' Road". AramcoWorld. Retrieved 18 November 2015.  ^ "Egypt". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 22 November 2014.  ^ "The Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
in action - Al-Ahram Weekly". weekly.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2016-02-18.  ^ a b "Asyūṭ Egypt". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 November 2015.  ^ "North Africa Pipelines map - Crude Oil (petroleum) pipelines - Natural Gas pipelines - Products pipelines". Theodora.com/pipelines. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-19.  ^ " Egypt
Egypt
Climate Index". Climate Charts. Retrieved 20 June 2013.  ^ "Asyut, Egypt". Voodoo Skies. Retrieved 18 August 2013.  ^ " Asyut
Asyut
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ " Asyut
Asyut
Climate and Weather Averages, Egypt". Retrieved 12 December 2013.  ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Lycopolis". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. 

Bibliography[edit]

Loprieno, Antonio: Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Oxford U Press 1996. ISBN 0-521-44849-2 Baines & Malek Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt, 2000. ISBN 0-8160-4036-2 Kahl, Jochem: "Ancient Asyut: The first Synthesis after Three Hundred Years of Research", The Asyut
Asyut
Project vol. I. Wiesbaden 2008. ISBN 978-3-447-05666-3

Sources and external links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Asyut.

Asyut
Asyut
travel guide from Wikivoyage

Coordinates: 27°11′N 31°10′E / 27.183°N 31.167°E / 27.183; 31.167

v t e

Governorates capitals of Egypt

Governorate (capital)

Alexandria
Alexandria
(Alexandria) Aswan
Aswan
(Aswan) Asyut
Asyut
(Asyut) Beheira (Damanhur) Beni Suef
Beni Suef
(Beni Suef) Cairo
Cairo
(Cairo) Dakahlia (Mansoura) Damietta
Damietta
(Damietta) Faiyum
Faiyum
(Faiyum) Gharbia (Tanta) Giza
Giza
(Giza) Ismailia
Ismailia
(Ismailia) Kafr El Sheikh
Kafr El Sheikh
(Kafr El Sheikh) Luxor
Luxor
(Luxor) Matrouh (Mersa Matrouh) Minya (Minya) New Valley (Kharga) North Sinai (Arish) Port Said
Port Said
(Port Said) Qalyubia (Benha) Qena
Qena
(Qena) Red Sea
Red Sea
(Hurghada) Sharqia (Zagazig) Sohag
Sohag
(Sohag) South Sinai (El Tor) Suez
Suez
(Suez)

v t e

Upper Egyptian cities

Akhmim Aswan Asyut Beni Suef Faiyum Hurghada Luxor Mallawi Minya Safaga Qena Sohag

v t e

Egyptian cities and towns by population

1,000,000 and more

Alexandria Cairo Giza Shubra El Kheima

300,000-999,999

Asyut Bilbeis Damietta Faiyum Imbaba Ismailia El Mahalla El Kubra Kom Ombo Mansoura Luxor Port Fuad Port Said Suez Tanta Zagazig

100,000-299,999

6th of October Arish Aswan Banha Beni Suef Damanhur Desouk Edfu Hurghada Kafr El Dawwar Kafr El Sheikh Mallawi Minya New Borg El Arab New Cairo Obour Qena Shibin El Kom Sohag

<99,999

Abydos Ain Sokhna Akhmim Dahab Dakhla Dendera Dekernes El Alamein El Gouna Esna Hamrah Dom Hala'ib Kharga Marsa Alam Marsa Matruh Nag Hammadi New Nubariya Nuweiba Rosetta Sadat Safaga Saint Catherine Siwa Sharm El Sheikh Taba Talkha

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 150088071 LCCN: n79128188 GND: 4094817-1 BNF:

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