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Asmara
Asmara
(Tigrinya: ኣስመራ) known locally as Asmera (meaning "They [feminine plural] made them unite" in Tigrinya), is the capital city and largest settlement in Eritrea. Home to a population of just over 800,000 inhabitants,[1] it sits at an elevation of 2,325 metres (7,628 ft), the sixth highest capital in the world by altitude. The city is located at the tip of an escarpment that is both the northwestern edge of the Eritrean highlands
Eritrean highlands
and the Great Rift Valley in neighbouring Ethiopia. In 2017, the city was declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[2] Asmara
Asmara
is situated in Eritrea's central Maekel Region. It is known for its well-preserved colonial Italian modernist architecture.[3] The city is divided into thirteen districts or administrative areas: Acria, Abbashaul, Edaga Hamus, Arbaete Asmara, Mai Temenai, Paradizo, Sembel, Godaif, Maekel Ketema or Downtown, Tiravolo, Gejeret, Tsetserat and Gheza Banda.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Italian occupation 1.2 Federation with Ethiopia

2 Religion 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Features 5 Economy 6 Transport 7 Education

7.1 Universities and colleges 7.2 Primary and secondary schools

7.2.1 International schools

8 Districts 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Asmara Originally, according to Eritrean Tigrinya oral traditional history, there were four clans living in the Asmara
Asmara
area on the Kebessa Plateau: the Gheza Gurtom, the Gheza Shelele, the Gheza Serenser and Gheza Asmae. These towns were frequently attacked by clans from the low land and from the rulers of "seger mereb melash" (which now is a Tigray region in Ethiopia), until the women of each clan decided that to defeat their common enemy and preserve peace the four clans must unite. The men accepted, hence the name "Arbate Asmera". Arbate Asmara literally means, in the Tigrinya language, "the four (feminine plural) made them unite".[4] Eventually Arbate was dropped and it has been called Asmara
Asmara
which means "they [feminine, thus referring to the women] made them unite". There is still a district called Arbaete Asmara
Asmara
in the Administrations of Asmara. It is now called the Italianized version of the word Asmara. The westernized version of the name is used by a majority of non-Eritreans, while the multilingual inhabitants of Eritrea
Eritrea
and neighboring peoples remain loyal to the original pronunciation, Asmera. The missionary Remedius Prutky passed through Asmara
Asmara
in 1751, and described in his memoirs that a church built there by Jesuit
Jesuit
priests 130 years before was still intact.[5] Italian occupation[edit]

Map of Asmara
Asmara
in 1929

Asmara
Asmara
started to grow quickly when it was occupied by Italy in 1889. Governor Ferdinando Martini made it the capital city of Italian Eritrea
Eritrea
in 1897, in preference to the Red Sea port of Massawa. In the early 20th century, the Eritrean Railway
Eritrean Railway
was built to the coast, passing through the town of Ghinda, under the direction of Carlo Cavanna. In both 1913 and 1915 the city suffered only slight damage in large earthquakes.[6] A large Italian community developed. According to the 1939 census, Asmara
Asmara
had a population of 98,000, of which 53,000 were Italian. Only 75,000 lived in all of Eritrea, making the capital city by far their largest centre.[7] (Compare this to the Italian colonization of Libya, where the settler population, albeit larger, was more dispersed.)

Fiat Tagliero station

The capital acquired an Italian architectural look. Europeans used Asmara
Asmara
"to experiment with radical new designs".[8] By the late 1930s, Asmara
Asmara
was called Piccola Roma (Little Rome).[9] Nowadays many buildings are of Italian origin, and shops still have Italian names (e.g., Bar Vittoria, Pasticceria moderna, Casa del formaggio, and Ferramenta). The Kingdom of Italy invested in the industrial development of Asmara (and surrounding areas of Eritrea),[10][better source needed] but the beginning of World War II stopped this. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation made Asmara
Asmara
a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in July 2017, saying “It is an exceptional example of early modernist urbanism at the beginning of the 20th century and its application in an African context”.[11] Federation with Ethiopia[edit] In 1952, the United Nations resolved to federate the former colony under Ethiopian rule. During the Federation, Asmara
Asmara
was no longer the capital city. The capital was now Addis Ababa, over 1,000 kilometres (620 miles) to the south. The national language of the city was therefore replaced from Tigrinya language to the Ethiopian Amharic language. In 1961, Emperor Haile Selassie I
Haile Selassie I
ended the "federal" arrangement and declared the territory to be the 14th province of the Ethiopian Empire.[12] Ethiopia's biggest ally was the United States. The city was home to the US Army's Kagnew Station
Kagnew Station
installation from 1943 until 1977. The Eritrean War of Independence
Eritrean War of Independence
began in 1961 and ended in 1991, resulting in the independence of Eritrea. Asmara
Asmara
was left relatively undamaged throughout the war, as were the majority of highland regions. After independence, Asmara
Asmara
again became the capital of Eritrea. Religion[edit]

