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Ashura
Ashura
(Arabic: عاشوراء‎ ʻĀshūrā’, colloquially: /ʕa(ː)ˈʃuːraʔ/; Urdu: عاشورا‬‎; Persian: عاشورا‎ /ɒːʃuːˈɾɒ/; Azerbaijani and Turkish: Aşura Günü or English: Day of Remembrance), and in Jamaica
Jamaica
and Trinidad and Tobago 'Hussay' or Hosay, is the tenth day of Muharram
Muharram
in the Islamic calendar.[8] In Sunni
Sunni
Islam, Ashura
Ashura
also marks the day that Moses
Moses
and the Israelites
Israelites
were saved from Pharaoh by God creating a path in the Sea, and is the Islamic equivalent to Yom Kippur.[9][10][11][12] Other commemorations include Noah
Noah
leaving the Ark and Muhammad's arrival in Medina.[13] For the majority of Shi'a
Shi'a
Muslims, Ashura
Ashura
marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram,[8] and commemorates the death of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad
Muhammad
at the Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
on 10  Muharram
Muharram
in the year 61 AH (in AHt: October 10, 680 CE).[14] Sunni
Sunni
Muslims
Muslims
have the same accounts of these events, however ceremonial mourning did not become a custom - although poems, eulogizing and recounting the events were and continue to be common.[15][16][17] Mourning for the incident began almost immediately after the Battle of Karbala. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
during the Umayyad
Umayyad
and Abbasid
Abbasid
era, and the earliest public mourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty.[18] In Afghanistan,[19] Iran,[20] Iraq,[21] Lebanon,[22] Azerbaijan, Bahrain,[23] India
India
[24] and Pakistan,[25] Ashura
Ashura
has become a national holiday, and many ethnic and religious communities participate in it.[26][27]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Historical background 3 Commemoration of the death of Husayn ibn Ali

3.1 History of the commemoration by Shi'a 3.2 Significance for Shi'as 3.3 Azadari (mourning) rituals 3.4 Popular customs

4 Significance for Sunni
Sunni
Muslims 5 Socio-political aspects 6 Violence during Ashura 7 In the Gregorian calendar 8 See also 9 Notes 10 Citations 11 References 12 External links

Etymology[edit] The root of the word Ashura
Ashura
has the meaning of tenth in Semitic languages; hence the name of the remembrance, literally translated, means "the tenth day". According to the orientalist A. J. Wensinck, the name is derived from the Hebrew ʿāsōr, with the Aramaic determinative ending.[28] The day is indeed the tenth day of the month, although some Islamic scholars offer up different etymologies. In his book Ghuniyatut Talibin, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani writes that Islamic scholars differ as to why this day is known as Ashura, some of them suggesting that it is the tenth most important day with which God has blessed Muslims.[29] Historical background[edit] Main article: Battle of Karbala The Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
took place within the crisis environment resulting from the succession of Yazid I.[30][31] Immediately after succession, Yazid instructed the governor of Medina
Medina
to compel Husayn and a few other prominent figures to pledge their allegiance (Bay'ah).[14] Husayn, however, refrained from making such a pledge, believing that Yazid was openly going against the teachings of Islam and changing the sunnah of Muhammad.[32][33] He, therefore, accompanied by his household, his sons, brothers, and the sons of Hasan left Medina
Medina
to seek asylum in Mecca.[14] On the other hand, the people in Kufa, when informed of Muawiyah's death, sent letters urging Husayn to join them and pledging to support him against the Umayyads. Husayn wrote back to them saying that he would send his cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel
Muslim ibn Aqeel
to report to him on the situation, and that, if he found them united as their letters indicated, he would speedily join them because an Imam
Imam
should act in accordance with the Quran
Quran
and uphold justice, proclaim the truth, and dedicate himself to the cause of God. The mission of Muslim was initially successful and according to reports 18,000 men pledged their allegiance. But the situation changed radically when Yazid appointed Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad
Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad
as the new governor of Kufa, ordering him to deal severely with Ibn Aqeel. Before news of the adverse turn of events had reached Mecca, Husayn set out for Kufa.[14] On the way, Husayn found that his messenger, Muslim ibn Aqeel, had been killed in Kufa. Husayn encountered the army of Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad along the route towards Kufa. Husayn addressed the Kufan army, reminding them that they had invited him to come because they were without an Imam. He told them that he intended to proceed to Kufa
Kufa
with their support, but if they were now opposed to his coming, he would return to where he had come from. In response, the army urged him to proceed by another route. Thus, he turned to the left and reached Karbala, where the army forced him not to go further and stop at a location that was without water.[14]

