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An astrolabe (Greek: ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; Arabic: ٱلأَسْطُرلاب‎ al-Asturlāb) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night. The word astrolabe means "the one that catches the heavenly bodies."[1] It can thus be used to identify stars or planets, to determine local latitude given local time (and vice versa), to survey, or to triangulate. It was used in classical antiquity, the Islamic Golden Age,[2] the European Middle Ages, and the Renaissance
Renaissance
for all these purposes. The astrolabe's importance not only comes from the early development of astronomy,[1] but is also effective for determining latitude on land or calm seas. Although it is less reliable on the heaving deck of a ship in rough seas, the mariner's astrolabe was developed to solve that problem.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Ancient world 2.2 Medieval era 2.3 Astrolabes and clocks

3 Construction 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Etymology[edit] OED
OED
gives the translation "star-taker" for the English word "astrolabe" and traces it through medieval Latin to the Greek word astrolabos,[3][4] from astron "star" and lambanein "to take".[5] In the medieval Islamic world the Arabic
Arabic
word "al-Asturlāb" (i.e. astrolabe) was given various etymologies. In Arabic
Arabic
texts, the word is translated as "ākhdhu al-Nujuum" (Arabic: آخِذُ ٱلنُّجُومْ‎, lit. "star-taker"), a direct translation of the Greek word.[6] Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
quotes and criticizes medieval scientist Hamzah al-Isfahani who stated:[6] "asturlab is an arabization of this Persian phrase" (sitara yab, meaning "taker of the stars").[7] In medieval Islamic sources, there is also a folk etymology of the word as "lines of lab", where "Lab" refers to a certain son of Idris (Enoch). This etymology is mentioned by a 10th-century scientist named al-Qummi but rejected by al-Khwarizmi.[8] History[edit] Ancient world[edit] An early astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic civilization
Hellenistic civilization
by Apollonius of Perga
Apollonius of Perga
between 220 and 150 BC, often attributed to Hipparchus. The astrolabe was a marriage of the planisphere and dioptra, effectively an analog calculator capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy. Theon of Alexandria (c. 335 – c. 405) wrote a detailed treatise on the astrolabe, and Lewis[9] argues that Ptolemy
Ptolemy
used an astrolabe to make the astronomical observations recorded in the Tetrabiblos. Some historians attribute the astrolabe's invention to Hypatia, the daughter of Theon of Alexandria,[10] noting that her student Synesius credits her for the invention in his letters.[11] Astrolabes continued in use in the Greek-speaking world throughout the Byzantine period. About 550 AD, Christian philosopher John Philoponus wrote a treatise on the astrolabe in Greek, which is the earliest extant treatise on the instrument.[a] Mesopotamian bishop Severus Sebokht also wrote a treatise on the astrolabe in the Syriac language in the mid-7th century.[b] Sebokht refers to the astrolabe as being made of brass in the introduction of his treatise, indicating that metal astrolabes were known in the Christian East well before they were developed in the Islamic world or in the Latin West.[12] Medieval era[edit]

A treatise explaining the importance of the astrolabe by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Persian scientist

Astrolabe
Astrolabe
of Jean Fusoris (fr), made in Paris, 1400

An 18th-century Persian astrolabe

Disassembled 18th-century astrolabe

Exploded view of an astrolabe

Animation showing how celestial and geographic coordinates are mapped on an astrolabe's tympan through a stereographic projection. Hypothetical tympan (40 degrees North Latitude) of a 16th-century European planispheric astrolabe.

Astrolabes were further developed in the medieval Islamic world, where Muslim astronomers introduced angular scales to the design,[13] adding circles indicating azimuths on the horizon.[14] It was widely used throughout the Muslim world, chiefly as an aid to navigation and as a way of finding the Qibla, the direction of Mecca. Eighth-century mathematician Muhammad al-Fazari is the first person credited with building the astrolabe in the Islamic world.[15] The mathematical background was established by Muslim astronomer Albatenius in his treatise Kitab az- Zij (c. 920 AD), which was translated into Latin by Plato Tiburtinus
Plato Tiburtinus
(De Motu Stellarum). The earliest surviving astrolabe is dated AH 315 (927–28 AD).[16] In the Islamic world, astrolabes were used to find the times of sunrise and the rising of fixed stars, to help schedule morning prayers (salat). In the 10th century, al-Sufi first described over 1,000 different uses of an astrolabe, in areas as diverse as astronomy, astrology, navigation, surveying, timekeeping, prayer, Salat, Qibla, etc.[17][18]

