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Metropolitan areas of Asia List of cities in Asia

List

Bangkok Beijing Busan Chittagong Delhi Dhaka Doha Dubai Guangzhou Hanoi Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Istanbul Jakarta Karachi Kuala Lumpur Manila Mumbai Osaka Pyongyang Riyadh Shanghai Shenzhen Singapore Seoul Tehran Ulaanbaatar Tokyo Taipei
Taipei
[4]

Asia
Asia
(/ˈeɪʒə, ˈeɪʃə/ ( listen)) is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe
Europe
and the continental landmass of Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
with both Europe
Europe
and Africa. Asia
Asia
covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres (17,212,000 sq mi), about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population,[5] was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but also dense and large settlements, as well as vast barely populated regions. Its 4.5 billion people constitute roughly 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia
Asia
is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean
Ocean
and on the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean. The western boundary with Europe
Europe
is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The most commonly accepted boundaries place Asia
Asia
to the east of the Suez Canal, the Ural River, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
and the Caspian and Black Seas.[6] China
China
and India
India
alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China
China
was a major economic power and attracted many to the east,[7][8][9][10] and for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India
India
personified Asia,[11] attracting European commerce, exploration and colonialism. The accidental discovery of America by Columbus in search for India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road
Silk Road
became the main East-West trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia
Asia
has exhibited economic dynamism (particularly East Asia) as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen.[12] Asia
Asia
was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism
Taoism
(or Daoism), Jainism, Sikhism, Zoroastranism, as well as many other religions. Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may actually have more to do with human geography than physical geography.[13] Asia
Asia
varies greatly across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and government systems. It also has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia.

Contents

1 Definition and boundaries

1.1 Asia- Africa
Africa
boundary 1.2 Asia– Europe
Europe
boundary 1.3 Asia– Oceania
Oceania
boundary 1.4 Ongoing definition

2 Etymology

2.1 Bronze Age 2.2 Classical antiquity

3 History 4 Geography and climate

4.1 Climate change

5 Economy 6 Tourism 7 Demographics

7.1 Languages 7.2 Religions

7.2.1 Abrahamic 7.2.2 Indian and East Asian religions

8 Modern conflicts 9 Culture

9.1 Nobel prizes

10 Political geography 11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 Further reading 15 External links

Definition and boundaries Further information on Asian borders: Geography of Asia § Boundary, Boundaries between continents, List of transcontinental countries §  Asia
Asia
and Europe, and Copenhagen criteria Asia- Africa
Africa
boundary The boundary between Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, and the Suez Canal.[citation needed] This makes Egypt
Egypt
a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula
Sinai peninsula
in Asia
Asia
and the remainder of the country in Africa. Asia– Europe
Europe
boundary

Statue representing Asia
Asia
at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta

The border between Asia
Asia
and Europe
Europe
was historically defined by European academics.[14] The Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden
Sweden
and the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to the eastern lands, and armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire
Russian Empire
extending to the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
and beyond, founded in 1721. The major geographical theorist of the empire was actually a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, and was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book.[citation needed] In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. The Russians were enthusiastic about the concept, which allowed them to keep their European identity in geography. Tatishchev announced that he had proposed the idea to von Strahlenberg. The latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century. The border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
into which the Ural River projects.[15] The border between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Caspian is usually placed along the crest of the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north.[14] Asia– Oceania
Oceania
boundary The border between Asia
Asia
and the region of Oceania
Oceania
is usually placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago. The Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
in Indonesia are often considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception. The chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there (not all European). Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of 'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process."[16] Ongoing definition

Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
shown in green

Geographical Asia
Asia
is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia
Asia
is larger and more culturally diverse than Europe.[17] It does not exactly correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents.[18] From the time of Herodotus
Herodotus
a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system (Europe, Africa, Asia) on the grounds that there is no or is no substantial physical separation between them.[13] For example, Sir Barry Cunliffe, the emeritus professor of European archeology at Oxford, argues that Europe
Europe
has been geographically and culturally merely "the western excrescence of the continent of Asia".[19] Geographically, Asia
Asia
is the major eastern constituent of the continent of Eurasia
Eurasia
with Europe
Europe
being a northwestern peninsula of the landmass. Asia, Europe
Europe
and Africa
Africa
make up a single continuous landmass – Afro- Eurasia
Eurasia
(except for the Suez Canal) and share a common continental shelf. Almost all of Europe
Europe
and the better part of Asia sit atop the Eurasian Plate, adjoined on the south by the Arabian and Indian Plate
Indian Plate
and with the easternmost part of Siberia
Siberia
(east of the Chersky Range) on the North American Plate.