Name of the Karbala
Karbala
Martyr Husayn with Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
in Hagia Sophia

Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad, the governor instructed Umar ibn Sa'ad, the head of the Kufan army, to offer Ḥusayn and his supporters the opportunity to swear allegiance to Yazid. He also ordered Umar ibn Sa'ad to cut off Husayn and his followers from access to the water of the Euphrates.[14] On the next morning, Umar ibn Sa'ad arranged the Kufan army in battle order.[14] The Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
lasted from morning to sunset on October 10, 680 (Muharram 10, 61 AH). Husayn's small group of companions and family members (in total around 72 men and the women and children)[a][35][36] fought against a large army under the command of Umar ibn Sa'ad and were killed near the river (Euphrates), from which they were not allowed to get water. The renowned historian Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī
Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī
states:

… [T]hen fire was set to their camp and the bodies were trampled by the hoofs of the horses; nobody in the history of the human kind has seen such atrocities.[37]

Once the Umayyad
Umayyad
troops had murdered Husayn and his male followers, they looted the tents, stripped the women of their jewelry, and took the skin upon which Zain al-Abidin was prostrate. Husayn's sister Zaynab was taken along with the enslaved women to the caliph in Damascus
Damascus
when she was imprisoned and after a year eventually was allowed to return to Medina.[38][39] Commemoration of the death of Husayn ibn Ali[edit] Main article: Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali

A series of articles on

Husayn ibn Ali

Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
in Islamic calligraphy

Life

Family tree Battle of Karbala

Remembrance

Maqtal al-Husayn Casualties of Husayn's caravan in Karbala Sermon of Zaynab bint Ali
Zaynab bint Ali
in the court of Yazid Sermon of Ali ibn Husayn in Damascus Mourning of Muharram
Muharram
(Majlis-e-Aza) Day of Ashura Day of Tasu'a Lohoof Azadari in Lucknow Arba'een Imam
Imam
Husayn Shrine Ziyarat of Ashura Hussainiya Marsiya Noha Maddahi Soaz Ta'zieh Tabuik Hosay Chehel Minbari Chup Tazia Tatbir Hussaini Dalan Rawda Khwani

Perspectives

The Twelve Imams The Fourteen Infallibles

Ashura
Ashura
portal

v t e

Millions of Shia
Shia
Muslims
Muslims
gather around the Husayn Mosque in Karbala after making the pilgrimage on foot during Arba'een, which is a Shia religious observation that occurs 40 days after the Day of Ashura.

History of the commemoration by Shi'a[edit] According to Ignác Goldziher,

[E]ver since the black day of Karbala, the history of this family … has been a continuous series of sufferings and persecutions. These are narrated in poetry and prose, in a richly cultivated literature of martyrologies …'More touching than the tears of the Shi'is' has even become an Arabic proverb.[40]

The first assembly (majlis) of the Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
is said to have been held by Zaynab in prison. In Damascus, too, she is reported to have delivered a poignant oration. The prison sentence ended when Husayn's 3-year-old daughter, Sakina, died in captivity. She would often cry in prison to be allowed to see her father. She is believed to have died when she saw her father's mutilated head. Her death caused an uproar in the city, and Yazid, fearing a potential uprising, freed the captives.[41] Imam
Imam
Zayn Al Abidin said the following:

It is said that for twenty years whenever food was placed before him, he would weep. One day a servant said to him, 'O son of Allah's Messenger! Is it not time for your sorrow to come to an end?' He replied, 'Woe upon you! Jacob
Jacob
the prophet had twelve sons, and Allah made one of them disappear. His eyes turned white from constant weeping, his head turned grey out of sorrow, and his back became bent in gloom,[b] though his son was alive in this world. But I watched while my father, my brother, my uncle, and seventeen members of my family were slaughtered all around me. How should my sorrow come to an end?'[c] [42][43]