Astrolabium Masha'Allah Public Library Bruges (nl) Ms. 522

The spherical astrolabe was a variation of both the astrolabe and the armillary sphere, invented during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by astronomers and inventors in the Islamic world.[c] The earliest description of the spherical astrolabe dates back to Al-Nayrizi (fl. 892–902). In the 12th century, Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī invented the linear astrolabe, sometimes called the "staff of al-Tusi", which was "a simple wooden rod with graduated markings but without sights. It was furnished with a plumb line and a double chord for making angular measurements and bore a perforated pointer".[19] The geared mechanical astrolabe was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan
Isfahan
in 1235.[20] Herman Contractus, the abbot of Reichman Abbey, examined the use of the astrolabe in Mensura Astrolai during the 11th century.[21] Peter of Maricourt wrote a treatise on the construction and use of a universal astrolabe in the last half of the 13th century entitled Nova compositio astrolabii particularis. Universal astrolabes can be found at the History of Science Museum in Oxford. English author Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
(c. 1343–1400) compiled A Treatise on the Astrolabe
Astrolabe
for his son, mainly based on Messahalla. The same source was translated by French astronomer and astrologer Pélerin de Prusse and others. The first printed book on the astrolabe was Composition and Use of Astrolabe
Astrolabe
by Christian of Prachatice, also using Messahalla, but relatively original. In 1370, the first Indian treatise on the astrolabe was written by the Jain astronomer Mahendra Suri.[22] A simplified astrolabe, known as a balesilha, was used by sailors to get an accurate reading of latitude while out to sea. The use of the balesilha was promoted by Prince Henry (1394-1460) while out navigating for Portugal.[23] The first known metal astrolabe in Western Europe is the Destombes astrolabe made from brass in tenth-century Spain.[24][25] Metal astrolabes avoided the warping that large wooden ones were prone to, allowing the construction of larger and therefore more accurate instruments. Metal astrolabes were heavier than wooden instruments of the same size, making it difficult to use them in navigation.[26] The astrolabe was almost certainly first brought north of the Pyrenees by Gerbert of Aurillac (future Pope Sylvester II), where it was integrated into the quadrivium at the school in Reims, France sometime before the turn of the 11th century.[27] In the 15th century, French instrument maker Jean Fusoris (c. 1365–1436) also started remaking and selling astrolabes in his shop in Paris, along with portable sundials and other popular scientific devices of the day. Thirteen of his astrolabes survive to this day.[28] One more special example of craftsmanship in early 15th-century Europe is the astrolabe designed by Antonius de Pacento and made by Dominicus de Lanzano, dated 1420.[29] In the 16th century, Johannes Stöffler
Johannes Stöffler
published Elucidatio fabricae ususque astrolabii, a manual of the construction and use of the astrolabe. Four identical 16th-century astrolabes made by Georg Hartmann provide some of the earliest evidence for batch production by division of labor. Astrolabes and clocks[edit] Mechanical astronomical clocks were initially influenced by the astrolabe; they could be seen in many ways as clockwork astrolabes designed to produce a continual display of the current position of the sun, stars, and planets. For example, Richard of Wallingford's clock (c. 1330) consisted essentially of a star map rotating behind a fixed rete, similar to that of an astrolabe.[30] Many astronomical clocks use an astrolabe-style display, such as the famous clock at Prague, adopting a stereographic projection (see below) of the ecliptic plane. In recent times, astrolabe watches have become popular. For example, Swiss watchmaker Dr. Ludwig Oechslin designed and built an astrolabe wristwatch in conjunction with Ulysse Nardin in 1985. Dutch watchmaker Christaan van der Klauuw also manufactures astrolabe watches today. Construction[edit]

The Hartmann astrolabe in Yale collection. This instrument shows its rete and rule.