Etymology

Ptolemy's Asia

The English name "Asia" was originally a concept of Greek civilization.[20] The place name "Asia" in various forms in a large number of modern languages is of unknown ultimate provenience. Its etymology and language of origin are uncertain. It appears to be one of the most ancient of recorded names. A number of theories have been published. English Asia
Asia
can be traced through the formation of English literature to Latin
Latin
literature, where it has the same form, Asia. Whether all uses and all forms of the name derive also from the Latin of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
is much less certain. One of the first classical writers to use Asia
Asia
as a name of the whole continent was Pliny.[21] This metonymical change in meaning is common and can be observed in some other geographical names, such as Skandinavia
Skandinavia
(from Scania). Bronze Age Before Greek poetry, the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
area was in a Greek Dark Age, at the beginning of which syllabic writing was lost and alphabetic writing had not begun. Prior to then in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
the records of the Assyrian Empire, the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
and the various Mycenaean states of Greece
Greece
mention a region undoubtedly Asia, certainly in Anatolia, including if not identical to Lydia. These records are administrative and do not include poetry. The Mycenaean states were destroyed about 1200 BCE by unknown agents although one school of thought assigns the Dorian invasion
Dorian invasion
to this time. The burning of the palaces baked clay diurnal administrative records written in a Greek syllabic script called Linear B, deciphered by a number of interested parties, most notably by a young World War II cryptographer, Michael Ventris, subsequently assisted by the scholar, John Chadwick. A major cache discovered by Carl Blegen
Carl Blegen
at the site of ancient Pylos
Pylos
included hundreds of male and female names formed by different methods. Some of these are of women held in servitude (as study of the society implied by the content reveals). They were used in trades, such as cloth-making, and usually came with children. The epithet, lawiaiai, "captives," associated with some of them identifies their origin. Some are ethnic names. One in particular, aswiai, identifies "women of Asia."[22] Perhaps they were captured in Asia, but some others, Milatiai, appear to have been of Miletus, a Greek colony, which would not have been raided for slaves by Greeks. Chadwick suggests that the names record the locations where these foreign women were purchased.[23] The name is also in the singular, Aswia, which refers both to the name of a country and to a female of it. There is a masculine form, aswios. This Aswia appears to have been a remnant of a region known to the Hittites
Hittites
as Assuwa, centered on Lydia, or "Roman Asia." This name, Assuwa, has been suggested as the origin for the name of the continent "Asia".[24] The Assuwa league was a confederation of states in western Anatolia, defeated by the Hittites under Tudhaliya I around 1400 BCE. Alternatively, the etymology of the term may be from the Akkadian word (w)aṣû(m), which means 'to go outside' or 'to ascend', referring to the direction of the sun at sunrise in the Middle East
Middle East
and also likely connected with the Phoenician word asa meaning east. This may be contrasted to a similar etymology proposed for Europe, as being from Akkadian erēbu(m) 'to enter' or 'set' (of the sun). T.R. Reid
T.R. Reid
supports this alternative etymology, noting that the ancient Greek name must have derived from asu, meaning 'east' in Assyrian (ereb for Europe
Europe
meaning 'west').[20] The ideas of Occidental (form Latin
Latin
Occidens 'setting') and Oriental (from Latin
Latin
Oriens for 'rising') are also European invention, synonymous with Western and Eastern.[20] Reid further emphasizes that it explains the Western point of view of placing all the peoples and cultures of Asia
Asia
into a single classification, almost as if there were a need for setting the distinction between Western and Eastern civilizations on the Eurasian continent.[20] Ogura Kazuo and Tenshin Okakura are two outspoken Japanese figures on the subject.[20] Classical antiquity

The province of Asia
Asia
highlighted (in red) within the Roman Empire.

Latin
Latin
Asia
Asia
and Greek Ἀσία appear to be the same word. Roman authors translated Ἀσία as Asia. The Romans named a province Asia, located in western Anatolia
Anatolia
(in modern-day Turkey). There was an Asia
Asia
Minor and an Asia
Asia
Major located in modern-day Iraq. As the earliest evidence of the name is Greek, it is likely circumstantially that Asia
Asia
came from Ἀσία, but ancient transitions, due to the lack of literary contexts, are difficult to catch in the act. The most likely vehicles were the ancient geographers and historians, such as Herodotus, who were all Greek. Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
certainly evidences early and rich uses of the name.[25] The first continental use of Asia
Asia
is attributed to Herodotus
Herodotus
(about 440 BCE), not because he innovated it, but because his Histories are the earliest surviving prose to describe it in any detail. He defines it carefully,[26] mentioning the previous geographers whom he had read, but whose works are now missing. By it he means Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Persian Empire, in contrast to Greece
Greece
and Egypt. Herodotus
Herodotus
comments that he is puzzled as to why three women's names were "given to a tract which is in reality one" (Europa, Asia, and Libya, referring to Africa), stating that most Greeks assumed that Asia
Asia
was named after the wife of Prometheus
Prometheus
(i.e. Hesione), but that the Lydians say it was named after Asies, son of Cotys, who passed the name on to a tribe at Sardis.[27] In Greek mythology, "Asia" (Ἀσία) or "Asie" (Ἀσίη) was the name of a " Nymph
Nymph
or Titan goddess of Lydia."[28] In ancient Greek religion, places were under the care of female divinities, parallel to guardian angels. The poets detailed their doings and generations in allegoric language salted with entertaining stories, which subsequently playwrights transformed into classical Greek drama and became "Greek mythology." For example, Hesiod
Hesiod
mentions the daughters of Tethys and Ocean, among whom are a "holy company", "who with the Lord Apollo
Apollo
and the Rivers have youths in their keeping."[29] Many of these are geographic: Doris, Rhodea, Europa, Asia. Hesiod
Hesiod
explains:[30]

"For there are three-thousand neat-ankled daughters of Ocean
Ocean
who are dispersed far and wide, and in every place alike serve the earth and the deep waters."

