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Pardofelis
Pardofelis
temminckii

The Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
( Catopuma
Catopuma
temminckii, syn. Pardofelis temminckii), also called the Asiatic golden cat and Temminck's cat, is a medium-sized wild cat of the northeastern Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and Southeast Asia. It has been listed as Near Threatened
Near Threatened
on the IUCN
IUCN
Red List since 2008, and is threatened by hunting pressure and habitat loss, since Southeast Asian forests are undergoing the world's fastest regional deforestation.[1] The Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
was named in honor of the Dutch zoologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck, who first described the African golden cat
African golden cat
in 1827.[2]

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 Distribution and habitat 3 Ecology and behavior

3.1 Reproduction

4 Threats

4.1 Illegal wildlife trade

5 Conservation

5.1 In captivity

6 Taxonomy 7 Mythology 8 References 9 External links

Characteristics[edit]

Illustration of skulls of Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(bottom) and fishing cat (top), in Pocock's The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma[3]

The Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
is heavily built, with a typical cat-like appearance. It has a head-body length of 66 to 105 cm (26 to 41 in), with a tail 40 to 57 cm (16 to 22 in) long, and is 56 cm (22 in) tall at the shoulder. The weight ranges from 9 to 16 kg (20 to 35 lb), which is about two or three times that of a domestic cat.[2] The pelage is uniform in color, but highly variable, ranging from red to golden-brown, dark brown to pale cinnamon, and gray to black. Transitional forms among the different colorations also exist. It may be marked with spots and stripes. White and black lines run across the cheeks and up to the top of the head, while the ears are black with a central gray area.[2] Golden cats with leopard-like spots have been found in China, resembling large leopard cats. This spotted fur is a recessive characteristic.[4] Distribution and habitat[edit] The Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
lives throughout Southeast Asia, ranging from Nepal, Bhutan, India
India
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, southern China, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Sumatra. It prefers forest habitats interspersed with rocky areas and inhabits dry deciduous, subtropical evergreen and tropical rainforests.[5] It also lives in more open terrain such as the grasslands of Assam's Manas National Park.[6] In the eastern Himalayas, Asian golden cats were recorded in temperate and subalpine forest.[7] It has also been recorded in the Khasi hills of Meghalaya
Meghalaya
and in Dampa Tiger Reserve.[8][9] In Laos, it also inhabits bamboo regrowth, scrub and degraded forest from the Mekong
Mekong
plains to at least 1,100 m (3,600 ft).[10] Surveys in Sumatra
Sumatra
and in the Nam Et-Phou Louey National Protected Area in northern Laos
Laos
indicated that it is more common than sympatric small cats, suggesting that it is more numerous than previously believed.[11][12] Surveys in Thailand, northern Myanmar
Myanmar
and India's western Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
revealed fewer individuals.[13][14][15] In Bhutan's Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park, it was recorded by camera traps at an altitude of 3,738 m (12,264 ft).[16] In Sikkim's Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, it was photographed at elevations up to 3,960 m (12,990 ft).[7] Since Hodgson's description in 1831 of a male individual in Nepal under the binomial Felis
Felis
moormensis, the country is believed to be the westernmost part of the cat's range.[17][18] However, no specimen has been recorded in the country, until in May 2009 a camera trap survey yielded the first photographic record of a melanistic Asian golden cat in Makalu Barun National Park
Makalu Barun National Park
at an altitude of 2,517 m (8,258 ft).[19] In 2015, an Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
was recorded for the first time by a camera-trap in the hill forests of Karen State.[20] Ecology and behavior[edit]

A gray morph of the Asian golden cat, Arunachal Pradesh, India

Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
with a piece of meat

Asian golden cats are territorial and solitary. Previous observations suggested that they are primarily nocturnal, but a field study on two radio-collared specimens revealed arrhythmic activity patterns dominated by crepuscular and diurnal activity peaks, with much less activity late at night. In the study, the male's territory was 47.7 km2 (18.4 sq mi) in size and increased by more than 15% during the rainy season. The female's territory was 32.6 km2 (12.6 sq mi) in size. Both cats traveled between only 55 m (180 ft) to more than 9 km (5.6 mi) in a day, and were more active in July than in March.[21] Asian golden cats can climb trees when necessary. They hunt birds, hares, rodents, reptiles, and small ungulates such as muntjacs and young sambar deer.[5] They are capable of bringing down prey much larger than themselves, such as domestic water buffalo calves.[22] In the mountains of Sikkim
Sikkim
Asian golden cats reportedly prey on ghoral.[23] Captive Asian golden cats kill small prey with the nape bite typical of cats. They also pluck birds larger than pigeons before beginning to feed. Their vocalizations include hissing, spitting, meowing, purring, growling, and gurgling. Other methods of communication observed in captive Asian golden cats include scent marking, urine spraying, raking trees and logs with claws, and rubbing of the head against various objects – much like a domestic cat.[2] Reproduction[edit] Not much is known about the reproductive behavior of this rather elusive cat in the wild. Most of what is known has been learned from cats in captivity.[24] Female Asian golden cats are sexually mature between 18 and 24 months, while males mature at 24 months. Females come into estrus every 39 days, at which time they leave markings and seek contact with the male by adopting receptive postures.[25] During intercourse, the male will seize the skin of the neck of the female with his teeth. After a gestation period of 78 to 80 days, the female gives birth in a sheltered place to a litter of one to three kittens. The kittens weigh 220 to 250 g (7.8 to 8.8 oz) at birth, but triple in size over the first eight weeks of life. They are born already possessing the adult coat pattern and open their eyes after six to twelve days.[2] In captivity, they live for up to twenty years.[26] A female Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
at the Washington Park Zoo
Zoo
(now the Oregon Zoo) showed a dramatic increase in the frequency of scent marking during estrus. At the same time, she often rubbed her neck and head on inanimate objects. She also repeatedly approached the male in the cage, rubbed on him, and adopted a receptive posture (lordosis) in front of him. The male's rate of scent marking increased during this time, as did his frequency of approaching and following the female. The male's mounting behavior included a nape bite, but in contrast to other small felids, the bite was not sustained.[citation needed] A pair in the Washington Park Zoo
Zoo
produced 10 litters, each consisting of one kitten; two litters of a single kitten each were born at the Wassenaar Zoo
Zoo
in the Netherlands; and a single kitten was reported for another litter. Two litters of two kittens each were born at a private cat breeding facility in California, but neither litter survived.[citation needed] Threats[edit] Asian golden cats inhabit some of the fastest developing countries in the world, where they are increasingly threatened by habitat destruction following deforestation, along with a declining ungulate prey base.[1] Another serious threat is hunting for the illegal wildlife trade, which has the greatest potential to do maximum harm in minimal time.[5] It has been reported killed in revenge for depredating livestock, including poultry but also larger animals such as sheep, goats and buffalo calves. Illegal wildlife trade[edit] Asian golden cats are poached mainly for their fur.[13] In Myanmar, 111 body parts from at least 110 individuals were observed in four markets surveyed between 1991 and 2006. Numbers were significantly greater than those of non-threatened species. Among the observed skins was a specimen with ocelot-like rosettes — a rare tristis form. Three of the surveyed markets are situated on international borders with China
China
and Thailand
Thailand
and cater to international buyers, although the Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
is completely protected under Myanmar's national legislation. Effective implementation and enforcement of CITES
CITES
is considered inadequate.[27] Conservation[edit] Pardofelis
Pardofelis
temminckii is included in CITES
CITES
Appendix I and fully protected over most of its range. Hunting is prohibited in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand
Thailand
and Vietnam. Hunting is regulated in Laos. No information about protection status is available from Cambodia.[5] In Bhutan, the felid is protected only within the boundaries of protected areas.[16] The population size of the Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
is unknown and difficult to estimate. It was regarded as abundant in many countries until the later part of the last century, when poaching shifted away from tigers and leopards to this species. In China, it is reported to be the next rarest cat apart from tigers and leopards.[citation needed] In captivity[edit] As of December 2008, there were 20 Asian golden cats in eight European zoos participating in the European Endangered Species Programme. The pair in the German Wuppertal Zoo
Zoo
successfully bred in 2007, and in July 2008, two siblings were born and mother-reared. In 2008, a female kitten was also born in the French Parc des Félins. The species is also kept in the Singapore Zoo.[28] Apart from these, a few zoos in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and Australia
Australia
also keep Asian golden cats. Taxonomy[edit] Three subspecies have been recognized:[29]

Pardofelis
Pardofelis
temminckii temminckii found in the Himalayas, Southeast Asian mainland and Sumatra Pardofelis
Pardofelis
temminckii dominicanorum found in southeast China Pardofelis
Pardofelis
temminckii tristis found in southwest China

These trinomials do not yet reflect the taxonomic re-classification accepted since 2006.[1] The Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
is similar to the bay cat of Borneo
Borneo
in both appearance and behavior. Genetic studies revealed that the two species are closely related. The Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
is found in Sumatra
Sumatra
and Malaysia, which separated from Borneo
Borneo
only about 10,000 to 15,000 years ago. These observations led to the belief that the Borneo
Borneo
bay cat is an insular subspecies of the Asian golden cat. Genetic analysis has shown that the Asian golden cat, along with the bay cat and the marbled cat, diverged from the other felids about 9.4 million years ago, and that the Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
and bay cat diverged as long as four million years ago, suggesting that the bay cat was a different species long before the isolation of Borneo. Because of the evident close relationship with the marbled cat, it has recently been suggested that all three species should be grouped in the genus Pardofelis.[30] The Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
bears a great resemblance to the African golden cat, but it is unlikely that they are closely related because the forests of Africa and Asia have not been connected in over 20 million years. Their similarity is more likely an example of convergent evolution. Mythology[edit] In some regions of Thailand, the Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
is called Seua fai (Thai: เสือไฟ; "fire tiger"). According to a regional legend, the burning of an Asian golden cat's fur drives tigers away. Eating the flesh is believed to have the same effect. The Karen people believe that simply carrying a single hair of the cat is sufficient.[31] Many indigenous people believe the cat to be fierce, but in captivity it has been known to be docile and tranquil. In the south, it's called Kang kude (คางคูด). It's believed to be a fierce animal. It can hurt or eat the livestock of the villagers and can also hurt larger animals such as elephants.[32] In China, the Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
is thought to be a kind of leopard and is known as "rock cat" or "yellow leopard". Different color phases have different names; those with black fur are called "inky leopards", and those with spotted coats are called "sesame leopards".[2] References[edit]

