HOME
The Info List - Asteraceae


--- Advertisement ---



Asteroideae
Asteroideae
Lindley Barnadesioideae
Barnadesioideae
Bremer & Jansen Carduoideae
Carduoideae
Sweet Cichorioideae
Cichorioideae
Chevallier Corymbioideae
Corymbioideae
Panero & Funk Famatinanthoideae S.E. Freire, Ariza & Panero Gochnatioideae
Gochnatioideae
Panero & Funk Gymnarrhenoideae
Gymnarrhenoideae
Panero & Funk Hecastocleidoideae
Hecastocleidoideae
Panero & Funk Mutisioideae
Mutisioideae
Lindley Pertyoideae
Pertyoideae
Panero & Funk Stifftioideae
Stifftioideae
Panero Wunderlichioideae
Wunderlichioideae
Panero & Funk

Diversity

1,911 genera

Synonyms

Compositae Giseke Acarnaceae Link Ambrosiaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Anthemidaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Aposeridaceae Raf. Arctotidaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Artemisiaceae Martinov Athanasiaceae Martinov Calendulaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Carduaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Cassiniaceae Sch. Bip. Cichoriaceae Juss. Coreopsidaceae Link Cynaraceae Spenn. Echinopaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Eupatoriaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Helichrysaceae Link Inulaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Lactucaceae Drude Mutisiaceae Burnett Partheniaceae Link Perdiciaceae Link Senecionaceae Bercht. & J. Presl Vernoniaceae Burmeist.

Source: GRIN[3]

Asteraceae
Asteraceae
or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite,[4] or sunflower family) is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).[5][6] The family currently has 32,913 accepted species names, in 1,911 genera (list) and 13 subfamilies.[7] In terms of numbers of species, the Asteraceae
Asteraceae
are rivaled only by the Orchidaceae.[5][8] (Which of the two families is actually larger is unclear, owing to uncertainty about exactly how many species exist in each family.) Many members have composite flowers in the form of flower heads (capitula or pseudanthia) surrounded by involucral bracts. When viewed from a distance, each capitulum may have the appearance of being a single flower. The name Asteraceae
Asteraceae
comes from the type genus Aster, from the Greek ἀστήρ, meaning star, and refers to the star-like form of the inflorescence. Compositae is an older (but still valid[9]) name which refers to the fact that the family is one of the few angiosperm families to have composite flowers. Most members of Asteraceae
Asteraceae
are herbaceous, but a significant number are also shrubs, vines, or trees. The family has a worldwide distribution, from the polar regions to the tropics, colonizing a wide variety of habitats. It is most common in the arid and semiarid regions of subtropical and lower temperate latitudes.[10] The Asteraceae
Asteraceae
may represent as much as 10% of autochthonous flora in many regions of the world. Asteraceae
Asteraceae
is an economically important family, providing products such as cooking oils, lettuce, sunflower seeds, artichokes, sweetening agents, coffee substitutes and herbal teas. Several genera are of horticultural importance, including pot marigold, Calendula officinalis, Echinacea (cone flowers), various daisies, fleabane, chrysanthemums, dahlias, zinnias, and heleniums. Asteraceae
Asteraceae
are important in herbal medicine, including Grindelia, yarrow, and many others.[11] A number of species are considered invasive, including, most notably in North America, dandelion, which was originally introduced by European settlers who used the young leaves as a salad green.[12] The study of this family is known as synantherology.

Contents

1 Etymology and pronunciation 2 Distribution 3 Taxonomy 4 Characteristics

4.1 Roots and stems 4.2 Leaves 4.3 Flowers

4.3.1 Floral heads 4.3.2 Floral structures

4.4 Fruits and seeds 4.5 Metabolites

5 Evolution 6 Ecology 7 Uses 8 Genera 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Etymology and pronunciation[edit] The name Asteraceae
Asteraceae
(English: /ˌæstəˈreɪsi, -siˌaɪ, -siˌeɪ, -siˌiː/) comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Aster, the type genus, + -aceae,[13] a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy. The genus name comes from the Classical Latin
Classical Latin
word aster, "star", which came from Ancient Greek ἀστήρ (astḗr), "star".[13] Compositae (an alternate name[9]) means "composite" and refers to the characteristic inflorescence, a special type of pseudanthium found in only a few other angiosperm families. The vernacular name "daisy", widely applied to members of this family, is derived from the Old English name of daisy (Bellis perennis): dægesege, from dæges eage, meaning "day's eye". This is because the petals open at dawn and close at dusk. Distribution[edit] Asteraceae
Asteraceae
species have a cosmopolitan distribution, and are found everywhere except Antarctica
Antarctica
and the extreme Arctic. They are especially numerous in tropical and subtropical regions (notably Central America, eastern Brazil, the Mediterranean, the Levant part of the Middle East, southern Africa, central Asia, and southwestern China).[8] Taxonomy[edit] Compositae, the original name for Asteraceae, were first described in 1792 by the German botanist Paul Dietrich Giseke.[14] Traditionally, two subfamilies were recognised: Asteroideae
Asteroideae
(or Tubuliflorae) and Cichorioideae
Cichorioideae
(or Liguliflorae). The latter has been shown to be extensively paraphyletic, and has now been divided into 12 subfamilies, but the former still stands. The phylogenetic tree presented below is based on Panero & Funk (2002)[15] updated in 2014,[16] and now also includes the monotypic Famatinanthoideae.[16][17][18] The diamond denotes a very poorly supported node (<50% bootstrap support), the dot a poorly supported node (<80%).[5]

Barnadesioideae: 9 genera, 93 species. South America, mainly the Andes.

Famatinanthoideae: South America, 1 genus, 1 species.

Mutisioideae: 58 genera, 750 species. South America.

Stifftioideae: 10 genera. South America.

Wunderlichioideae: 8 genera, 24 species. Mostly in Venezuela
Venezuela
and Guyana

Gochnatioideae: 4 or 5 genera, 90 species.

Hecastocleidoideae: Only Hecastocleis shockleyi. Southwestern United States.

Carduoideae: 83 genera, 2,500 species. Worldwide.

Pertyoideae: 5 or 6 genera, 70 species. Asia

Gymnarrhenoideae: Two genera/species, Gymnarrhena micrantha
Gymnarrhena micrantha
(Northern Africa, Middle East) and Cavea tanguensis (Eastern Himalayas)

Cichorioideae: 224 genera, 3,200 species. Worldwide.

Corymbioideae: Only the genus Corymbium, with 9 species.

Asteroideae: 1,130 genera and 16,200 species. Worldwide.

It is noteworthy that the four subfamilies Asteroideae, Cichorioideae, Carduoideae
Carduoideae
and Mutisioideae
Mutisioideae
contain 99% of the species diversity of the whole family (approximately 70%, 14%, 11% and 3% respectively). Because of the morphological complexity exhibited by this family, agreeing on generic circumscriptions has often been difficult for taxonomists. As a result, several of these genera have required multiple revisions.[19] Characteristics[edit] Members of the Asteraceae
Asteraceae
are mostly herbaceous plants, but some shrubs, climbers and trees (such as Lachanodes arborea) do exist. They are generally easy to distinguish from other plants, mainly because of their characteristic inflorescence and other shared characteristics.[19] However, determining genera and species of some groups such as Hieracium is notoriously difficult (see "damned yellow composite" for example). Roots and stems[edit] Members of the Asteraceae
Asteraceae
generally produce taproots, but sometimes they possess fibrous root systems. Stems are herbaceous aerial branched cylindrical with glandular hairs generally erect but can be prostrate to ascending. Some species have underground stems in the form of caudices or rhizomes. These can be fleshy or woody depending on the species.[10] Leaves[edit] The leaves and the stems very often contain secretory canals with resin or latex (particularly common among the Cichorioideae). The leaves can be alternate, opposite, or whorled. They may be simple, but are often deeply lobed or otherwise incised, often conduplicate or revolute. The margins can be entire or lobed or toothed. Flowers[edit] Floral heads[edit]

A typical Asteraceae
Asteraceae
flower head showing the individual flowers ( Bidens
Bidens
torta)

A flower head showing the individual flowers opening from the outside ( Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum
cultivar 'Bridesmaid')