The Iliad
Iliad
(attributed by the ancient Greeks to Homer) mentions two Phrygians (the tribe that replaced the Luvians
Luvians
in Lydia) in the Trojan War named Asios (an adjective meaning "Asian");[31] and also a marsh or lowland containing a marsh in Lydia
Lydia
as ασιος.[32] History Main article: History of Asia

The Silk Road
Silk Road
connected civilizations across Asia[33]

The history of Asia
Asia
can be seen as the distinct histories of several peripheral coastal regions: East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Middle East, linked by the interior mass of the Central Asian steppes. The coastal periphery was home to some of the world's earliest known civilizations, each of them developing around fertile river valleys. The civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
and the Yellow River shared many similarities. These civilizations may well have exchanged technologies and ideas such as mathematics and the wheel. Other innovations, such as writing, seem to have been developed individually in each area. Cities, states and empires developed in these lowlands. The central steppe region had long been inhabited by horse-mounted nomads who could reach all areas of Asia
Asia
from the steppes. The earliest postulated expansion out of the steppe is that of the Indo-Europeans, who spread their languages into the Middle East, South Asia, and the borders of China, where the Tocharians
Tocharians
resided. The northernmost part of Asia, including much of Siberia, was largely inaccessible to the steppe nomads, owing to the dense forests, climate and tundra. These areas remained very sparsely populated. The center and the peripheries were mostly kept separated by mountains and deserts. The Caucasus
Caucasus
and Himalaya
Himalaya
mountains and the Karakum and Gobi deserts formed barriers that the steppe horsemen could cross only with difficulty. While the urban city dwellers were more advanced technologically and socially, in many cases they could do little in a military aspect to defend against the mounted hordes of the steppe. However, the lowlands did not have enough open grasslands to support a large horsebound force; for this and other reasons, the nomads who conquered states in China, India, and the Middle East
Middle East
often found themselves adapting to the local, more affluent societies. The Islamic Caliphate
Caliphate
took over the Middle East
Middle East
and Central Asia during the Muslim conquests
Muslim conquests
of the 7th century. The Mongol Empire conquered a large part of Asia
Asia
in the 13th century, an area extending from China
China
to Europe. Before the Mongol invasion, Song dynasty reportedly had approximately 120 million citizens; the 1300 census which followed the invasion reported roughly 60 million people.[34] The Black Death, one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, is thought to have originated in the arid plains of central Asia, where it then travelled along the Silk Road.[35] The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
began to expand into Asia
Asia
from the 17th century, and would eventually take control of all of Siberia
Siberia
and most of Central Asia
Central Asia
by the end of the 19th century. The Ottoman Empire controlled Anatolia, most of the Middle East, North Africa
Africa
and the Balkans
Balkans
from the mid 16th century onwards. In the 17th century, the Manchu conquered China
China
and established the Qing dynasty. The Islamic Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and the Hindu Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
controlled much of India
India
in the 16th and 18th centuries respectively.[36]

Map of western, southern, and central Asia
Asia
in 1885[37]

The map of Asia
Asia
in 1796, which also included the continent of Australia
Australia
(then known as New Holland).

1890 map of Asia

Geography and climate Main articles: Geography of Asia
Geography of Asia
and Climate of Asia See also: Category:Biota of Asia

The Himalayan range is home to some of the planet's highest peaks.

Asia
Asia
is the largest continent on Earth. It covers 9% of the Earth's total surface area (or 30% of its land area), and has the largest coastline, at 62,800 kilometres (39,022 mi). Asia
Asia
is generally defined as comprising the eastern four-fifths of Eurasia. It is located to the east of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
(or the Kuma–Manych Depression) and the Caspian and Black Seas.[6][38] It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean
Ocean
and on the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean. Asia
Asia
is subdivided into 48 countries, three of them (Russia, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Turkey) having part of their land in Europe. Asia
Asia
has extremely diverse climates and geographic features. Climates range from arctic and subarctic in Siberia
Siberia
to tropical in southern India
India
and Southeast Asia. It is moist across southeast sections, and dry across much of the interior. Some of the largest daily temperature ranges on Earth
Earth
occur in western sections of Asia. The monsoon circulation dominates across southern and eastern sections, due to the presence of the Himalayas
Himalayas
forcing the formation of a thermal low which draws in moisture during the summer. Southwestern sections of the continent are hot. Siberia
Siberia
is one of the coldest places in the Northern Hemisphere, and can act as a source of arctic air masses for North America. The most active place on Earth
Earth
for tropical cyclone activity lies northeast of the Philippines
Philippines
and south of Japan. The Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
is in Mongolia
Mongolia
and the Arabian Desert
Arabian Desert
stretches across much of the Middle East. The Yangtze River
Yangtze River
in China
China
is the longest river in the continent. The Himalayas
Himalayas
between Nepal
Nepal
and China
China
is the tallest mountain range in the world. Tropical rainforests stretch across much of southern Asia
Asia
and coniferous and deciduous forests lie farther north.

Kerala backwaters

Mongolian steppe

South China
China
Karst

Altai Mountains

Hunza Valley

Climate change A survey carried out in 2010 by global risk analysis farm Maplecroft identified 16 countries that are extremely vulnerable to climate change. Each nation's vulnerability was calculated using 42 socio, economic and environmental indicators, which identified the likely climate change impacts during the next 30 years. The Asian countries of Bangladesh, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
were among the 16 countries facing extreme risk from climate change. Some shifts are already occurring. For example, in tropical parts of India with a semi-arid climate, the temperature increased by 0.4 °C between 1901 and 2003. A 2013 study by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) aimed to find science-based, pro-poor approaches and techniques that would enable Asia's agricultural systems to cope with climate change, while benefitting poor and vulnerable farmers. The study's recommendations ranged from improving the use of climate information in local planning and strengthening weather-based agro-advisory services, to stimulating diversification of rural household incomes and providing incentives to farmers to adopt natural resource conservation measures to enhance forest cover, replenish groundwater and use renewable energy.[39] Economy Main articles: Economy of Asia, List of Asian countries by GDP, List of countries in Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
by GDP (nominal), and List of Asian and Pacific countries by GDP (PPP)

Singapore
Singapore
has one of the busiest ports in the world and is the world's fourth largest foreign exchange trading center.

Rank Country GDP (PPP, Peak Year) millions of USD Peak Year

1  China 23,122,027 2017

2  India 9,446,789 2017

3  Japan 5,405,072 2017

4  Russia 4,000,096 2017

5  Indonesia 3,242,966 2017

6  Turkey 2,132,717 2017

7  South Korea 2,026,651 2017

8  Saudi Arabia 1,789,264 2017

9  Iran 1,630,859 2017

10  Thailand 1,228,941 2017

Rank Country GDP (nominal, Peak Year) millions of USD Peak Year

1  China 11,937,562 2017

2  Japan 6,203,213 2012

3  India 2,439,008 2017

4  Russia 2,297,125 2013

5  South Korea 1,529,743 2017

6  Indonesia 1,010,937 2017

7  Turkey 950,328 2013

8  Saudi Arabia 756,350 2014

9  Iran 577,214 2011

10  Taiwan 571,453 2017

Asia
Asia
has the second largest nominal GDP of all continents, after Europe, but the largest when measured in purchasing power parity (PPP). As of 2011, the largest economies in Asia
Asia
are China, Japan, India, South Korea
South Korea
and Indonesia
Indonesia
based on GDP in both nominal and PPP.[40] Based on Global Office Locations 2011, Asia
Asia
dominated the office locations with 4 of the top 5 being in Asia: Hong Kong, Singapore, Tokyo, Seoul
Seoul
and Shanghai. Around 68 percent of international firms have office in Hong Kong.[41] In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the economies of China[42] and India
India
have been growing rapidly, both with an average annual growth rate of more than 8%. Other recent very-high-growth nations in Asia include Israel, Malaysia, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Thailand, Vietnam, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Cyprus
Cyprus
and the Philippines, and mineral-rich nations such as Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Brunei, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain
Bahrain
and Oman. According to economic historian Angus Maddison
Angus Maddison
in his book The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, India
India
had the world's largest economy during 0 BCE and 1000 BCE.[43][44] China
China
was the largest and most advanced economy on earth for much of recorded history,[45][46][47][48] until the British Empire
British Empire
(excluding India) overtook it in the mid-19th century. For several decades in the late twentieth century Japan
Japan
was the largest economy in Asia
Asia
and second-largest of any single nation in the world, after surpassing the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(measured in net material product) in 1986 and Germany in 1968. (NB: A number of supernational economies are larger, such as the European Union
European Union
(EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement
North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) or APEC). This ended in 2010 when China
China
overtook Japan
Japan
to become the world's second largest economy. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Japan's GDP was almost as large (current exchange rate method) as that of the rest of Asia combined.[citation needed] In 1995, Japan's economy nearly equaled that of the US as the largest economy in the world for a day, after the Japanese currency reached a record high of 79 yen/US$. Economic growth in Asia
Asia
since World War II to the 1990s had been concentrated in Japan
Japan
as well as the four regions of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore
Singapore
located in the Pacific Rim, known as the Asian tigers, which have now all received developed country status, having the highest GDP per capita
GDP per capita
in Asia.[49]

Mumbai
Mumbai
is one of the most populous cities on the continent. The city is an infrastructure and tourism hub, and plays a crucial role in the Economy of India.

It is forecasted that India
India
will overtake Japan
Japan
in terms of nominal GDP by 2020.[50] By 2027, according to Goldman Sachs, China
China
will have the largest economy in the world. Several trade blocs exist, with the most developed being the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Asia
Asia
is the largest continent in the world by a considerable margin, and it is rich in natural resources, such as petroleum, forests, fish, water, rice, copper and silver. Manufacturing in Asia
Asia
has traditionally been strongest in East and Southeast Asia, particularly in China, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, India, the Philippines, and Singapore. Japan
Japan
and South Korea
South Korea
continue to dominate in the area of multinational corporations, but increasingly the PRC and India
India
are making significant inroads. Many companies from Europe, North America, South Korea
South Korea
and Japan
Japan
have operations in Asia's developing countries to take advantage of its abundant supply of cheap labour and relatively developed infrastructure. According to Citigroup
Citigroup
9 of 11 Global Growth Generators countries came from Asia
Asia
driven by population and income growth. They are Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Mongolia, Philippines, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Vietnam.[51] Asia
Asia
has four main financial centers: Tokyo, Hong Kong, Singapore
Singapore
and Shanghai. Call centers and business process outsourcing (BPOs) are becoming major employers in India
India
and the Philippines
Philippines
due to the availability of a large pool of highly skilled, English-speaking workers. The increased use of outsourcing has assisted the rise of India
India
and the China
China
as financial centers. Due to its large and extremely competitive information technology industry, India
India
has become a major hub for outsourcing. In 2010, Asia
Asia
had 3.3 million millionaires (people with net worth over US$1 million excluding their homes), slightly below North America
North America
with 3.4 million millionaires. Last year Asia
Asia
had toppled Europe.[52] Citigroup
Citigroup
in The Wealth Report 2012 stated that Asian centa-millionaire overtook North America's wealth for the first time as the world's "economic center of gravity" continued moving east. At the end of 2011, there were 18,000 Asian people
Asian people
mainly in Southeast Asia, China
China
and Japan
Japan
who have at least $100 million in disposable assets, while North America
North America
with 17,000 people and Western Europe
Europe
with 14,000 people.[53] Tourism

Wat Phra Kaeo
Wat Phra Kaeo
in the Grand Palace
Grand Palace
is among Bangkok's major tourist attractions.