Celestial Globe, Isfahan
Isfahan
(?), Iran 1144. Shown at the Louvre Museum, this globe is the third oldest surviving in the world.

Computer-generated planispheric astrolabe

An astrolabe consists of a disk, called the mater (mother), which is deep enough to hold one or more flat plates called tympans, or climates. A tympan is made for a specific latitude and is engraved with a stereographic projection of circles denoting azimuth and altitude and representing the portion of the celestial sphere above the local horizon. The rim of the mater is typically graduated into hours of time, degrees of arc, or both.[31] Above the mater and tympan, the rete, a framework bearing a projection of the ecliptic plane and several pointers indicating the positions of the brightest stars, is free to rotate. These pointers are often just simple points, but depending on the skill of the craftsman can be very elaborate and artistic. There are examples of astrolabes with artistic pointers in the shape of balls, stars, snakes, hands, dogs' heads, and leaves, among others.[32] The names of the indicated stars were often engraved on the pointers in Arabic
Arabic
or Latin.[33] Some astrolabes have a narrow rule or label which rotates over the rete, and may be marked with a scale of declinations. The rete, representing the sky, functions as a star chart. When it is rotated, the stars and the ecliptic move over the projection of the coordinates on the tympan. One complete rotation corresponds to the passage of a day. The astrolabe is therefore a predecessor of the modern planisphere. On the back of the mater there is often engraved a number of scales that are useful in the astrolabe's various applications. These vary from designer to designer, but might include curves for time conversions, a calendar for converting the day of the month to the sun's position on the ecliptic, trigonometric scales, and a graduation of 360 degrees around the back edge. The alidade is attached to the back face. An alidade can be seen in the lower right illustration of the Persian astrolabe above. When the astrolabe is held vertically, the alidade can be rotated and the sun or a star sighted along its length, so that its altitude in degrees can be read ("taken") from the graduated edge of the astrolabe; hence the word's Greek roots: "astron" (ἄστρον) = star + "lab-" (λαβ-) = to take. See also[edit]

Antikythera mechanism Armillary sphere Astrarium AstroLabs – a company named after the astrolabe Astronomical clock Canterbury Astrolabe
Astrolabe
Quadrant Cosmolabe Equatorium Hypatia Islamic astronomy Marshall Islands stick chart Nocturnal Orrery Philippe Danfrie, designer and maker of mathematical instruments, globes and astrolabes Planetarium Planisphere Prague Orloj Sextant (astronomical) Sharafeddin Tusi, the inventor of the linear astrolabe Torquetum

References[edit]

Footnotes

^ Modern editions of John Philoponus' treatise on the astrolabe are De usu astrolabii eiusque constructione libellus (On the Use and Construction of the Astrolabe), ed. Heinrich Hase, Bonn: E. Weber, 1839, OCLC 165707441 (or id. Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 6 (1839): 127–71); repr. and translated into French by Alain Philippe Segonds, Jean Philopon, traité de l'astrolabe, Paris: Librairie Alain Brieux, 1981, OCLC 10467740; and translated into English by H.W. Green in R.T. Gunther, The Astrolabes of the World, Vol. 1/2, Oxford, 1932, OL 18840299M repr. London: Holland Press, 1976, OL 14132393M pp. 61–81. ^ O'Leary, De Lacy (1948). How Greek Science passed to the Arabs. Routledge and Kegan Paul.  "The most distinguished Syriac scholar of this later period was Severus Sebokht (d. 666–7), Bishop of Kennesrin. [...] In addition to these works [...] he also wrote on astronomical subjects (Brit. Mus. Add. 14538), and composed a treatise on the astronomical instrument known as the astrolabe, which has been edited and published by F. Nau (Paris, 1899)." Severus' treatise was translated by Jessie Payne Smith Margoliouth in R.T. Gunther, Astrolabes of the World, Oxford, 1932, pp. 82–103. ^ Savage-Smith, Emilie (1993). "Book Reviews". Journal of Islamic Studies. 4 (2): 296–299. doi:10.1093/jis/4.2.296. There is no evidence for the Hellenistic origin of the spherical astrolabe, but rather evidence so far available suggests that it may have been an early but distinctly Islamic development with no Greek antecedents. 