Church of Our Lady of the Rosary, Asmara

Church and Mosque

Four big landmarks of the city are the Church of Our Lady of the Rosary and the Kidane Mehret Cathedral of the Catholic faith, the Enda Mariam Cathedral of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, and the Al Khulafa Al Rashiudin Mosque of the Islamic faith. Christians and Muslims have lived peacefully together in Asmara
Asmara
for centuries. The religious majority in Asmara
Asmara
are Orthodox Christians. The population in the Central Region is 94 percent Christian (almost 89 percent Orthodox, 4 percent Roman Catholic, and more than 1 percent Protestant) and 5 percent Muslim.[13] The towns and villages surrounding the city in the highlands are predominantly Christian (most places being all Christian). Further, towards the lowlands, a few Muslim towns and villages are found. The Asmara
Asmara
Synagogue is the last piece of physical evidence of the Jewish community that once resided in Eritrea. Asmara
Asmara
also has the St George Greek Orthodox Church, Asmara
Asmara
on Selam St. Geography[edit]

A street in Asmara

The city lies at an elevation of 2,325 metres (7,628 feet) above sea level. It lies on north-south trending highlands known as the Eritrean Highlands, an extension of the Ethiopian Highlands. The temperate central portion, where Asmara
Asmara
lies, is situated on a rocky highland plateau, which separates the western lowlands from the eastern coastal plains. The lands that surround Asmara
Asmara
are very fertile, especially those to the south towards the Debub Region
Debub Region
of Eritrea. The highlands that Asmara
Asmara
is located in fall away to reveal the eastern lowlands, characterized by the searing heat and humidity of the Eritrean salt pans, lapped by the Red Sea. To the west of the plateau stretches a vast semi-arid hilly terrain continuing all the way towards the border with Sudan
Sudan
through the Gash-Barka Region. Climate[edit] Asmara
Asmara
features a somewhat rare version of a steppe climate, with warm, but not hot summers and mild winters. Asmara's climate can also be considered arid to semi-arid.[14] Due to its 2,325-metre (7,630 ft) altitude, temperatures are relatively mild for a city located not particularly far from deserts. This climate is characteristic of rainy, wet seasons and dry seasons.[15] Asmara averages about 500 millimetres (20 in) of precipitation annually. Frost, however, is extremely rare in the city. The long rainy season of the year extends from June until September. The short rainy season occurs from March until April.[15] On average, about 60% of Asmara’s annual precipitation is seen during the months of July and August. In contrast, December to February are typically Asmara’s driest months, where on average only 8 millimetres (0.31 in) of precipitation falls in the three months combined. Due to variable rainfall, Asmara’s climate is also characterized by drought.[16] Several prolonged droughts in this region have occurred beginning in the 1960s and have recurred each decade since then.[16] During periods of drought, temperatures are high and little rainfall occurs. As temperatures of a region increase, the rate of evaporation of water from the soil also increases. These combined processes result in the desertification of the soil. In order to obtain nutrient rich and moist soil for farming purposes, populations rely on deforestation to make use of the underlying ground.[16] The most serious environmental issues Asmara
Asmara
faces are deforestation and desertification. Other issues Asmara
Asmara
faces are soil erosion and overgrazing. All of these environmental issues produce soil degradation.[16]

Climate data for Asmara
Asmara
(1961–1990, extremes 1903–2012)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 29.0 (84.2) 29.2 (84.6) 30.5 (86.9) 31.0 (87.8) 30.0 (86) 29.4 (84.9) 29.4 (84.9) 27.4 (81.3) 27.2 (81) 31.0 (87.8) 26.7 (80.1) 26.2 (79.2) 31.0 (87.8)

Average high °C (°F) 22.3 (72.1) 23.8 (74.8) 25.1 (77.2) 25.1 (77.2) 25.0 (77) 24.9 (76.8) 21.6 (70.9) 21.5 (70.7) 22.9 (73.2) 21.7 (71.1) 21.5 (70.7) 21.5 (70.7) 23.1 (73.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 13.8 (56.8) 14.9 (58.8) 16.3 (61.3) 17.0 (62.6) 17.6 (63.7) 17.6 (63.7) 16.3 (61.3) 16.1 (61) 15.7 (60.3) 14.9 (58.8) 14.0 (57.2) 13.2 (55.8) 15.6 (60.1)

Average low °C (°F) 4.3 (39.7) 5.1 (41.2) 7.5 (45.5) 8.7 (47.7) 10.2 (50.4) 10.5 (50.9) 10.8 (51.4) 10.7 (51.3) 8.6 (47.5) 8.1 (46.6) 6.6 (43.9) 4.8 (40.6) 8.0 (46.4)

Record low °C (°F) −4.5 (23.9) −1.6 (29.1) −0.8 (30.6) −0.2 (31.6) 2.0 (35.6) 3.4 (38.1) 3.9 (39) 3.7 (38.7) 0.2 (32.4) 1.0 (33.8) −0.5 (31.1) −1.4 (29.5) −4.5 (23.9)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 3.7 (0.146) 2.0 (0.079) 14.6 (0.575) 33.4 (1.315) 41.1 (1.618) 38.5 (1.516) 174.9 (6.886) 155.6 (6.126) 15.6 (0.614) 15.4 (0.606) 20.4 (0.803) 3.4 (0.134) 518.6 (20.418)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 0 0 2 4 5 4 13 12 2 2 2 1 47

Average relative humidity (%) 54 48 46 49 48 48 76 80 59 63 66 61 58.2

Mean monthly sunshine hours 291.4 260.4 275.9 264.0 257.3 219.0 151.9 158.1 213.0 272.8 276.0 282.1 2,921.9

Mean daily sunshine hours 9.4 9.3 8.9 8.8 8.3 7.3 4.9 5.1 7.1 8.8 9.2 9.1 8.02

Source #1: NOAA[17]

Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[18]

Features[edit]

Asmara
Asmara
National Museum

The city is home to the Eritrean National Museum
Eritrean National Museum
and is known for its early 20th-century buildings, including the Art Deco
Art Deco
Cinema Impero (opened in 1937 and considered by the experts one of the world's finest examples of Art Déco style building[19]), Cubist Africa Pension, eclectic Orthodox Cathedral and former Opera House, the futurist Fiat Tagliero Building, the neo-Romanesque Church of Our Lady of the Rosary, Asmara, and the neoclassical Governor's Palace. The city is adorned by Italian colonial villas and mansions, one prominent example being the World Bank Building. Most of central Asmara
Asmara
was built between 1935 and 1941, so the Italians
Italians
effectively managed to build almost an entire city in just six years.[20] At this time, the dictator Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
had great plans for a second Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in Africa. War cut this short, but his injection of funds created the Asmara
Asmara
of today, which supposedly was to be a symbol that Fascism worked and is an ideal system of government.[citation needed] The city shows off most early 20th-century architectural styles. Some buildings are neo-Romanesque, such as the Church of Our Lady of the Rosary, some villas are built in a late Victorian style. Art Deco influences are found throughout the city; essentially Asmara
Asmara
was then what Dubai
Dubai
is now.[citation needed] Architects were restricted by nothing more than the bounds of their imaginations and were given the funds to create masterpieces which we can see today.[citation needed] Essences of Cubism
Cubism
can be found on the Africa
Africa
Pension Building, and on a small collection of buildings. The Fiat Tagliero Building
Fiat Tagliero Building
shows almost the height of futurism, just as it was coming into big fashion in Italy. In recent times, some buildings have been functionally built which sometimes can spoil the atmosphere of some cities, but they fit into Asmara
Asmara
as it is such a modern city.

Modern building in Asmara
Asmara
overlooking a war memorial.

Asmara
Asmara
is also the see of the archbishop of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, which became autocephalous in 1993. The archbishop was elevated in 1998 to the rank of Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Eritrea, on a par with the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. Asmara
Asmara
was known to be an exceptionally modern city, not only because of its architecture, but Asmara
Asmara
also had more traffic lights than Rome did when the city was being built.[20] The city incorporates many features of a planned city. Indeed, Asmara
Asmara
was an early example of an ideal modern city created by architects,[citation needed] an idea which was introduced into many cities across the world, such as Brasilia, but which was not altogether popular. Features include designated city zoning and planning, wide treed boulevards, political areas and districts and space and scope for development. Asmara
Asmara
was not built for the Eritreans however; the Italians
Italians
built it primarily for themselves. One unfortunate aspect of the city's planning was separate areas designated for Italians
Italians
and Eritreans, each disproportionately sized.