With growing Regional Tourism with domination of Chinese visitors, MasterCard
MasterCard
has released Global Destination Cities Index 2013 with 10 of 20 are dominated by Asia
Asia
and Pacific Region Cities and also for the first time a city of a country from Asia
Asia
(Bangkok) set in the top-ranked with 15.98 international visitors.[54] Demographics Main article: Demographics of Asia

Historical populations

Year Pop. ±%

1500 243,000,000 —    

1700 436,000,000 +79.4%

1900 947,000,000 +117.2%

1950 1,402,000,000 +48.0%

1999 3,634,000,000 +159.2%

2016 4,462,676,731 +22.8%

Source: "UN report 2004 data" (PDF). The figure for 2016 is provided by the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[2].

Graph showing population by continent as a percentage of world population (1750–2005)

East Asia
East Asia
had by far the strongest overall Human Development Index (HDI) improvement of any region in the world, nearly doubling average HDI attainment over the past 40 years, according to the report's analysis of health, education and income data. China, the second highest achiever in the world in terms of HDI improvement since 1970, is the only country on the "Top 10 Movers" list due to income rather than health or education achievements. Its per capita income increased a stunning 21-fold over the last four decades, also lifting hundreds of millions out of income poverty. Yet it was not among the region's top performers in improving school enrollment and life expectancy.[55] Nepal, a South Asian country, emerges as one of the world's fastest movers since 1970 mainly due to health and education achievements. Its present life expectancy is 25 years longer than in the 1970s. More than four of every five children of school age in Nepal
Nepal
now attend primary school, compared to just one in five 40 years ago.[55] Japan
Japan
and South Korea
South Korea
ranked highest among the countries grouped on the HDI (number 11 and 12 in the world, which are in the "very high human development" category), followed by Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(21) and Singapore (27). Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(155) ranked lowest amongst Asian countries out of the 169 countries assessed.[55] Languages Main article: Languages of Asia Asia
Asia
is home to several language families and many language isolates. Most Asian countries have more than one language that is natively spoken. For instance, according to Ethnologue, more than 600 languages are spoken in Indonesia, more than 800 languages spoken in India, and more than 100 are spoken in the Philippines. China
China
has many languages and dialects in different provinces. Religions See also: Eastern philosophy, Religion in Asia, and List of Asian mythologies

The Western Wall
Western Wall
and the Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem

Pilgrims in the annual Hajj
Hajj
at the Kaabah
Kaabah
in Mecca.

Spring Temple Buddha
Spring Temple Buddha
in Lushan County, Henan, China
China
is the world's tallest statue.

Many of the world's major religions have their origins in Asia, including the five most practiced in the world (excluding irreligion), which are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Chinese folk religion (classified as Confucianism
Confucianism
and Taoism), and Buddhism
Buddhism
respectively. Asian mythology is complex and diverse. The story of the Great Flood for example, as presented to Christians in the Old Testament
Old Testament
in the narrative of Noah, is first found in Mesopotamian mythology, in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Likewise, the same story of Great Flood is presented to Muslims in the Holy Quran, again in the narrative of Noah, Who according to Islamic mythology
Islamic mythology
was a Prophet
Prophet
and Built an Ark on Allah's Command to save the True Believers from the Great Flood (Great Calamity).[56] Hindu mythology
Hindu mythology
also tells about an Avatar
Avatar
of the God Vishnu
Vishnu
in the form of a fish who warned Manu of a terrible flood. In ancient Chinese mythology, Shan Hai Jing, the Chinese ruler Da Yu, had to spend 10 years to control a deluge which swept out most of ancient China
China
and was aided by the goddess Nüwa
Nüwa
who literally fixed the broken sky through which huge rains were pouring. Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
including Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
originated in West Asia. Judaism, the oldest of the Abrahamic faiths, is practiced primarily in Israel, the birthplace and historical homeland of the Hebrew nation which today consists equally of those Israelites
Israelites
who remained in Asia/North Africa
Africa
and those who returned from diaspora in Europe, North America, and other regions,[57] though sizable communities continue to live abroad. Jews
Jews
are the predominant ethnic group in Israel
Israel
(75.6%) numbering at about 6.1 million,[58] although the levels of adherence to Jewish religion are unspecified. Outside of Israel there are small ancient communities of Jewish still live in Turkey (17,400),[59] Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(9,100),[60] Iran
Iran
(8,756),[61] India
India
(5,000) and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(4,000).[62] Christianity is a widespread religion in Asia
Asia
with more than 286 million adherents according to Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
in 2010,[63] and nearly 364 million according to Britannica Book
Book
of the Year 2014.[64] Constituting around 12.6% of the total population of Asia. In the Philippines
Philippines
and East Timor, Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion; it was introduced by the Spaniards and the Portuguese, respectively. In Armenia, Cyprus, Georgia and Asian Russia, Eastern Orthodoxy is the predominant religion. In the Middle East, such as in the Levant, Syriac Christianity
Syriac Christianity
(Church of the East) and Oriental Orthodoxy are prevalent minority denominations, which are both Eastern Christian sects. Saint Thomas Christians
Saint Thomas Christians
in India
India
trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle
Thomas the Apostle
in the 1st century.[65] Islam, which originated in Saudi Arabia, is the largest and most widely spread religion in Asia
Asia
with at least 1 billion Muslims constituting around 23.8% of the total population of Asia.[66] With 12.7% of the world Muslim population, the country currently with the largest Muslim population in the world is Indonesia, followed by Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Iran
Iran
and Turkey. Mecca, Medina
Medina
and to a lesser extent Jerusalem
Jerusalem
are the holiest cities for Islam in all the world. These religious sites attract large numbers of devotees from all over the world, particularly during the Hajj
Hajj
and Umrah
Umrah
seasons. Iran
Iran
is the largest Shi'a
Shi'a
country. The Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
originated in Asia, in Iran
Iran
(Persia), and spread from there to the Ottoman Empire, Central Asia, India, and Burma during the lifetime of Bahá'u'lláh. Since the middle of the 20th century, growth has particularly occurred in other Asian countries, because Bahá'í activities in many Muslim countries has been severely suppressed by authorities. Lotus Temple
Lotus Temple
is a big Baha'i Temple in India. Indian and East Asian religions