Husayn's grave became a pilgrimage site among Shia
Shia
Muslims
Muslims
only a few years after his death. A tradition quickly developed of pilgrimage to the Imam
Imam
Husayn Shrine
Shrine
and the other Karbala
Karbala
martyrs, known as Ziarat ashura.[44] The Umayyad
Umayyad
and Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs tried to prevent construction of the shrines and discouraged pilgrimage to the sites.[45] The tomb and its annexes were destroyed by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
in 850–851 and Shi'a
Shi'a
pilgrimage was prohibited, but shrines in Karbala
Karbala
and Najaf
Najaf
were built by the Buwayhid
Buwayhid
emir 'Adud al-Daula in 979–80.[46] Public rites of remembrance for Husayn's martyrdom developed from the early pilgrimages.[47] Under the Buyid dynasty, Mu'izz ad-Dawla officiated at public commemoration of Ashura
Ashura
in Baghdad.[48] These commemorations were also encouraged in Egypt by the Fatimid
Fatimid
caliph al-'Aziz.[49] With the recognition of Twelvers
Twelvers
as the official religion by the Safavids, Mourning of Muharram
Muharram
extended throughout the first ten days of Muharram.[44] Significance for Shi'as[edit]

10th of the month of Muharrem: The Ashure
Ashure
Day - Huseyn bin Ali
Huseyn bin Ali
was murdered at Kerbela
Kerbela
[50] Remembrance by Jafaris, Qizilbash
Qizilbash
Alevi-Turks and Bektashis together in Ottoman Empire.

On the 10th of the month of Muharrem – The Ashure
Ashure
Day – Huseyn bin Ali
Huseyn bin Ali
was murdered at Kerbela
Kerbela
[51] Remembrance by Jafaris, Qizilbash
Qizilbash
Alevi-Turks, and Bektashis together in Ottoman Empire This day is of particular significance to Twelver
Twelver
Shi'a
Shi'a
and Alawites, who consider Husayn (the grandson of Muhammad) Ahl al-Bayt, the third Imam
Imam
to be the rightful successor of Muhammad.

Shi'a
Shi'a
devotees congregate outside the Sydney Opera House
Sydney Opera House
in Australia to commemorate Husayn.

Mourning of Muharram
Muharram
in Iran

Ashura
Ashura
procession in Tehran, Iran

According to Kamran Scot Aghaie, "The symbols and rituals of Ashura have evolved over time and have meant different things to different people. However, at the core of the symbolism of Ashura
Ashura
is the moral dichotomy between worldly injustice and corruption on the one hand and God-centered justice, piety, sacrifice and perseverance on the other. Also, Shiite Muslims
Muslims
consider the remembrance of the tragic events of Ashura
Ashura
to be an importance way of worshipping God in a spiritual or mystical way."[52] Shi'as make pilgrimages on Ashura, as they do forty days later on Arba'een, to the Mashhad
Mashhad
al-Husayn, the shrine in Karbala, Iraq, that is traditionally held to be Husayn's tomb. On this day Shi'a
Shi'a
are in remembrance, and mourning attire is worn. They refrain from listening to or playing music, since Arabic culture generally considers music impolite during death rituals. It is a time for sorrow and for showing respect for the person's passing, and it is also a time for self-reflection, when one commits oneself completely to the mourning of Husayn. Shi'as do not plan weddings and parties on this date. They mourn by crying and listening to recollections of the tragedy and sermons on how Husayn and his family were martyred. This is intended to connect them with Husayn's suffering and martyrdom, and the sacrifices he made to keep Islam alive. Husayn's martyrdom is widely interpreted by Shi'as a symbol of the struggle against injustice, tyranny, and oppression.[53] Shi'as believe the Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
was between the forces of good and evil, with Husayn representing good and Yazid representing evil.[54] Shia Imams
Shia Imams
strongly insist that the day of Ashura
Ashura
should not be celebrated as a day of joy and festivity. The day of Ashura, according to Eighth Shia
Shia
Imam
Imam
Ali al-Rida, must be observed as a day of rest, sorrow, and total disregard of worldly matters.[55] Some of the events associated with Ashura
Ashura
are held in special congregation halls known as "Imambargah" and Hussainia.[56] Azadari (mourning) rituals[edit] See also: Nakhl Gardani

Traditional Shi'a
Shi'a
Talwar
Talwar
zani

Suffering and cutting the body with knives or chains (matam) was banned by the Shi'a
Shi'a
Marja'
Marja'
Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran, and Hezbollah in Lebanon, but is still practiced in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and India.[57][58] Other marjas like Mohammad al-Husayni al-Shirazi promote hemic flagellation rituals as a way of preserving the revolution of Imam
Imam
al-Husayn.[57] On Ashura, very few Shi'as observe mourning with a blood donation, which is called "Qame Zani", and flailing. This mourning is considered to be a shameless way for most Shiites and most of Shiites are against this kind of mourning.[59]

Ritual scourge for use in the Ashura
Ashura
procession. Syria, before 1974.

Certain traditional flagellation rituals such as Talwar
Talwar
zani (talwar ka matam or sometimes tatbir) use a sword. Other rituals such as zanjeer zani or zanjeer matam involve the use of a zanjeer (a chain with blades).[60] These religious customs show solidarity with Husayn and his family. Through them, people mourn Husayn's death and express regret for the fact that they were not present at the battle to fight and save Husayn and his family.[61][62] In some areas, such as in the Shi'a
Shi'a
suburb of Beirut, Shi'a communities organize blood donation drives with organizations like the Red Cross
Red Cross
or the Red Crescent
Red Crescent
on Ashura
Ashura
as a replacement for self-flagellation rituals like tatbir and qame zani.[57] Some Shi'a
Shi'a
believe that taking part in Ashura
Ashura
washes away their sins.[63] A popular Shi'a
Shi'a
saying has it that "a single tear shed for Husayn washes away a hundred sins".[64] Popular customs[edit]

Indian Shia
Shia
Muslims
Muslims
carry out a Ta'ziya procession on day of Ashura
Ashura
in Barabanki, India, January 2009.

For Shi'as, commemoration of Ashura
Ashura
is not a festival but rather a sad event, while Sunni
Sunni
Muslims
Muslims
view it as a victory God gave to Moses. This victory is the very reason, as Sunni
Sunni
Muslims
Muslims
believe, that Muhammad
Muhammad
recommended fasting on this day according to a Sunni
Sunni
hadith. For Shi'as, it is a period of intense grief and mourning. Mourners congregate at a mosque for sorrowful, poetic recitations such as marsiya, noha, latmiya, and soaz performed in memory of the martyrdom of Husayn, lamenting and grieving to the tune of beating drums and chants of "Ya Hussain". Also, Ulamas give sermons with themes of Husayn's personality and position in Islam, and the history of his uprising. The Sheikh of the mosque retells the Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
to allow his listeners to relive the pain and sorrow endured by Husayn and his family. In Arab countries such as Iraq
Iraq
and Lebanon
Lebanon
they read Maqtal Al-Husayn. In some places, such as Iran, Iraq, and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, passion plays known as Ta'zieh
Ta'zieh
are performed, reenacting the Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
and the suffering and martyrdom of Husayn at the hands of Yazid.[35][36] In the Caribbean islands of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
and Jamaica
Jamaica
Ahsura, known locally as 'Hussay' or Hosay
Hosay
is commemorated for the grandson of Muhammad, but it's celebration has adopted influence from other religions including Roman Catholic, Hindu, and Baptists, making it a mixture of different cultures and religion. The event is attended by both Muslims
Muslims
and non- Muslims
Muslims
depicting an environment of mutual respect and tolerance. In Jamaica
Jamaica
it is celebrated throughout the island. In the past, every plantation in each parish celebrated Hosay. Today it has been called an Indian carnival and is perhaps most well known in Clarendon where it is celebrated each August.[65][66]

A historic Ashura
Ashura
celebration in Jamaica, which is known locally as Hussay or Hosay.

For the duration of the remembrance, it is customary for mosques and some people to provide free meals (nazri) on certain nights of the month to all people.. People donate food and Middle Eastern sweets to the mosque.These meals are viewed as being special and holy, as they have been consecrated in the name of Husayn, and thus partaking of them is considered an act of communion with God, Hussain, and humanity.[67] Shias do not fast on the day of Ashura, as per a hadith that prohibits it. Fasting in Islam is reserved for the days where Muslims
Muslims
thank God for things, and the 10th of Muharram
Muharram
is a day when the Prophet's family was slaughtered by Yazid, the son of Muawiya, second Umayyad Sunni
Sunni
caliph.

Shia
Shia
Muslims
Muslims
carry out an Al'am procession on day of Ashura
Ashura
in Barabanki, India, January 2009.

Tabuiks being lowered into the sea in Pariaman, Indonesia, by Shia Muslims.

Nakhl gardani in cities and villages of Iran

Participants congregate in public processions for ceremonial chest-beating (matham/latmiya) as a display of their devotion to Husayn, in remembrance of his suffering and to preach that oppression will not last in the face of truth and justice.[68] Others pay tribute to the time period by holding a Majlis, during which Surahs from the Quran
Quran
and Maqtal Al-Husayn are read. Today in Indonesia, the event is known as Tabuik
Tabuik
(in the Minangkabau language) or Tabut (in Indonesian). Tabuik
Tabuik
is the local manifestation of the Shi'a
Shi'a
Muslim Mourning of Muharram
Muharram
among the Minangkabau people in the coastal regions of West Sumatra, particularly in the city of Pariaman. In Iran, people reenact their Imam's funeral by carrying a huge wooden structure called a "nakhl", which is usually carried by several hundred men.[69] In countries like Turkey, there is the custom of eating Noah's Pudding (Ashure) as this day is known as Aşure in Turkish. There is a tradition among Shia
Shia
Muslims
Muslims
of bloodletting on the day of Ashura. Practitioners use chains and the blunt end of swords to self-flagellate. This is not without controversy however as some Shia clerics have denounced the practice saying "it creates a backward and negative image of their community.". Believers are instead encouraged to donate blood to those in need.[70] Significance for Sunni
Sunni
Muslims[edit] In a tradition unrelated to Ashura
Ashura
and Karbala, some Sunni
Sunni
Muslims fast on the day of Ashura
Ashura
based on narrations attributed to Muhammad. Some other Sunnis accept Ashura
Ashura
as an important day due to the martyrdom of Husayn and the significance of the events at Karbala. The fasting is to commemorate the day when Moses
Moses
and his followers were saved from Pharaoh by Allah by creating a path in the Red Sea, an event not recorded in independent sources.[71] According to Muslim tradition, the Jews also fasted on the tenth day. According to Sunni Muslim tradition, Ibn Abbas narrates that Muhammad
Muhammad
came to Medina
Medina
and saw the Jews fasting on the tenth day of Muharram. He asked, "What is this?" They said, "This is a good day, this is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy and Musa (Moses) fasted on this day." He said, "We have more claim over Musa than you." So he fasted on the day and told the people to fast.[9][10][72][73] This tenth in question is believed to be the tenth of Jewish month of Tishri, which is Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
in Judaism.[74] The Torah designates the tenth day of the seventh month as holy and a fast (Lev. 16, Lev. 23, Num. 29). The word "tenth" in Hebrew is Asarah or Asharah (עשרה‬), which is from the same semitic root A-SH-R. According to this tradition, Muhammad
Muhammad
continued to observe the veneration of Ashura
Ashura
modeled on its Jewish prototype in late September until shortly before his death, which the verse of Nasi'
Nasi'
was revealed and the Jewish-type calendar adjustments of the Muslims
Muslims
became prohibited. From then on, Ashura
Ashura
became distinct from its Jewish predecessor of Yom Kippur.[75]

A tadjah at Hosay
Hosay
in Port of Spain
Port of Spain
during the 1950s

In some countries, other religious communities commemorate this event. According to hadith record in Sahih Bukhari, Ashura
Ashura
was already known as a commemorative day during which some Makkah residents used to observe customary fasting. Muhammad
Muhammad
fasted on the day of Ashura, 10th Muharram, in Makkah. When fasting during the month of Ramadan
Ramadan
became obligatory, the fast of Ashura
Ashura
was made non-compulsory. This was narrated by Ayesha, wife of Muhammad
Muhammad
Sahih Muslim, (Hadith-2499). In hijrah event, when Muhammad
Muhammad
led his followers to Medina, he found the Jews of that area likewise observing fasts on the day of Ashura. Seeing this, Muhammad
Muhammad
affirmed the Islamic claim to the fast, and from then on Muslims
Muslims
have fasted on combinations of two or three consecutive days including the 10th of Muharram
Muharram
(e.g. the 9th and 10th or the 10th and 11th).[9][10] A companion of Muhammad, Ibn Abbas, reports that Muhammad
Muhammad
went to Madina and found the Jews fasting on the tenth of Muharram. Muhammad inquired of them, "What is the significance of this day on which you fast?" They replied, "This is a good day, the day on which God rescued the children of Israel from their enemy. So, Moses
Moses
fasted this day." Muhammad
Muhammad
said, "We have more claim over Moses
Moses
than you." Muhammad
Muhammad
then fasted on that day and ordered Muslims
Muslims
to fast also.[76] Sunnis regard fasting during Ashura
Ashura
as recommended, though not obligatory, having been superseded by the Ramadan
Ramadan
fast. Sahih Muslim, (Hadith-2499)[77] Socio-political aspects[edit]

Sham Ghariban (the first night in mourn of Husayn) in Imam
Imam
Reza Shrine, Mashhad, Iran

Commemoration of Ashura
Ashura
has great socio-political value for the Shi'a, who have been a minority throughout their history. According to the prevailing conditions at the time of the commemoration, such reminiscences may become a framework for implicit dissent or explicit protest. It was, for instance, used during the Islamic Revolution
Islamic Revolution
of Iran, the Lebanese Civil War, the Lebanese resistance against the Israeli military presence and in the 1990s Uprising in Bahrain. Sometimes the Ashura
Ashura
commemorations associate the memory of Al-Husayn's martyrdom with the conditions of Islam and Muslims
Muslims
in reference to Husayn's famous quote on the day of Ashura: "Every day is Ashura, every land is Karbala".[78] From the period of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution
Iranian Constitutional Revolution
(1905–1911) onward, mourning gatherings increasingly assumed a political aspect. Following an old established tradition, preachers compared the oppressors of the time with Imam
Imam
Husayn's enemies, the umayyads.[79] The political function of commemoration was very marked in the years leading up to the Islamic Revolution
Islamic Revolution
of 1978–79, as well as during the revolution itself. In addition, the implicit self-identification of the Muslim revolutionaries with Imam
Imam
Husayn led to a blossoming of the cult of the martyr, expressed most vividly, perhaps, in the vast cemetery of Behesht-e Zahra, to the south of Tehran, where the martyrs of the revolution and the war against Iraq
Iraq
are buried.[79] On the other hand, some governments have banned this commemoration. In the 1930s Reza Shah
Reza Shah
forbade it in Iran. The regime of Saddam Hussein saw this as a potential threat and banned Ashura
Ashura
commemorations for many years. In the 1884 Hosay
Hosay
massacre, 22 people were killed in Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
when civilians attempted to carry out the Ashura rites, locally known as Hosay, in defiance of the British colonial authorities. Violence during Ashura[edit] Terrorist attacks against Muslims
Muslims
have occurred in several countries, on the day of Ashurra.[80] The repeated experience of violence at Ashura
Ashura
has produced an "interesting" feedback effect in Shia history.[81]

1994 – explosion of a bomb at the Imam
Imam
Reza shrine, June 20, in Mashhad, Iran, 20 people killed[82] 2004 – bomb attacks, during Shi'a
Shi'a
pilgrimage to Karbala, March 2, Karbala, Iraq, 178 people killed and 5000 injured[83] 2008 – clashes, between Iraqi troops and members of a Shia
Shia
cult, January 19, Basra and Nasiriya, Iraq, 263 people killed[84] 2009 – explosion of a bomb, during the Ashura
Ashura
procession, December 28, Karachi, Pakistan, dozens of people killed and hundreds injured [85] 2010 – detention of 200 Shia
Shia
Muslims, at a shop house in Sri Gombak known as Hauzah Imam
Imam
Ali ar-Ridha
Ali ar-Ridha
(Hauzah ArRidha), December 15, Selangor[86] 2011 – explosion of a bomb, during the Ashura
Ashura
procession, December 28, Hilla and Baghdad, Iraq, December 5, 30 people killed [87] 2011 – suicide attack, during the Ashura
Ashura
procession, Kabul, Afghanistan, December 6, 63 people killed[88] 2015 – three explosions, during the Ashura
Ashura
procession, mosque in Dhaka, Bangladesh, October 24, one person killed and 80 people injured [89]

In the Gregorian calendar[edit] Main article: Islamic calendar While Ashura
Ashura
is always on the same day of the Islamic calendar, the date on the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
varies from year to year due to differences between the two calendars, since the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
is a lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is a solar calendar. Furthermore, the appearance of the crescent moon that is used to determine when each Islamic month begins varies from country to country due to the different geographic locations.[90]

AH Gregorian date

1437 2015, 24 October (Middle East)

1438 2016, 12 October (Middle East: Lebanon, Iraq, Iran)

1439 2017, 1 October (Middle East: Lebanon, Iraq, Iran) [91]

See also[edit]

Ashura
Ashura
portal Shia Islam
Shia Islam
portal

Ashoura (missile) Ashura
Ashura
in Morocco Bibi-Ka-Alam Day of Tasu'a Grand Ashura
Ashura
Procession In Kashmir List of casualties in Husayn's army at the Battle of Karbala Ziyarat Ashura

Notes[edit]

^ Except his young son, Ali, who was severely ill during that battle.[34] ^ Quran, 12:84 ^ From Shaykh as-Sadooq, al-Khisal; quoted in al-Ameen, A’yan, IV, 195. The same is quoted from Bin Shahraashoob's Manaqib in Bih’ar al-Anwar, XLVI, 108; Cf. similar accounts, Ibid, pp. 108–10

Citations[edit]

^ "Holidays in Iran
Iran
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References[edit]

Litvak, Meir (1998). Shi'i Scholars of Nineteenth-Century Iraq: The Ulama
Ulama
of Najaf
Najaf
and Karbala. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-89296-1 al Musawi, Muhsin (2006). Reading Iraq: Culture and Power and Conflict. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-070-6 al Mufid, al-Shaykh Muhammad
Muhammad
(December 1982 (1st ed.)). Kitab Al-Irshad. Tahrike Tarsile Quran. ISBN 0-940368-12-9, ISBN 978-0-940368-12-5 al-Azdi, abu Mikhnaf, Maqtal al-Husayn. Shia
Shia
Ithnasheri Community of Middlesex (PDF)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ashura.

/ Gordon B. Coutts (Scottish/American, 1868-1937) A Large Oil on Canvas Depicting "The Ashura
Ashura
Rituals, Tangier" (Arabic: عاشوراء ʻĀshūrā’ - Urdu: عاشورا - Persian: عاشورا - Turkish: Aşure Günü). Signed and inscribed: 'Gordon Coutts/TANGIER (lower right). Circa: 1920 Is Aashura a day of mourning or rejoicing? Ashura
Ashura
the Historical Significance Events on the day of Ashura Ashura
Ashura
Awareness Handouts Ashura
Ashura
An article by Encyclopædia Britannica Online Ashura
Ashura
in Iranian culture An article by Encyclopædia Britannica Online What is Ashura? (BBC News) What is Ashura? – By Abdul-Ilah As-Saadi Al Jazeera Ashura
Ashura
Australia – Official Website of the Annual Ashura
Ashura
Procession in Sydney, Australia

v t e

Mourning of Muharram

Events

Battle of Karbala

Figures

Husayn ibn Ali Ali Akbar ibn Husayn Ali Asghar ibn Husayn al-Abbas ibn Ali Zaynab bint Ali Sukayna bint Husayn Muslim ibn Aqeel

Places

Imam
Imam
Husayn Shrine Hussainiya

Holidays

Day of Ashura Arba'een

Customs

Majlis-e-Aza Marsia Noha Maddahi Soaz Ta'zieh Tatbir Tabuik Hosay Chup Tazia Rawda Khwani Hosseini infancy conference

Related portals

Ashura Shia
Shia
Islam

v t e

Islamic holidays
Islamic holidays
and observances

The two Eids

Eid al-Fitr Eid al-Adha

Other holidays and observances

Day of Arafah Day of Ashura Islamic New Year Arba'een1 Mawlid Lailat al Miraj Mid-Sha'ban Ramadan Laylat al-Qadr Eid al-Ghadir1 Mubahala1 Promised Messiah Day2 Promised Reformer Day2 Caliphate Day2

1 Shia
Shia
Muslim only 2 Ahmadi Muslim only

v t e

Holidays, observances, and celebrations in Algeria

January

New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(1) Yennayer
Yennayer
(12)

February

Valentine's Day
Valentine's Day
(14) Tafsut (28)

March

International Women's Day
International Women's Day
(8) Victory Day (19) World Water Day
World Water Day
(22) Maghrebi Blood Donation Day (30) Spring vacation (2 last weeks)

April

April Fools' Day
April Fools' Day
(1) Knowledge Day (16) Berber Spring (20) