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The ASIAN HIGHWAY (AH) project , also known as the GREAT ASIAN HIGHWAY, is a cooperative project among countries in Asia and Europe and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), to improve the highway systems in Asia. It is one of the three pillars of the Asian Land Transport Infrastructure Development (ALTID) project, endorsed by the ESCAP commission at its 48th session in 1992, comprising Asian Highway, Trans-Asian Railway (TAR) and facilitation of land transport projects.

Agreements have been signed by 32 countries to allow the highway to cross the continent and also reach to Europe. Some of the countries taking part in the highway project are India , Sri Lanka , Pakistan , China , Iran , Japan , South Korea and Bangladesh . Most of the funding comes from the larger, more advanced Asian nations like Japan, India, South Korea and China as well as international agencies such as the Asian Development Bank .

The project aims to make maximum use of the continent's existing highways to avoid the construction of newer ones, except in cases where missing routes necessitate their construction. Project Monitor, an Asian infrastructure news website, has commented that "early beneficiaries of the Asian Highway project are the planners within the national land transport department of the participating countries it assists them in planning the most cost-effective and efficient routes to promote domestic and international trade. Non-coastal areas, which are often negligible, are the other beneficiaries."

However, in the mid-2000s some transportation experts were sceptical about the viability of the project given the economic and political climate in both South and South-East Asia.

The Asian Highway Network is going to take over 2 projects, one is the AH 45 and the other is the new AH 45A. AH 45A is the new highway all over Asia from Tonghua to Sana'a.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Implications * 3 Regional perceptions of the project * 4 Routes * 5 Numbering and signage * 6 First car crossing

* 7 Route log

* 7.1 AH1 to AH8: Continent-Wide Routes * 7.2 AH10 to AH29 and AH100 to AH299: Southeast Asia Routes * 7.3 AH30 to AH39 and AH300 to AH399: East Asia and Northeast Asia Routes * 7.4 AH40 to AH59 and AH400 to AH599: Indian Subcontinent Routes * 7.5 AH60 to AH89 and AH600 to AH899: North Asia, Central Asia and Southwest Asia Routes

* 8 Distance by country * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

The AH project was initiated by the United Nations in 1959 with the aim of promoting the development of international road transport in the region. During the first phase of the project (1960–1970) considerable progress was achieved, however, progress slowed down when financial assistance was suspended in 1975.

ESCAP has conducted several projects in cooperation with AH member countries step by step after the endorsement of ALTID in 1992.

The Intergovernmental Agreement on the Asian Highway Network (IGA) was adopted on November 18, 2003, by the Intergovernmental Meeting; the IGA includes Annex I, which identifies 55 AH routes among 32 member countries totalling approximately 140,000 km (87,500 miles), and Annex II "Classification and Design Standards". During the 60th session of the ESCAP Commission at Shanghai, China , in April 2004, the IGA treaty was signed by 23 countries. By 2013, 29 countries had ratified the agreement.

IMPLICATIONS

The advanced highway network would provide for greater trade and social interactions between Asian countries, including personal contacts, project capitalizations, connections of major container terminals with transportation points, and promotion of tourism via the new roadways.

REGIONAL PERCEPTIONS OF THE PROJECT

According to Om Prakash, "It's an excellent step taken by ESCAP to gather all the Asian countries under one crown but the problem with this project is political disputes between some countries, notably Pakistan and Myanmar , which is delaying the project".

ROUTES

Route AH1 is proposed to extend from Tokyo to the border with Bulgaria west of Istanbul and Edirne , passing through both Koreas , China and other countries in Southeast, Central and South Asia . The corridor is expected to improve trade links between East Asian countries, India and Russia . To complete the route, existing roads will be upgraded and new roads constructed to link the network. US$25 billion has been spent or committed as of 2007, with additional US$18 billion needed for upgrades and improvements to 26,000 km of highway.

NUMBERING AND SIGNAGE

The project new highway route numbers begin with "AH", standing for "Asian Highway", followed by one, two or three digits. Single-digit route numbers from 1 to 9 are assigned to major Asian Highway routes which cross more than one subregion. Two- and three-digit route numbers are assigned to indicate the routes within subregions, including those connecting to neighbouring subregions, and self-contained highway routes within the participating countries. Route numbers are printed in the Latin script and Hindu-Arabic numerals and may simply be added to existing signage, like the E-road network .

The actual design of the signs has not been standardized, only that the letters and digits are in white or black, but the color, shape and size of the sign being completely flexible. Most examples feature a blue rectangular shield with a white inscription (similar to German Autobahn signage) with further examples of white on green and black on white rectangular shields.

FIRST CAR CROSSING

What is believed to be the first car crossing of the full extent (East to West) of the new Asian Highway was achieved by Britons Richard Meredith and Phil Colley in 2007 driving an Aston Martin .

Following the AH1 and the AH5 from Tokyo (the Highway grid's furthest point East) to Istanbul (furthest West), they drove a total of 12089 km (7512 miles) before joining the European motorway network for another 3259 km (2025 miles) to London.

Including ferry trips and customs clearance delays, the journey took 49 days and crossed 18 countries.

The completed route was verified by Aston Martin and the UN\'s Asian Commission (UNESCAP) in Bangkok , whose director of transport and tourism Barry Cable confirmed "I can warrant that, to my best knowledge, this was the first car to undertake this journey".

Eurowatch in London provided independent corroboration by tracking the car's location from satellite position reports and plotting the vehicle's location throughout the journey.

Meredith, a travel author and veteran of distance-driving events, agreed to make the attempt after attending the Asian Highway Treaty's "coming into force" ceremony in Bangkok on July 4, 2005.

He was lent an Aston Martin V8 Vantage which had previously been the personal transport of the company's chief executive Dr Ulrich Bez and recruited Phil Colley, a linguist and travel expert from Kennington , South London, to be his co-driver. The car was shipped out to Tokyo by the company and they set off on June 25.

Although the trip was facilitated by UNESCAP through its member nations, there were still extensive problems including enforced detours and interminable customs clearance delays in China, pot-holed roads in Kazakhstan and leaded-only fuel in Uzbekistan . In Tbilisi, Georgia , the journey car crashed after being left on a hillside with its handbrake unsecured.

When the record-setting car returned a welcome-home reception was staged by Aston Martin at the Park Lane Hotel in London and Meredith later received a civic award from his home town of Milton Keynes .

The car was sold at auction in December 2007 by Bonhams and the proceeds donated to UNICEF , the United Nations Children's Fund. In March 2008 a total collection of 83,000 euros was presented to UNICEF China for a campaign to reduce child deaths on the roads of Beijing .

ROUTE LOG

AH1 TO AH8: CONTINENT-WIDE ROUTES

ROUTE NO. DISTANCE START END

AH1 20,557 km (12,848 miles) Tokyo , Japan Kapıkule , Turkey (Bulgaria -Turkey border)

AH2 13,177 km (8326 miles) Denpasar , Bali , Indonesia Khosravi , Iran

AH3 7,331 km (4582 miles) Ulan-Ude , Russia Shanghai , China Tanggu , China Chiang Rai , Thailand and Kyaing Tong , Myanmar

AH4 6,024 km (3765 miles) Novosibirsk , Russia Karachi , Pakistan

AH5 10,380 km (6488 miles) Shanghai , China Kapıkule , Turkey (Bulgaria -Turkey border)

AH6 10,475 km (6547 miles) Busan , South Korea Krasnoye , Russia (Belarus -Russia border)

AH7 5,868 km (3667.5 miles) Yekaterinburg , Russia Karachi , Pakistan

AH8 4,718 km (2949 miles) Torfyanovka , Russia (Russia -Finland border) Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni , Iran

AH10 TO AH29 AND AH100 TO AH299: SOUTHEAST ASIA ROUTES

SOUTHEAST ASIA ROUTES

ROUTE NO. DISTANCE START END NOTES

AH11 1,588 km (992.5 miles) Vientiane , Laos Sihanoukville , Cambodia

AH12 1,195 km (747 miles) Nateuy, Laos Hin Kong , Thailand

AH13 730 km (456 miles) Oudomxai , Laos Nakhon Sawan , Thailand

AH14 2,077 km (1298 miles) Hai Phong , Vietnam Mandalay , Myanmar

AH15 566 km (354 miles) Vinh , Vietnam Udon Thani , Thailand

AH16 1,032 km (645 miles) Đông Hà , Vietnam Tak , Thailand

AH18 1,042 km (651 miles) Hat Yai , Thailand Johor Bahru Causeway , Johor Bahru , Malaysia

AH19 459 km (287 miles) Nakhon Ratchasima , Thailand Bangkok , Thailand

AH25 2,549 km (1593 miles) Banda Aceh , Indonesia Merak , Indonesia Also known as the Trans-Sumatran Highway

AH26 3,517 km (2198 miles) Laoag , Philippines Zamboanga , Philippines Also known as the Pan-Philippine Highway

AH111

Loilem, Myanmar Thibaw, Myanmar

AH112

Thaton, Myanmar Kawthaung , Myanmar

AH121

Mukdahan , Thailand Sa Kaeo , Thailand

AH123

Dawei. Myanmar AH2 in Thailand

AH140

Butterworth, Malaysia Pasir Puteh , Malaysia

AH141

Port Klang Malaysia Kuantan , Malaysia

AH142

Yong Peng , Malaysia Gambang , Malaysia

AH143

Sengkang , Singapore Senai , Malaysia

AH150

Semantan , Sarawak Tawau , Sabah Also known as the Pan-Borneo Highway

AH30 TO AH39 AND AH300 TO AH399: EAST ASIA AND NORTHEAST ASIA ROUTES

EAST ASIA AND NORTHEAST ASIA ROUTES

ROUTE NO. DISTANCE START END

AH30 2,739 km (1712 miles) Ussuriysk , Russia Chita , Russia

AH31 1,595 km (997 miles) Belogorsk , Russia Dalian , China

AH32 3,748 km (2342.5 miles) Sonbong , North Korea Khovd , Mongolia

AH33 575 km (359 miles) Harbin , China Tongjiang , China

AH34 1,033 km (646 miles) Lianyungang , China Xi\'an , China

AH368

Chek Lap Kok , Hong Kong Sha Tin , Hong Kong

AH374

Guangzhou , China Kennedy Town , Hong Kong

AH40 TO AH59 AND AH400 TO AH599: INDIAN SUBCONTINENT ROUTES

EAST ASIA AND NORTHEAST ASIA ROUTES

ROUTE NO. DISTANCE START END NOTES

AH41 948 km (592.5 miles) Teknaf , Bangladesh Mongla , Bangladesh

AH42 3,754 km (2346 miles) Lanzhou , China Barhi , India

AH43 3,024 km (1892 miles) Agra , India Matara , Sri Lanka

AH44 107 km (67 miles) Dambulla , Sri Lanka Trincomalee , Sri Lanka

AH45 2,030 km (1269 miles) Kolkata , India Bengaluru , India

AH46 1,967 km (1,222 miles) Hazira, India Howrah ,(Kolkata)

AH47 2,057 km (1286 miles) Gwalior , India Bengaluru , India

AH48 90 km (56 miles) Phuentsholing , Bhutan Changrabandha , India Bangladesh-India border

AH51 862 km (539 miles) Peshawar , Pakistan Quetta , Pakistan

AH60 TO AH89 AND AH600 TO AH899: NORTH ASIA, CENTRAL ASIA AND SOUTHWEST ASIA ROUTES

* AH60 , 2,151 km (1344 miles); Omsk , Russia (on AH6) to Burubaital , Kazakhstan (on AH7) * AH61 , 4,158 km (2599 miles); Kashgar , China (on AH4/AH65) to border between Russia and Ukraine * AH62 , 2,722 km (1701 miles); Petropavl , Kazakhstan (on AH6/AH64) to Mazari Sharif , Afghanistan (on AH76) * AH63 , 2,434 km (1521 miles); Samara , Russia (on AH6) to Guzar , Uzbekistan (on AH62) * AH64 , 1,666 km (1041 miles); Petropavl , Kazakhstan (on AH6/AH62) to Barnaul , Russia (on AH4) * AH65 , 1,250 km (781 miles); Kashgar , China (on AH4/AH61) to Termez , Uzbekistan (on AH62) * AH66 , 995 km (622 miles); border between China and Tajikistan to Dushanbe , Tajikistan * AH67 , 2,288 km (1430 miles); Kuitun , China (on AH5) to Zhezkazgan , Kazakhstan (on AH62) * AH68 , 278 km (174 miles); Jinghe , China (on AH5) to Ucharal , Kazakhstan (on AH60) * AH70 , 4,832 km (3020 miles); border between Ukraine and Russia to Bandar Abbas , Iran * AH71 , 426 km (266 miles); Dilaram , Afghanistan (on AH1) to Dashtak , Sistan and BaluchestanDashtak]], Iran (on AH75) * AH72 , 1,147 km (717 miles); Tehran , Iran (on AH1/AH2/AH8) to Bushehr , Iran * AH75 , 1,871 km (1169 miles); Tejen , Turkmenistan (on AH5) to Chabahar , Iran * AH76 , 986 km (616 miles); Polekhumri , Afghanistan (on AH7) to Herat , Afghanistan (on AH1/AH77) * AH77 , 1,298 km (811 miles); Djbulsarcj , Afghanistan (on AH7) to Mary , Turkmenistan (on AH5) * AH78 , 1,076 km (672.5 miles); Ashgabat , Turkmenistan (on AH5) to Kerman , Iran (on AH2) * AH81 , 1,143 km (714 miles); Larsi, Georgia to Aktau , Kazakhstan (on AH70) * AH82 , 1,261 km (788 miles); border between Russia and Georgia to Ivughli , Iran (on AH1) * AH83 , 172 km (107.5 miles); Kazakh , Azerbaijan (on AH5) to Yerevan , Armenia (on AH81/AH82) * AH84 , 1,188 km (742.5 miles); Doğubeyazıt , Turkey (on AH1) to İçel , Turkey * AH85 , 338 km (211 miles); Refahiye , Turkey (on AH1) to Merzifon , Turkey (on AH5) * AH86 , 247 km (154 miles); Askale , Turkey (on AH1) to Trabzon , Turkey (on AH5) * AH87 , 606 km (378.75 miles); Ankara , Turkey (on AH1) to İzmir , Turkey

DISTANCE BY COUNTRY

The planned network runs a total of 140,479 kilometres (87,290 mi).

COUNTRY DISTANCE IN KM DISTANCE IN MILES

Afghanistan 4,247 2,639

Armenia 958 595

Azerbaijan 1,442 896

Bangladesh 1,804 1,121

Bhutan 1 0.621

Cambodia 1,339 832

China 25,579 15,894

North Korea 1,320 820

Georgia 1,154 717

Hong Kong 91 57

India 11,432 7,104

Indonesia 3,989 2,479

Iran 11,152 6,930

Japan 1,200 746

Kazakhstan 13,189 8,195

Kyrgyzstan 1,695 1,053

Laos 2,297 1,427

Malaysia 4,006 2,489

Mongolia 4,286 2,663

Myanmar 3,003 1,866

Nepal 1,321 821

Pakistan 5,377 3,341

Philippines 3,517 2,185

Republic of Korea 907 564

Russia 16,869 10,482

Singapore 19 12

Sri Lanka 650 404

Tajikistan 1,925 1,196

Thailand 5,112 3,176

Turkey 5,254 3,265

Turkmenistan 2,204 1,370

Uzbekistan 2,966 1,843

Vietnam 2,678 1,664

SEE ALSO

* Asia portal

* International E-road network * Arab Mashreq International Road Network * Trans-Asian Railway * Japan–Korea Undersea Tunnel * One Belt, One Road * Eurasian Land Bridge * Hippie trail

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E F Kamat, Rahul The Great Asian Highway Archived 2010-01-17 at the Wayback Machine ., Project Monitor website, 31 January 2005. Retrieved 2009-05-05 * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2013-05-15. . * ^ "Priority Investment Needs for the Development for the Asian Highway Network" Archived July 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ., accessed July 14, 2007 * ^ A B C D E Newswire Archived January 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ., Tourism Commission of the International Geographical Union website. Retrieved 2009-05-05; * ^ McCartan, Brian Roadblocks on the Great Asian Highway, Asia Times website, 23 January 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-05; * ^ Letter 2007-07-09 Janette Green, Director Brand Communications, Aston Martin, Gaydon CV35 0DB, England * ^ Letter 2007-18-10 Barry Cable, Director Transport & Tourism Division, United Nations ESCAP (Economic & Social Commission for Asia color:white;">

* v * t * e

Asian Highway Network

ACROSS THE WHOLE CONTINENT

* AH1 * AH2 * AH3 * AH4 * AH5 * AH6 * AH7 * AH8

SOUTHEAST ASIA

* AH11 * AH12 * AH13 * AH14 * AH15 * AH16 * AH17 * AH18 * AH19 * AH25 * AH26 * AH111 * AH112 * AH123 * AH140 * AH141 * AH142 * AH143 * AH150

EAST ASIA, NORTHEAST ASIA AND SOUTHEAST ASIA

* AH30 * AH31 * AH32 * AH33 * AH34 * AH368 * AH374

SOUTH ASIA

* AH41 * AH42 * AH43 * AH44 * AH45 * AH46 * AH47 * AH48 * AH51

NORTH ASIA, CENTRAL ASIA AND SOUTHWEST ASIA

* AH60 * AH61 * AH62 * AH63 * AH64 * AH65 * AH66 * AH67 * AH68 * AH70 * AH71 * AH72 * AH75 * AH76 * AH77 * AH78 * AH81 * AH82 * AH83 * AH84 * AH85 * AH86 * AH87

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