The Swaminarayan Akshardham Temple in Delhi, according to the Guinness World Records is the World's Largest Comprehensive Hindu Temple[67]

Almost all Asian religions have philosophical character and Asian philosophical traditions cover a large spectrum of philosophical thoughts and writings. Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
includes Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
and Buddhist
Buddhist
philosophy. They include elements of nonmaterial pursuits, whereas another school of thought from India, Cārvāka, preached the enjoyment of the material world. The religions of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism
Jainism
and Sikhism
Sikhism
originated in India, South Asia. In East Asia, particularly in China
China
and Japan, Confucianism, Taoism
Taoism
and Zen
Zen
Buddhism took shape. As of 2012, Hinduism
Hinduism
has around 1.1 billion adherents. The faith represents around 25% of Asia's population and is the second largest religion in Asia. However, it is mostly concentrated in South Asia. Over 80% of the populations of both India
India
and Nepal
Nepal
adhere to Hinduism, alongside significant communities in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Bali, Indonesia. Many overseas Indians in countries such as Burma, Singapore
Singapore
and Malaysia
Malaysia
also adhere to Hinduism. Buddhism
Buddhism
has a great following in mainland Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and East Asia. Buddhism
Buddhism
is the religion of the majority of the populations of Cambodia
Cambodia
(96%),[68] Thailand
Thailand
(95%),[69] Burma
Burma
(80–89%),[70] Japan (36–96%),[71] Bhutan
Bhutan
(75–84%),[72] Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(70%),[73] Laos (60–67%)[74] and Mongolia
Mongolia
(53–93%).[75] Large Buddhist
Buddhist
populations also exist in Singapore
Singapore
(33–51%),[76] Taiwan (35–93%),[77][78][79][80] South Korea
South Korea
(23–50%),[81] Malaysia (19–21%),[82] Nepal
Nepal
(9–11%),[83] Vietnam
Vietnam
(10–75%),[84] China (20–50%),[85] North Korea
North Korea
(2–14%),[86][87][88] and small communities in India
India
and Bangladesh. In many Chinese communities, Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
is easily syncretized with Taoism, thus exact religious statistics is difficult to obtain and may be understated or overstated. The Communist-governed countries of China, Vietnam
Vietnam
and North Korea
North Korea
are officially atheist, thus the number of Buddhists and other religious adherents may be under-reported. Jainism
Jainism
is found mainly in India
India
and in oversea Indian communities such as the United States and Malaysia. Sikhism
Sikhism
is found in Northern India
India
and amongst overseas Indian communities in other parts of Asia, especially Southeast Asia. Confucianism
Confucianism
is found predominantly in Mainland China, South Korea, Taiwan
Taiwan
and in overseas Chinese populations. Taoism
Taoism
is found mainly in Mainland China, Taiwan, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore. Taoism
Taoism
is easily syncretized with Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
for many Chinese, thus exact religious statistics is difficult to obtain and may be understated or overstated.

Japanese wedding at the Meiji Shrine

Hindu festival celebrated by Singapore's Tamil community

Orthodox cross procession in Novosibirsk

Catholic procession of the Black Nazarene
Black Nazarene
in Manila

Muslim men praying in Turkey

The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch
Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch
of the Entrance of the Theotokos in Hama, Syria

The Monastery of St. Matthew, located atop Mount Alfaf
Mount Alfaf
in northern Iraq, is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence.

Cathedral of Saint Ephrem
Saint Ephrem
in Aleppo, Syria

The Church of São António de Motael, Dili

Maronite Church
Maronite Church
of Saidet et Tallé in Deir el Qamar, Lebanon

Modern conflicts

US forces drop Napalm
Napalm
on suspected Viet Cong
Viet Cong
positions in 1965

Wounded civilians arrive at a hospital in Aleppo
Aleppo
during the Syrian Civil War, October 2012

Some of the events pivotal in the Asia
Asia
territory related to the relationship with the outside world in the post- Second World War
Second World War
were:

The Chinese Civil War The Kashmir
Kashmir
conflict The Insurgency in Northeast India The Korean War The French- Indochina
Indochina
War The Vietnam
Vietnam
War The Indonesia– Malaysia
Malaysia
confrontation The Sino-Vietnamese War The Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War The Yom Kippur War The Iranian Revolution The Soviet war in Afghanistan The Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War The Indonesian occupation of East Timor The Cambodian Killing Fields The Insurgency in Laos The Lebanese Civil War The Sri Lankan Civil War The Dissolution of the Soviet Union The Gulf War The Nepalese Civil War The India- Pakistan
Pakistan
Wars The Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War The War in Afghanistan The Iraq
Iraq
War The 2006 Thai coup d'état The Burmese Civil War The Saffron Revolution The Arab Spring The Arab–Israeli conflict The Syrian Civil War The Sino-Indian War The 2014 Thai coup d'état The Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

Culture

This section needs expansion with: More information about general cultural topics other than Nobel prizes. You can help by adding to it. (June 2011)

Main article: Culture of Asia Nobel prizes

Bengali polymath Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
was awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Literature in 1913, and became Asia's first Nobel laureate

The polymath Rabindranath Tagore, a Bengali poet, dramatist, and writer from Santiniketan, now in West Bengal, India, became in 1913 the first Asian Nobel laureate. He won his Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature for notable impact his prose works and poetic thought had on English, French, and other national literatures of Europe
Europe
and the Americas. He is also the writer of the national anthems of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and India. Other Asian writers who won Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for literature include Yasunari Kawabata
Yasunari Kawabata
(Japan, 1968), Kenzaburō Ōe
Kenzaburō Ōe
(Japan, 1994), Gao Xingjian (China, 2000), Orhan Pamuk
Orhan Pamuk
(Turkey, 2006), and Mo Yan
Mo Yan
(China, 2012). Some may consider the American writer, Pearl S. Buck, an honorary Asian Nobel laureate, having spent considerable time in China as the daughter of missionaries, and based many of her novels, namely The Good Earth
Earth
(1931) and The Mother (1933), as well as the biographies of her parents of their time in China, The Exile and Fighting Angel, all of which earned her the Literature prize in 1938. Also, Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
of India
India
and Shirin Ebadi
Shirin Ebadi
of Iran
Iran
were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their significant and pioneering efforts for democracy and human rights, especially for the rights of women and children. Ebadi is the first Iranian and the first Muslim woman to receive the prize. Another Nobel Peace Prize winner is Aung San Suu Kyi from Burma
Burma
for her peaceful and non-violent struggle under a military dictatorship in Burma. She is a nonviolent pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma (Myanmar) and a noted prisoner of conscience. She is a Buddhist
Buddhist
and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for "his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China" on 8 October 2010. He is the first Chinese citizen to be awarded a Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
of any kind while residing in China. In 2014, Kailash Satyarthi
Kailash Satyarthi
from India
India
and Malala Yousafzai
Malala Yousafzai
from Pakistan
Pakistan
were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education". Sir C. V. Raman
C. V. Raman
is the first Asian to get a Nobel prize in Sciences. He won the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him". Japan
Japan
has won the most Nobel Prizes of any Asian nation with 24 followed by India
India
which has won 13. Amartya Sen, (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist who was awarded the 1998 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his contributions to welfare economics and social choice theory, and for his interest in the problems of society's poorest members. Other Asian Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winners include Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Abdus Salam, Malala Yousafzai, Robert Aumann, Menachem Begin, Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Daniel Kahneman, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin, Ada Yonath, Yasser Arafat, José Ramos-Horta
José Ramos-Horta
and Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo of Timor
Timor
Leste, Kim Dae-jung, and 13 Japanese scientists. Most of the said awardees are from Japan
Japan
and Israel
Israel
except for Chandrasekhar and Raman (India), Abdus Salam
Abdus Salam
and Malala yousafzai, (Pakistan), Arafat (Palestinian Territories), Kim (South Korea), and Horta and Belo ( Timor
Timor
Leste). In 2006, Dr. Muhammad Yunus
Muhammad Yunus
of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for the establishment of Grameen Bank, a community development bank that lends money to poor people, especially women in Bangladesh. Dr. Yunus received his PhD in economics from Vanderbilt University, United States. He is internationally known for the concept of micro credit which allows poor and destitute people with little or no collateral to borrow money. The borrowers typically pay back money within the specified period and the incidence of default is very low. The Dalai Lama has received approximately eighty-four awards over his spiritual and political career.[89] On 22 June 2006, he became one of only four people ever to be recognized with Honorary Citizenship by the Governor General of Canada. On 28 May 2005, he received the Christmas Humphreys Award from the Buddhist
Buddhist
Society in the United Kingdom. Most notable was the Nobel Peace Prize, presented in Oslo, Norway on 10 December 1989. Political geography Main article: Politics of Asia See also: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia

From 1841 to 1997, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
was a British colony.

Iran China Saudi Arabia Japan Kazakhstan India Mongolia Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Vietnam Singapore South Korea North Korea Afghanistan Pakistan Thailand Laos Cambodia East Timor Brunei Myanmar Bhutan Bangladesh Nepal Taiwan Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Oman Yemen UAE Qat. Bah. Kuw. Iraq Jordan Israel Syria Turkey Georgia Azer. Armenia Cyp. Egypt Maldives Sri Lanka Russia H.K. Macau