In plants of the family Asteraceae, what appears to be a single flower is actually a cluster of much smaller flowers.[20] The overall appearance of the cluster, as a single flower, functions in attracting pollinators in the same way as the structure of an individual flower in some other plant families.[20] The older family name, Compositae, comes from the fact that what appears to be a single flower, is actually a composite of smaller flowers.[20] The "petals" or "sunrays" in a sunflower head are actually individual strap-shaped[21] flowers called "ray flowers", and the "sun disk" is made of smaller circular shaped individual flowers called "disc flowers".[20] The word "aster" means "star" in Greek, referring to the appearance of some family members, as a "star" surrounded by "rays".[20] The cluster of flowers that may appear to be a single flower, is called a head.[20] The entire head may move tracking the sun, like a "smart" solar panel, which maximizes reflectivity of the whole unit and can thereby attract more pollinators.[20] At the base of the head, and surrounding the flowers before opening, is a bundle of sepal-like bracts or scales called phyllaries, which together form the involucre that protects the individual flowers in the head before opening.[20] The individual heads have the smaller individual flowers arranged on a round or dome-like structure called the receptacle.[20] The flowers mature first at the outside, moving toward the center, with the youngest in the middle.[20] The individual flowers in a head have 5 fused petals (rarely 4), but instead of sepals, have threadlike, hairy, or bristly structures called pappus, which surround the fruit and can stick to animal fur or be lifted by wind, aiding in seed dispersal.[20] The whitish fluffy head of a dandelion commonly blown on by children, is made of the pappus, with tiny seeds attached at the ends, whereby the pappus provides a parachute like structure to help the seed be carried away in the wind.[20]

Ray floret: A = ovary, B = pappus, C = anthers, D = ligule, E = style with stigmas

Disc floret: A = ovary, B = pappus, C = anthers, D = style with stigmas

A ray flower is a 3-tipped (3-lobed), strap-shaped, individual flower in the head of some members of the family Asteraceae.[20][21] Sometimes a ray flower is 2-tipped (2-lobed).[20] The corolla of the ray flower may have 2 tiny teeth opposite the 3-lobed strap, or tongue, indicating evolution by fusion from an originally 5-part corolla.[20] Sometimes, the 3:2 arrangement is reversed, with 2 tips on the tongue, and 0 or 3 tiny teeth opposite the tongue.[20] A ligulate flower is a 5-tipped, strap-shaped, individual flower in the heads of other members.[20] A ligule is the strap-shaped tongue of the corolla of either a ray flower or of a ligulate flower.[21] A disk flower (or disc flower) is a radially symmetric (i.e., with identical shaped petals arranged in circle around the center) individual flower in the head, which is ringed by ray flowers when both are present.[20][21] Sometimes ray flowers may be slightly off from radial symmetry, or weakly bilaterally symmetric, as in the case of desert pincushions Chaenactis fremontii.[20] A radiate head has disc flowers surrounded by ray flowers.[20] A ligulate head has all ligulate flowers.[20] When a sunflower family flower head has only disc flowers that are sterile, male, or have both male and female parts, it is a discoid head.[20] Disciform heads have only disc flowers, but may have two kinds (male flowers and female flowers) in one head, or may have different heads of two kinds (all male, or all female).[20] Pistillate heads have all female flowers. Staminate heads have all male flowers.[20] Sometimes, but rarely, the head contains only a single flower, or has a single flowered pistillate (female) head, and a multi-flowered male staminate (male) head.[20]

Floral structures[edit]

Flower
Flower
diagram of Carduus
Carduus
(Carduoideae) shows (outermost to innermost): subtending bract and stem axis; fused calyx; fused corolla; stamens fused to corolla; gynoecium with two carpels and one locule

The distinguishing characteristic of Asteraceae
Asteraceae
is their inflorescence, a type of specialised, composite flower head or pseudanthium, technically called a calathium or capitulum,[22][23] that may look superficially like a single flower. The capitulum is a contracted raceme composed of numerous individual sessile flowers, called florets, all sharing the same receptacle. A set of bracts forms an involucre surrounding the base of the capitulum. These are called "phyllaries", or "involucral bracts". They may simulate the sepals of the pseudanthium. These are mostly herbaceous but can also be brightly coloured (e.g. Helichrysum) or have a scarious (dry and membranous) texture. The phyllaries can be free or fused, and arranged in one to many rows, overlapping like the tiles of a roof (imbricate) or not (this variation is important in identification of tribes and genera). Each floret may be subtended by a bract, called a "palea" or "receptacular bract". These bracts are often called "chaff". The presence or absence of these bracts, their distribution on the receptacle, and their size and shape are all important diagnostic characteristics for genera and tribes. The florets have five petals fused at the base to form a corolla tube and they may be either actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Disc florets are usually actinomorphic, with five petal lips on the rim of the corolla tube. The petal lips may be either very short, or long, in which case they form deeply lobed petals. The latter is the only kind of floret in the Carduoideae, while the first kind is more widespread. Ray florets are always highly zygomorphic and are characterised by the presence of a ligule, a strap-shaped structure on the edge of the corolla tube consisting of fused petals. In the Asteroideae
Asteroideae
and other minor subfamilies these are usually borne only on florets at the circumference of the capitulum and have a 3+2 scheme — above the fused corolla tube, three very long fused petals form the ligule, with the other two petals being inconspicuously small. The Cichorioideae has only ray florets, with a 5+0 scheme — all five petals form the ligule. A 4+1 scheme is found in the Barnadesioideae. The tip of the ligule is often divided into teeth, each one representing a petal. Some marginal florets may have no petals at all (filiform floret). The calyx of the florets may be absent, but when present is always modified into a pappus of two or more teeth, scales or bristles and this is often involved in the dispersion of the seeds. As with the bracts, the nature of the pappus is an important diagnostic feature. There are usually five stamens. The filaments are fused to the corolla, while the anthers are generally connate (syngenesious anthers), thus forming a sort of tube around the style (theca). They commonly have basal and/or apical appendages. Pollen
Pollen
is released inside the tube and is collected around the growing style, and then, as the style elongates, is pushed out of the tube (nüdelspritze). The pistil consists of two connate carpels. The style has two lobes. Stigmatic tissue may be located in the interior surface or form two lateral lines. The ovary is inferior and has only one ovule, with basal placentation. Fruits and seeds[edit] In members of the Asteraceae
Asteraceae
the fruit is achene-like, and is called a cypsela (plural cypselae). Although there are two fused carpels, there is only one locule, and only one seed per fruit is formed. It may sometimes be winged or spiny because the pappus, which is derived from calyx tissue often remains on the fruit (for example in dandelion). In some species, however, the pappus falls off (for example in Helianthus). Cypsela morphology is often used to help determine plant relationships at the genus and species level.[24] The mature seeds usually have little endosperm or none.[19] Metabolites[edit] In Asteraceae, the energy store is generally in the form of inulin rather than starch. They produce iso/chlorogenic acid, sesquiterpene lactones, pentacyclic triterpene alcohols, various alkaloids, acetylenes (cyclic, aromatic, with vinyl end groups), tannins. They have terpenoid essential oils which never contain iridoids.[5] Assteraceae produce secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and terpenoids. Some of these molecules can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania
Leishmania
and parasitic intestinal worms, and thus have potential in medicine.[25] Evolution[edit] The oldest known fossils of members of Asteraceae
Asteraceae
are pollen grains from the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
of Antarctica, dated to ∼76–66 Mya ( Campanian
Campanian
to Maastrichtian) and assigned to the extant genus Dasyphyllum.[1] Barreda, et al. (2015) estimated that the crown group of Asteraceae
Asteraceae
evolved at least 85.9 Mya (Late Cretaceous, Santonian) with a stem node age of 88-89 Mya (Late Cretaceous, Coniacian).[1] It is still unknown whether the precise cause of their great success was the development of the highly specialised capitulum, their ability to store energy as fructans (mainly inulin), which is an advantage in relatively dry zones, or some combination of these and possibly other factors.[5] Ecology[edit]