Notes

^ a b Northrup, Cynthia Clark; Bentley, Jerry H.; Eckes Jr., Alfred E. (2015). Encyclopedia of World Trade: From Ancient Times to the Present. Taylor and Francis, 2015. p. 72. ISBN 9781317471530.  ^ In the Islamic world, it was used to navigate deserts, then oceans, and to calculate the direction to Mecca. ^ astrolabe, Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed. 1989 ^ Astrolabe, on Oxford Dictionaries ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2013-11-07.  ^ a b King 1981, p. 44. ^ King 1981, p. 51. ^ King 1981, p. 45. ^ Lewis 2001. ^ Michael Deakin (August 3, 1997). "Ockham's Razor: Hypatia
Hypatia
of Alexandria". ABC Radio. Retrieved July 10, 2014. ^ Krebs et al. ^ Sebokht, Severus. "Description of the astrolabe". Tertullian.org.  ^ See p. 289 of Martin, L. C. (1923), " Surveying
Surveying
and navigational instruments from the historical standpoint", Transactions of the Optical Society, 24 (5): 289–303, Bibcode:1923TrOS...24..289M, doi:10.1088/1475-4878/24/5/302, ISSN 1475-4878.  ^ Berggren, J. Lennart (2007), "Mathematics in Medieval Islam", in Katz, Victor J., The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: a Sourcebook, Princeton University Press, p. 519, ISBN 0-691-11485-4  ^ Richard Nelson Frye: Golden Age of Persia. p. 163 ^ "The Earliest Surviving Dated Astrolabe". HistoryOfInformation.com.  ^ Dr. Emily Winterburn (National Maritime Museum), Using an Astrolabe, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation, 2005. ^ Lachièz-Rey, Marc; Luminet, Jean-Pierre (2001). Celestial Treasury: From the Music of Spheres to the Conquest of Space. Trans. Joe Laredo. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-521-80040-2.  ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Sharaf al-Din al-Muzaffar al-Tusi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews . ^ Bedini, Silvio A.; Maddison, Francis R. (1966). "Mechanical Universe: The Astrarium
Astrarium
of Giovanni de' Dondi". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 56 (5): 1–69. doi:10.2307/1006002. JSTOR 1006002.  ^ Encyclopedia of world trade : from ancient times to the present. Northrup, Cynthia Clark, 1959- ([Enhanced Credo edition] ed.). Armonk, NY: Routledge. 2015. p. 72. ISBN 0765680580. OCLC 889717964.  ^ Glick, Thomas; et al., eds. (2005), Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, p. 464, ISBN 0-415-96930-1  ^ Encyclopedia of world trade : from ancient times to the present. Northrup, Cynthia Clark, 1959- ([Enhanced Credo edition] ed.). Armonk, NY: Routledge. 2015. p. 460. ISBN 0765680580. OCLC 889717964.  ^ "Qantara – 'Carolingian' astrolabe". Qantara-med.org. Retrieved 2013-11-07.  ^ Nancy Marie Brown (2010), "The Abacus and the Cross". Page 140. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00950-3 ^ Boyle, David (2011). Toward the Setting Sun: Columbus, Cabot, Vespucci, and the Race for America. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 253. ISBN 9780802779786. . ^ Nancy Marie Brown (2010), "The Abacus and the Cross". Page 143. basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00950-3 ^ Hockey, Thomas (2009). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0. Retrieved August 22, 2012.  ^ Ralf Kern (2010), Wissenschaftliche Instrumente in ihrer Zeit. Band 1: Vom Astrolab zum mathematischen Besteck. Cologne, S. 204. ISBN 978-3-86560-865-9 ^ North 2005. ^ Stephenson, Bruce; Bolt, Marvin; Friedman, Anna Felicity (2000). The Universe
Universe
Unveiled: Instruments and Images through History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0-521-79143-X.  ^ Stephenson, Bruce; Bolt, Marvin; Friedman, Anna Felicity (2000). The Universe
Universe
Unveiled: Instruments and Images through History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0-521-79143-X.  ^ " Star
Star
Names on Astrolabes". Ian Ridpath. Retrieved 2016-11-12. 