Asmara
Asmara
Intercontinental Hotel.

The city has more than 400 examples of Italian-style architecture,[21] wide streets, Piazzas and coffee bars. While the boulevards are lined with palms and local shiba'kha trees, there are numerable Pizzerias and coffee bars, serving cappucinos and lattes, as well as ice cream parlours and restaurants with Italian Eritrean cuisine.[21] People in Asmara
Asmara
dress in a uniquely Eritrean style. Asmara
Asmara
is also highly praised for its peaceful, crime-free environment.[22] It is one of the cleanest cities on the continent.[citation needed] The city hosts the We Are the Future center, a child care center giving children a chance to live their childhoods and develop a sense of hope. The center is managed under the direction of the mayor’s office, and the international NGO
NGO
Glocal Forum serves as the fundraiser and program planner and coordinator for the WAF child center in each city. Each WAF city is linked to several peer cities and public and private partners to create a unique international coalition. Asmara
Asmara
was listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in July 2017, becoming the first modernist city anywhere to be listed in its entirety.[23] The Historic Center of Asmara
Asmara
was placed on the World Monuments Fund's 2006 Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites. The listing was designed to bring more attention to the city to save the center from decay and redevelopment and to promote restoration. Following CARP (a World Bank initiative on Cultural Heritage), the European Union
European Union
Delegation in Asmara
Asmara
has engaged into a Heritage Project pertaining to building's restoration and archive management. Launched in 2010 the EU/ Eritrea
Eritrea
Cultural Project was expected to be completed in 2014 (Pierre Couté - Edward Denison, Project Design Report, EUD Asmara
Asmara
2009). Economy[edit] As the capital city and largest settlement of Eritrea, most Eritrean businesses have their headquarters in Asmara. The city was once a factory town. During the colonial period, Asmara
Asmara
was an administrative and commercial center of Italian East Africa. When the British entered the country in 1941, many businesses were closed down or relocated outside of the city. This trend continued under Ethiopian occupation. Nasair[24][25] and the Eritrean Telecommunications Corporation are headquartered in the city.[26] In addition, country's national television station Eri-TV
Eri-TV
has many studios located in various areas in the capital. The city of Asmara
Asmara
is a center for agricultural products and tanning hides. The primary industrial products of Asmara
Asmara
are: textiles, clothing, footwear, processed meat, beer, soft drinks, and ceramics.[citation needed] Transport[edit] Taxis that run in the city of Asmara
Asmara
start at 07:00 and end at 21:00, and can get very crowded at peak times. The fare for a shared taxi is 5–10 Nakfa per seat. A contracted taxi can charge between 20 and 300 Nakfa so the price should be negotiated before entering the taxi. Contracted taxis also run outside Asmara
Asmara
to various other cities, towns and villages including; Massawa, Keren, Mendefera, Dekemhare, Adi Quala, Ghinda
Ghinda
and Nefasit. Long distance buses in Eritrea
Eritrea
are not crowded because it is illegal for passengers to stand in the aisle. There are organized breakfast and/or lunch stops on longer trips. When traveling to remote places, like Assab, Nakfa, Tesseney
Tesseney
or Senafe, reservations should be made for the return trip in advance, to prevent being stranded.[citation needed] There is a railway station in Asmara
Asmara
that connects the city with Massawa: the Eritrean Railway, built by the Italians
Italians
between 1887 and 1932, has been recently restructured.[citation needed] Indeed, the line has now been restored from Massawa
Massawa
all the way through to Asmara, but as of 2006[update] no scheduled services traverse the whole length of the line. The area is served by Asmara
Asmara
International Airport.[citation needed] The Asmara International Airport
Asmara International Airport
is the only airport in Asmara. The airport is very limited in capacity and land extent. The short length of the runways inhibits large aircraft from flying to the Asmara airport, and instead these planes must land at Massawa
Massawa
International Airport, located in the city of Massawa.[citation needed] After Eritrean independence, the roads of Asmara
Asmara
underwent extensive construction projects. Old roads were renovated and new highways were also built. There are only five primary roads out of Asmara, giving it its status as one of Africa’s most isolated capitals.[27] Education[edit]

Ministry of Education in Asmara

Asmara
Asmara
is home to the majority of colleges and universities. The city has always been a national centre of education, and is home to many elementary and high schools. Until the recent opening of universities at Mai Nefhi and Sawa, it was the seat of the only university in the country, the University of Asmara. During the period of Ethiopian Federation and annexation, the college was also linked with what was then the nation's largest tertiary institution, Addis Ababa University. Many campuses have been opening up across the country since independence, mainly for medicine and engineering. University coursework in Eritrea
Eritrea
is, for the most part, four years of academic study followed by one year of university national service in a relevant Eritrean Ministry. Once these five years are completed, students are then awarded their degree. So far, this strategy has been rather successful in adding to the country’s human capital. Despite challenges in trying to equally balance human resources, most Eritreans want their career to help further their country’s success. In other words, most accept their university assignment as their social obligation to serve a bigger purpose.[28] Universities and colleges[edit]

University of Asmara Eritrea
Eritrea
Institute of Technology Asmara
Asmara
Institute of Religious Studies

Primary and secondary schools[edit] International schools[edit]

Asmara International Community School – Anglophone international school Italian School of Asmara – Italian primary school with a Montessori department Liceo Sperimentale "G. Marconi" – Italian international senior high school Istituto Italiano Statale Comprensivo (IT) – Italian international elementary and junior high school

Districts[edit] Main article: Districts of Asmara Asmara
Asmara
is divided into 13 districts or administrative areas. These districts are subdivided into North, North-West, North-East, South-East, South-West, East, West and Central areas. The thirteen districts (or Neous Zobas) are:

North

Acria District Abbashaul District Edaga Hamus District

North-East

Arbaete Asmara
Asmara
District

North-West

Mai Temenai District Paradiso District

South-West

Sembel
Sembel
District

South-East

Kahawuta District Godaif District

Central

Maakel Ketema District

West

Gheza Banda District Tsetserat District

East

Tiravolo District Gejeret District

Eritrea
Eritrea
portal

References[edit]

^ a b "CIA - The World Factbook". Retrieved 2 September 2012.  ^ " Eritrea
Eritrea
capital Asmara
Asmara
makes World Heritage list". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-07-08.  ^ Mark Byrnes An African City's Unusual Preservation Legacy Feb 08, 2012 Atlantic Cities ^ Palin, Michael (2007). Eritrea. Chalfont St Peter, United Kingdom: Bradt Travel Guides
Bradt Travel Guides
Ltd. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-84162-171-5.  ^ J.H. Arrowsmith-Brown, ed. (1991). Prutky's Travels to Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Other Countries. Translated by J.H. Arrowsmith-Brown. London: Hakluyt Society. p. 78.  ^ Ambraseys, Nicolas; Melville, C.P.; Adams, R.D. (1994). The Seismicity of Egypt, Arabia and the Red Sea: A Historical Review. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39120-2.  ^ "Benvenuto sul sito del Maitacli" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ " Asmara
Asmara
useful for experimenting with radical designs for Europeans". Washington Times. 15 September 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2010.  ^ Italian architectural planification of Asmara
Asmara
(in Italian) p. 64-66 ^ Italian Eritrea
Eritrea
industries ^ Asmara, the capital of Art Deco ^ Encyclopedia of Urban Cultures. Grolier Publishing Co. 2002.  ^ Hsu, Becky (ed.), Eritrea: Religious Distribution (PDF), p. 3, retrieved 22 December 2011  ^ Semere, Soloman (23 December 2005). "Groundwater study using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in the central highlands of Eritrea". Hydrogeology Journal. 14 (5): 729–741. doi:10.1007/s10040-005-0477-y.  ^ a b Semere, Soloman (23 December 2005). "Groundwater study using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in the central highlands of Eritrea". Hydrogeology Journal. 14 (5): 729–741. doi:10.1007/s10040-005-0477-y.  ^ a b c d Ghebrezgabher, Mihretab (September 7, 2015). "Extracting and analyzing forest and woodland cover change in Eritrea
Eritrea
based on Landsat data using supervised classification". The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science. 19 (1): 37–47. doi:10.1016/j.ejrs.2015.09.002.  ^ " Asmara
Asmara
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ "Station Asmara" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 22 October 2016.  ^ Gianluca Rossi, Renzo Martinelli inviato de La Nazione, 2009. ^ a b "Reviving Asmara". BBC Radio 3. 19 June 2005. Retrieved 30 August 2006.  ^ a b lorenzopinnavideo (2011-06-07), Asmara, la più bella città africana, retrieved 2017-09-18  ^ http://www.madote.com/2010/11/worlds-safest-city-is-asmara.html ^ Wainwright, Oliver (8 July 2017). "The Italian architecture that shaped new world heritage site Asmara". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 July 2017.  ^ "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 23–29 March 2004. 68. ^ "Fly Eritrean Hospitality". Nasair. Archived from the original on 31 May 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.  ^ Welcome to the Telecommunication Internet Service Provider - TSEiNET, archived from the original on 20 July 2011, retrieved 8 July 2011  ^ Stevis, Matina (2015-10-21). "What It's Like Inside Asmara, One of Africa's Most Isolated Capitals". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-11-14.  ^ Müller, Tanja R. "'Now I Am Free'--Education And Human Resource Development In Eritrea: Contradictions In The Lives Of Eritrean Women In Higher Education." Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education 34.2 (2004): 215–229. Academic Search Complete.Web. 8 Nov. 2016.