Flag Name Population[2] (2016) Area (km²) Capital

Afghanistan 34,656,032 647,500 Kabul

Armenia 2,924,816 29,743 Yerevan

Azerbaijan[90] 9,725,376 86,600 Baku

Bahrain 1,425,171 760 Manama

Bangladesh 162,951,560 147,570 Dhaka

Bhutan 797,765 38,394 Thimphu

Brunei 423,196 5,765 Bandar Seri Begawan

Cambodia 15,762,370 181,035 Phnom Penh

China
China
(PRC) 1,403,500,365 9,596,961 Beijing

Cyprus 1,170,125 9,251 Nicosia

East Timor 1,268,671 14,874 Dili

Egypt[90] 95,688,681 1,010,408 Cairo

Georgia[90] 3,925,405 69,700 Tbilisi

India 1,324,171,354 3,287,263 New Delhi

Indonesia[90] 261,115,456 1,904,569 Jakarta

Iran 80,277,428 1,648,195 Tehran

Iraq 37,202,572 438,317 Baghdad

Israel 8,191,828 20,770 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(disputed)

Japan 127,748,513 377,915 Tokyo

Jordan 9,455,802 89,342 Amman

Kazakhstan[90] 17,987,736 2,724,900 Astana

Kuwait 4,052,584 17,818 Kuwait
Kuwait
City

Kyrgyzstan 5,955,734 199,951 Bishkek

Laos 6,758,353 236,800 Vientiane

Lebanon 6,006,668 10,400 Beirut

Malaysia 31,187,265 329,847 Kuala Lumpur

Maldives 427,756 298 Malé

Mongolia 3,027,398 1,564,116 Ulaanbaatar

Myanmar 52,885,223 676,578 Naypyidaw

Nepal 28,982,771 147,181 Kathmandu

North Korea 25,368,620 120,538 Pyongyang

Oman 4,424,762 309,500 Muscat

Pakistan 193,203,476 796,095 Islamabad

Palestine 4,790,705 6,220 Ramallah (Jerusalem) (claimed)

Philippines 103,320,222 343,448 Manila

Qatar 2,569,804 11,586 Doha

Russia[90] 143,964,513 17,098,242 Moscow

Saudi Arabia 32,275,687 2,149,690 Riyadh

Singapore 5,622,455 697 Singapore

South Korea 50,791,919 100,210 Seoul

Sri Lanka 20,798,492 65,610 Colombo

Syria 18,430,453 185,180 Damascus

Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) 23,556,706 36,193 Taipei

Tajikistan 8,734,951 143,100 Dushanbe

Thailand 68,863,514 513,120 Bangkok

Turkey[91] 79,512,426 783,562 Ankara

Turkmenistan 5,662,544 488,100 Ashgabat

United Arab Emirates 9,269,612 83,600 Abu Dhabi

Uzbekistan 31,446,795 447,400 Tashkent

Vietnam 94,569,072 331,212 Hanoi

Yemen 27,584,213 527,968 Sana'a

Within the above-mentioned states are several partially recognized countries with limited to no international recognition. None of them are members of the UN:

Flag Name Population Area (km²) Capital

Abkhazia 242,862 8,660 Sukhumi

Artsakh 146,573 11,458 Stepanakert

Northern Cyprus 285,356 3,355 Nicosia

South Ossetia 51,547 3,900 Tskhinvali

See also Main articles: Outline of Asia
Outline of Asia
and Index of Asia-related articles References to articles:

Subregions of Asia

Special
Special
topics:

Asian Century Asian cuisine Asian furniture Asian Games Asian Monetary Unit Asian people Eastern world Eurasia Far East East Asia Southeast Asia South Asia Central Asia Fauna of Asia Flags of Asia Middle East

Eastern Mediterranean Levant Near East

Pan-Asianism

Lists:

List of cities in Asia List of metropolitan areas in Asia
List of metropolitan areas in Asia
by population List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia

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only): International Religious Freedom Report 2007". US Department of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 15 September 2006. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.  ^ "CThe World Factbook". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.  ^ "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.  ^ "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.  ^ "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.  ^ "Chinese Han Nationality: Language, Religion, Customs". Travelchinaguide.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.  ^ "Culture of North Korea
North Korea
– Alternative name, History and ethnic relations". Countries and Their Cultures. Advameg Inc. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2009.  ^ "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2017.  ^ Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs (2009). "Background Note: North Korea". U.S. State Department. Archived from the original on 1 July 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2009.  ^ His Holiness's Teachings at TCV. "A Brief Biography – The Office of His Holiness The Dalai Lama". Dalailama.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.  ^ a b c d e f transcontinental country. ^ Eastern Thrace
Eastern Thrace
region of Turkey
Turkey
is in Europe. Therefore Turkey
Turkey
is a transcontinental country.

Bibliography

Find more aboutAsiaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Lewis, Martin W.; Wigen, Kären (1997). The myth of continents: a critique of metageography. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20743-2.  Ventris, Michael; Chadwick, John (1973). Documents in Mycenaean Greek (2nd ed.). Cambridge: University Press. 

Further reading

Higham, Charles. Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Facts on File
File
library of world history. New York: Facts On File, 2004. Kamal, Niraj. "Arise Asia: Respond to White Peril". New Delhi:Wordsmith,2002, ISBN 978-81-87412-08-3 Kapadia, Feroz, and Mandira Mukherjee. Encyclopaedia of Asian Culture and Society. New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 1999. Levinson, David, and Karen Christensen. Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002.

External links

"Display Maps". The Soil Maps of Asia. European Digital Archive of Soil Maps – EuDASM. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.  " Asia
Asia
Maps". Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection. University of Texas Libraries. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011.  "Asia". Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.  Bowring, Philip (12 February 1987). "What is Asia?". Eastern Economic Review. Columbia University Asia
Asia
For Educators. 135 (7). 

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