Bibliography

Evans, James (1998), The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-509539-1 . Gunella, Alessandro; Lamprey, John (2007), Stoeffler's Elucidatio (translation of Elucidatio fabricae ususque astrolabii into English), John Lamprey  King, D. A (1981), "The Origin of the Astrolabe
Astrolabe
According to the Medieval Islamic Sources", Journal for the History of Arabic
Arabic
Science, 5: 43–83  King, Henry (1978), Geared to the Stars: the Evolution of Planetariums, Orreries, and Astronomical Clocks, University of Toronto Press  Krebs, Robert E.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (2003), Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Ancient World, Greenwood Press . Laird, Edgar (1997), Carol Poster and Richard Utz, ed., "Astrolabes and the Construction of Time in the Late Middle Ages.", Constructions of Time in the Late Middle Ages, Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press: 51–69  Laird, Edgar; Fischer, Robert, eds. (1995), "Critical edition of Pélerin de Prusse on the Astrolabe
Astrolabe
(translation of Practique de Astralabe", Medieval & Renaissance
Renaissance
Texts & Studies, Binghamton, New York, ISBN 0-86698-132-2  Lewis, M. J. T. (2001), Surveying
Surveying
Instruments of Greece and Rome, Cambridge University Press . Morrison, James E (2007), The Astrolabe, Janus, ISBN 978-0-939320-30-1 . North, John David (2005), God's Clockmaker: Richard of Wallingford
Richard of Wallingford
and the Invention of Time, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1-85285-451-5 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Astrolabe
Astrolabe
(category)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Astrolabe.

Look up astrolabe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

A digital astrolabe (HTML5 and javascript) paper astrolabe generator, from the ESO "Hello World!" for the Astrolabe: The First Computer Video of Howard Covitz's Presentation at Ignite Phoenix, June 2009. Slides for Presentation Licensed as Creative Commons by-nc-nd. Video of Tom Wujec demonstrating an astrolabe. Taken at TEDGlobal 2009. Includes clickable transcript. Licensed as Creative Commons by-nc-nd. The Astrolabe A working model of the Dr. Ludwig Oechslin's Astrolabium Galileo Galilei watch Ulysse Nardin
Ulysse Nardin
Astrolabium Galilei Galileo: A Detailed Explanation Fully illustrated online catalogue of world's largest collection of astrolabes Mobile astrolabe and horologium Medieval equal hour horary quadrant A Beginner's Guide to Basic Construction and Use of the Astrolabe[permanent dead link] (using ruler, protractor and compasses).

v t e

Astronomy
Astronomy
in the medieval Islamic world

Astronomers

by century (CE AD)

8th

Ahmad Nahavandi Al-Fadl ibn Naubakht Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī Mashallah ibn Athari Yaʿqūb ibn Ṭāriq

9th

Abu Maʿshar Abu Said Gorgani Al-Farghānī Al-Kindi Al-Mahani Abu Hanifa Dinawari Al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf Al-Marwazi Ali ibn Isa al-Asturlabi Banu Musa Iranshahri Khālid ibn ʿAbd al‐Malik Al-Khwārizmī Sahl ibn Bishr Thābit ibn Qurra Yahya ibn Abi Mansur

10th

Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi Ibn Al-Adami al-Khojandi l-Khāzin al-Qūhī Abu al-Wafa Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Battani Al-Qabisi Al-Nayrizi Al-Saghani Aṣ-Ṣaidanānī Ibn Yunus Ibrahim ibn Sinan Ma Yize al-Sijzi Mariam al-Asturlabi Nastulus Abolfadl Harawi Haseb-i Tabari al-Majriti

11th

Abu Nasr Mansur al-Biruni Ali ibn Ridwan Al-Zarqālī Ibn al-Samh Al-Muradi Alhazen Avicenna Ibn al-Saffar Kushyar Gilani Said al-Andalusi Al-Isfizari

12th

Al-Bitruji Avempace Ibn Tufail Al-Kharaqī Al-Khazini Al-Samawal al-Maghribi Abu al-Salt Anvari Averroes Ibn al-Kammad Jabir ibn Aflah Omar Khayyam Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī

13th

Ibn al-Banna' al-Marrakushi Ibn al‐Ha'im al‐Ishbili Jamal ad-Din al-Hanafi Muhyi al-Dīn al-Maghribī Nasir al-Din al-Tusi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī Zakariya al-Qazwini Ibn Abi al-Shukr al-ʿUrḍī al-Abhari Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al‐Farisi Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Marrakushi Al-Ashraf Umar II

14th

Ibn al-Shatir al-Khalīlī Ibn Shuayb al-Battiwi Abū al‐ʿUqūl Nizam al-Din Nishapuri al-Jadiri

15th

Ali Kuşçu ʿAbd al‐Wājid Jamshīd al-Kāshī Kadızade Rumi Ulugh Beg Sibt al-Maridini Ibn al-Majdi al-Wafa' al-Kubunani

16th

Al-Birjandi Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī Piri Reis Takiyüddin

17th

Yang Guangxian Ahmad Khani Al Achsasi al Mouakket Mohammed al-Rudani

Topics

Works

Arabic
Arabic
star names Islamic calendar ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity Tabula Rogeriana The Book of Healing

Zij

Alfonsine tables Huihui Lifa Book of Fixed Stars Toledan Tables Zij-i Ilkhani Zij-i Sultani Sullam al-sama'

Instruments

Alidade Analog computer Aperture Armillary sphere Astrolabe Astronomical clock Celestial globe Compass Compass
Compass
rose Dioptra Equatorial ring Equatorium Globe Graph paper Magnifying glass Mural instrument Navigational astrolabe Nebula Planisphere Quadrant Sextant Shadow square Sundial Schema for horizontal sundials Triquetrum

Concepts

Almucantar Apogee Astrology in medieval Islam Astrophysics Axial tilt Azimuth Celestial mechanics Celestial spheres Circular orbit Deferent and epicycle Earth's rotation Eccentricity Ecliptic Elliptic orbit Equant Galaxy Geocentrism Gravitational potential energy Gravity Heliocentrism Inertia Islamic cosmology Moonlight Multiverse Obliquity Parallax Precession Qibla Salah times Specific gravity Spherical Earth Sublunary sphere Sunlight Supernova Temporal finitism Trepidation Triangulation Tusi couple Universe

Institutions

Al-Azhar University House of Knowledge House of Wisdom University of Al Quaraouiyine Observatories

Constantinople (Taqi al-Din) Maragheh Samarkand (Ulugh Beg)

Influences

Babylonian astronomy Egyptian astronomy Hellenistic astronomy Indian astronomy

Influenced

Byzantine science Chinese astronomy Medieval European science Indian astronomy

v t e

Ancient Greek astronomy

Astronomers

Aglaonice Agrippa Anaximander Andronicus Apollonius Aratus Aristarchus Aristyllus Attalus Autolycus Bion Callippus Cleomedes Cleostratus Conon Eratosthenes Euctemon Eudoxus Geminus Heraclides Hicetas Hipparchus Hippocrates of Chios Hypsicles Menelaus Meton Oenopides Philip of Opus Philolaus Posidonius Ptolemy Pytheas Seleucus Sosigenes of Alexandria Sosigenes the Peripatetic Strabo Thales Theodosius Theon of Alexandria Theon of Smyrna Timocharis

Works

Almagest
Almagest
(Ptolemy) On Sizes and Distances
On Sizes and Distances
(Hipparchus) On the Sizes and Distances (Aristarchus) On the Heavens
On the Heavens
(Aristotle)

Instruments

Antikythera mechanism Armillary sphere Astrolabe Dioptra Equatorial ring Gnomon Mural instrument Triquetrum

Concepts

Callippic cycle Celestial spheres Circle
Circle
of latitude Counter-Earth Deferent and epicycle Equant Geocentrism Heliocentrism Hipparchic cycle Metonic cycle Octaeteris Solstice Spherical Earth Sublunary sphere Zodiac

Influences

Babylonian astronomy Egyptian astronomy

Influenced

Medieval European science Indian astronomy Medieval Islamic astronomy

Authority control

GND: 40033

.