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Asmara

Peter Volgger and Stefan Graf: "Architecture in Asmara. Colonial Origin and Postcolonial Experiences", DOM publishers, Berlin 2017,ISBN 978-3-86922-487-9 Stefan Boness: " Asmara
Asmara
– Africa´s Jewel of Modernity". Jovis Verlag, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-86859-435-5 (photo book; German, English) Stefan Boness: " Asmara
Asmara
– The Frozen City". Jovis Verlag, Berlin 2006. 96 pages. ISBN 3-936314-61-6 (photo book; German, English) Edward Denison, Guang Yu Ren, Naigzy Gebremedhin, and Guang Yu Ren, Asmara: Africa's Secret Modernist City (2003) ISBN 1-85894-209-8 Gianluca Rossi, Renzo Martinelli inviato de “La Nazione”, 2009, ISBN 978-88-7255-356-5

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Asmara.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Asmara.

Asmara, Eritrea
Eritrea
Documentary Film about the city by filmmaker Caterina Borelli History of Asmara Asmara
Asmara
inscription in UNESCO

v t e

Capitals of Africa

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

Abuja, Nigeria Accra, Ghana Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Algiers, Algeria Antananarivo, Madagascar Asmara, Eritrea Bamako, Mali Bangui, Central African Republic Banjul, Gambia Bissau, Guinea-Bissau Brazzaville, Rep. of the Congo Bujumbura, Burundi Cairo, Egypt Conakry, Guinea Dakar, Senegal Djibouti, Djibouti Dodoma, Tanzania El Aaiún(claimed)/Tifariti(factual), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic1 Freetown, Sierra Leone Funchal, Madeira4 Gaborone, Botswana Harare, Zimbabwe Hargeisa, Somaliland1 Jamestown, St Helena, Ascension & Tristan da Cunha2 Juba, South Sudan Kampala, Uganda Khartoum, Sudan Kigali, Rwanda Kinshasa, D.R. Congo Libreville, Gabon Lilongwe, Malawi Lomé, Togo Luanda, Angola Lusaka, Zambia Malabo, Equatorial Guinea Mamoudzou, Mayotte3 Maputo, Mozambique Maseru, Lesotho

Mbabane
Mbabane
(executive)   Lobamba
Lobamba
(legislative), Swaziland

Mogadishu, Somalia Monrovia, Liberia Moroni, Comoros Nairobi, Kenya N'Djamena, Chad Niamey, Niger Nouakchott, Mauritania Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Port Louis, Mauritius Porto-Novo, Benin Praia, Cape Verde

Pretoria
Pretoria
(executive)   Cape Town
Cape Town
(legislative)   Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
(judicial), South Africa

Rabat, Morocco Saint-Denis, Réunion3 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and Las Palmas, Canary Islands5 São Tomé, São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe Tripoli, Libya Tunis, Tunisia Victoria, Seychelles Windhoek, Namibia

Yamoussoukro
Yamoussoukro
(political)   Abidjan
Abidjan
(economic), Ivory Coast

Yaoundé, Cameroon

1 An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation 2 British Overseas Territory 3 Overseas region
Overseas region
of France 4 Autonomous region of Portugal 5 Autonomous community of Spain

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134891913 LCCN: n82104369 GND: 4467477-6 BNF:

.