Anemochory in Carlina

Epizoochory in Bidens
Bidens
tripartita

Asteraceans are especially common in open and dry environments.[19] Many members of Asteraceae
Asteraceae
are pollinated by insects, which explains their value in attracting beneficial insects, but anemophily is also present (e.g. Ambrosia, Artemisia). There are many apomictic species in the family. Seeds are ordinarily dispersed intact with the fruiting body, the cypsela. Anemochory (wind dispersal) is common, assisted by a hairy pappus. Epizoochory is another common method, in which the dispersal unit, a single cypsela (e.g. Bidens) or entire capitulum (e.g. Arctium) has hooks, spines or some structure to attach to the fur or plumage (or even clothes, as in the photo) of an animal just to fall off later far from its mother plant. Uses[edit] Commercially important plants in Asteraceae
Asteraceae
include the food crops Lactuca sativa
Lactuca sativa
(lettuce), Cichorium
Cichorium
(chicory), Cynara scolymus
Cynara scolymus
(globe artichoke), Helianthus
Helianthus
annuus (sunflower), Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón), Carthamus tinctorius
Carthamus tinctorius
(safflower) and Helianthus
Helianthus
tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke). Plants are used as herbs and in herbal teas and other beverages. Chamomile, for example, comes from two different species: the annual Matricaria chamomilla
Matricaria chamomilla
(German chamomile) and the perennial Chamaemelum nobile
Chamaemelum nobile
(Roman chamomile). Calendula
Calendula
(known as pot marigold) is grown commercially for herbal teas and potpourri. Echinacea is used as a medicinal tea. The wormwood genus Artemisia includes absinthe (A. absinthium) and tarragon (A. dracunculus). Winter tarragon ( Tagetes
Tagetes
lucida), is commonly grown and used as a tarragon substitute in climates where tarragon will not survive. Many members of the family are grown as ornamental plants for their flowers, and some are important ornamental crops for the cut flower industry. Some examples are Chrysanthemum, Gerbera, Calendula, Dendranthema, Argyranthemum, Dahlia, Tagetes, Zinnia, and many others.[26] Many species of this family possess medicinal properties and are used as traditional antiparasitic medicine. [25] Members of the family are also commonly featured in medical and phytochemical journals because the sesquiterpene lactone compounds contained within them are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Allergy to these compounds is the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis in florists in the US.[27] Pollen
Pollen
from ragweed Ambrosia is among the main causes of so-called hay fever in the United States.[28] Asteraceae
Asteraceae
are also used for some industrial purposes. Marigold ( Tagetes
Tagetes
patula) is common in commercial poultry feeds and its oil is extracted for uses in cola and the cigarette industry.[26] Several members of the family are copious nectar producers[26] and are useful for evaluating pollinator populations during their bloom.[citation needed] Centaurea
Centaurea
(knapweed), Helianthus
Helianthus
annuus (domestic sunflower), and some species of Solidago
Solidago
(goldenrod) are major "honey plants" for beekeepers. Solidago
Solidago
produces relatively high protein pollen, which helps honey bees over winter.[citation needed] Some members of Asteraceae
Asteraceae
are economically important as weeds. Notable in the United States are Senecio jacobaea
Senecio jacobaea
(ragwort), Senecio vulgaris (groundsel), and Taraxacum
Taraxacum
(dandelion).[citation needed] The genera Chrysanthemum, Pulicaria, Tagetes, and Tanacetum
Tanacetum
contain species with useful insecticidal properties.[26] Parthenium argentatum
Parthenium argentatum
(guayule) is a source of hypoallergenic latex.[26] Genera[edit] Main article: List of Asteraceae
Asteraceae
genera See also[edit]

Terminology for Asteraceae

References[edit]

^ a b c Viviana D. Barreda, Luis Palazzesi, Maria C. Tellería, Eduardo B. Olivero, J. Ian Raine and Félix Forest (2015). "Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae
Asteraceae
in the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
of Antarctica". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112: 10989–10994. doi:10.1073/pnas.1423653112. PMC 4568267 . PMID 26261324. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Tropicos.org. " Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Bercht. & J. Presl". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 14 July 2017.  ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). "Family: Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl, nom. cons". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 12 June 2008.  ^ Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275 ^ a b c d e P.F. Stevens (2001). " Angiosperm
Angiosperm
Phylogeny Website". Angiosperm
Angiosperm
Phylogeny Website.  ^ Jeffrey, C. 2007. Compositae: Introduction with key to tribes. Pages 61–87 in Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. VIII, Flowering Plants, Eudicots, Asterales
Asterales
(J. W. Kadereit and C. Jeffrey, eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin ^ "The Plant
Plant
List: Compositae". Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Missouri Botanic Garden. Retrieved 18 November 2016.  ^ a b Panero, J.L., Crozier, B.S. Tree of Life – Asteraceae ^ a b "International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants – Article 18.5". iapt-taxon.org.  ^ a b Barkely, T.M., Brouillet, L., Strother, J.L. (2006) Flora of North America – Asteraceae" ^ "Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases". ars-grin.gov.  ^ "dandelion Taraxacum
Taraxacum
officinale". Invasive Plant
Plant
Atlas of the United States. Retrieved 10 September 2012.  ^ a b Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Merriam-Webster.  ^ Solbrig, O.T. (1963) Subfamilial Nomenclature of Compositae. Taxon 12: 229–235 JSTOR 1216917 ^ Panero, J.L.; Funk, V.A. (2002). "Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae)". Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 115: 909–922.  ^ a b Panéro, José J.; Freire, Susana E.; Ariza Espinar, Luis; Crozier, Bonnie S.; Barboza, Gloria E.; Cantero, Juan J. (2014). "Resolution of deep nodes yields an improved backbone phylogeny and a new basal lineage to study early evolution of Asteraceae". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 80 (1): 43–53. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.07.012. Retrieved 2017-01-03.  ^ Zhi-Xi Fu; Bo-Han Jiao; Bao Nie; Tiangang Gao (2016). "A comprehensive generic‐level phylogeny of the sunflower family: Implications for the systematics of Chinese Asteraceae". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (4): 416–437. doi:10.1111/jse.12216. Retrieved 2017-01-23.  ^ Funk, Vicki A.; Fragman-Sapir, Ori (2009). "22. Gymnarrheneae (Gymnarrhenoideae)". In V.A. Funk, A. Susanna, T. Stuessy, R. Bayer. Systematics, Evolution, and Biogeography of Compositae (PDF). Vienna: International Association for Plant
Plant
Taxonomy. pp. 327–332. Retrieved 2016-12-27. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ a b c d Judd, W.S., Campbell, C.S., Kellogg, E.A., Stevens, P.F. (2007) Plant
Plant
Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Sia Morhardt, Emil Morhardt, California Desert Flowers, University of California Press, pp. 29–32 ^ a b c d Pam MacKay, Mojave Desert Wildflowers, illustration p. 35 ^ Beentje, Henk (2010). The Kew Plant
Plant
Glossary, an illustrated dictionary of plant terms. Richmond, U.K.: Kew Publishing. ISBN 9781842464229.  ^ Usher, G. (1966) A dictionary of botany, including terms used in bio-chemistry, soil science, and statistics. LCCN 66-602544 ^ McKenzie, R.J., Samuel, J., Muller, E.M., Skinner, A.K.W., Barker, N.P. (2005). "Morphology Of Cypselae In Subtribe Arctotidinae (Compositae–Arctotideae) And Its Taxonomic Implications". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 92 (4): 569–594. JSTOR 40035740. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Luyten, Walter (2018). "Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae
Asteraceae
with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India". Parasite. 25: 10. doi:10.1051/parasite/2018008. ISSN 1776-1042.  ^ a b c d e Rajendra Singh; et al. (2015), "Diversity of Host Plants of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) Infesting Asteraceae
Asteraceae
in India", International Journal of Zoological Investigations, 1 (2): 137–167 CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Odom, R.B., James, W.D., Berger, T.G. (2000). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. W.B. Saunders Company. pp. 1135 pages. ISBN 0-7216-5832-6. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. Ragweed
Ragweed
Allergy

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Asteraceae.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Asteraceae

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Daisies

Compositae at The Plant
Plant
List Compositae at The Families of Flowering Plants (DELTA) Asteraceae
Asteraceae
at the Encyclopedia of Life Asteraceae
Asteraceae
at the Angiosperm
Angiosperm
Phylogeny Website Asteraceae
Asteraceae
at the Tree of Life Web Project Asteraceae
Asteraceae
at the online Flora of North America Asteraceae
Asteraceae
at the online Flora of Pakistan Asteraceae
Asteraceae
at the online Flora of Zimbabwe Compositae at the online Flora of Taiwan Asteraceae
Asteraceae
at the online FloraBase—the Western Australian Flora Compositae at the online Flora of New Zealand The International Composite Alliance (TICA) A worldwide group of composite systematists Compositae in BoDD – Botanical Dermatology Database

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q25400 EoL: 4206 EPPO: 1COMF FloraBase: 22924 FNA: 10074 FoC: 10074 Fossilworks: 183083 GBIF: 3065 GRIN: 110 IPNI: 319342-2 ITIS: 35420 NCBI: 4210 Tropicos: 50307371 VASCAN: 91 WoRMS: 234045

Authority control

GND: 41653

.

Time at 25413639.933333, Busy percent: 30
***************** NOT Too Busy at 25413639.933333 3../logs/periodic-service_log.txt
1440 = task['interval'];
25414985.983333 = task['next-exec'];
25413545.983333 = task['last-exec'];
daily-work.php = task['exec'];
25413639.933333 Time.

10080 = task['interval'];
25423626 = task['next-exec'];
25413546 = task['last-exec'];
weekly-work.php = task['exec'];
25413639.933333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25414986 = task['next-exec'];
25413546 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicStats.php = task['exec'];
25413639.933333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25414986 = task['next-exec'];
25413546 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicBuild.php = task['exec'];
25413639.933333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25414986.016667 = task['next-exec'];
25413546.016667 = task['last-exec'];
cleanup.php = task['exec'];
25413639.933333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25414986.033333 = task['next-exec'];
25413546.033333 = task['last-exec'];
build-sitemap-xml.php = task['exec'];
25413639.933333 Time.