^ a b c d McCarthy, J.; Dahal, S.; Dhendup, T.; Gray, T.N.E.; Mukherjee, S.; Rahman, H.; Riordan, P.; Boontua, N. & Wilcox, D. (2015). " Catopuma
Catopuma
temminckii". The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T4038A97165437. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T4038A50651004.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.  ^ a b c d e f Sunquist, Mel; Sunquist, Fiona (2002). Wild cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 52–56. ISBN 0-226-77999-8.  ^ Pocock, R.I. (1939). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. Taylor and Francis, Ltd., London. Pp 259–264 ^ Allen, G.M. (1938). The mammals of China
China
and Mongolia. New York: American Museum of Natural History. ^ a b c d Nowell, K.; Jackson, P. (1996). 'Wild Cats: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.  ^ Choudhury, A. (2007). "Sighting of Asiatic golden cat in the grasslands of Assam's Manas National Park". Cat
Cat
News. 47: 29.  ^ a b Bashir, T.; Bhattacharya, T.; Poudyal, K. & Sathyakumar, S. (2011). "Notable observations on the melanistic Asiatic Golden cat ( Pardofelis
Pardofelis
temminckii) of Sikkim, India". NeBIO. 2 (1): 2–4.  ^ Nadig, S.; R., N.; Silva, A. P. (2016). "Small cats in the Himalayan foothills: the Asian Golden Cat
Cat
of Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary, India" (PDF). Small Wild Cat
Cat
Conservation News. 2: 23.  ^ Gouda, J.; Sethy, J. & Chauhan, N. P. S. (2016). "First photo capture of Asiatic golden cat in Dampa Tiger
Tiger
Reserve, Mizoram, India". Cat
Cat
News. 64: 26–27.  ^ Duckworth, J. W., Salter, R. E. and Khounboline, K. (compilers) (1999). Wildlife in Lao PDR: 1999 Status Report. Vientiane: IUCN
IUCN
– The World Conservation Union / Wildlife Conservation Society / Centre for Protected Areas and Watershed Management. ^ Holden, J. (2001). Small cats in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Cat
Cat
News 35: 11–14. ^ Johnson, A., Vongkhamheng, C., Saithongdam, T. (2009). The diversity, status and conservation of small carnivores in a montane tropical forest in northern Laos. Oryx 43: 626–633 doi:10.1017/S0030605309990238 ^ a b Lynam, A. J., Round, P. and Brockelman, W. Y. (2006). Status of birds and large mammals of the Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex, Thailand. Biodiversity Research and Training Program and Wildlife Conservation Society, Bangkok, Thailand. ^ Rao, M., Myint, T., Zaw, T., Htun, S. (2005). Hunting patterns in tropical forests adjoining the Hkakaborazi National Park, north Myanmar. Oryx 39(3): 292–300. ^ Mishra, C., Madhusudan, M. D., Datta, A. (2006). Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: An assessment of threats and conservation needs. Oryx 40: 29–35. ^ a b Wang, S. W. (2007). A rare morph of the Asiatic golden cat in Bhutan's Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park. Cat
Cat
News 47: 27–28. ^ Hodgson, B. H. (1831). Some Account of a new Species of Felis. Gleanings in Science, Volume III. Calcutta 1832: 177–178. ^ Ellerman J. R. and Morrison-Scott T. C. S. (1966). Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946. London. ^ Ghimirey, Y., Pal, P. (2009). First camera trap image of Asiatic golden cat in Nepal
Nepal
Archived 2011-07-26 at the Wayback Machine.. Cat News 51: 17 ^ Saw Sha Bwe Moo, Froese, G.Z.L., Gray, T. N.E. (2017). "First structured camera-trap surveys in Karen State, Myanmar, reveal high diversity of globally threatened mammals". Oryx: first view. doi:10.1017/S0030605316001113. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Grassman Jr., L. I., Tewes, M. E., Silvy, N. J., Kreetiyutanont, K. (2005). Ecology of three sympatric felids in a mixed evergreen forest in North-central Thailand. Journal of Mammalogy 86: 29–38 ^ Tun Yin (1967). Wild animals of Burma. Rangoon Gazette Ltd., Rangoon. ^ Biswas, B. and Ghose, R.K. (1982). Progress report 1 on pilot survey of the WWF-India/Zoological Survey of India
India
collaborative project on the status survey of the lesser cats in eastern India. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. ^ Jones, M.L. (1977). Record keeping and longevity of felids in captivity. In: Eaton, R.L. (ed.) The World’s Cats. Vol. 3, no. 3. Seattle: Carnivore Research Institute, Burke Museum, University of Washington. ^ Mellen, J. (1989). Reproductive behaviour of small captive cats ( Felis
Felis
ssp.). Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Davis. ^ Prator, T., Thomas, W.D., Jones, M. and M. Dee (1988). A twenty-year overview of selected rare carnivores in captivity. pp 191–229. In B. Dresser, R. Reece and E. Maruska, (eds.) Proceedings of 5th world conference on breeding endangered species in captivity. Cincinnati, Ohio. ^ Shepherd, C. R., Nijman, V. (2008). The wild cat trade in Myanmar. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. ^ EAZA Felid TAG (2009). EAZA Felid TAG Annual Report 2007–2008 Archived July 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. In: EAZA Yearbook 2007/2008. European Association of Zoos and Aquaria ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
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Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 542. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ Johnson, W. E., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W. J., Antunes, A., Teeling, E., O'Brien, S. J. (2006). The late miocene radiation of modern felidae: A genetic assessment Archived 2010-05-27 at the Wayback Machine.. Science 311: 73–77. ^ Lekagul, B.; McNeely, J.A. (1977). Mammals of Thailand. Bangkok: Association for the Conservation of Wildlife.  ^ "เสือไฟกัดช้างตาย". Bangkokbiznews (in Thai). 2015-01-05. Retrieved 2017-08-01. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Catopuma
Catopuma
temminckii (category)

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Catopuma
Catopuma
temminckii

IUCN/SSC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group - Cat
Cat
Species Information: Asiatic Golden Cat

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California
California
sea lion (Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q192233 ADW: Catopuma_temminckii ARKive: pardofelis-temminckii Fossilworks: 224093 GBIF: 5787233

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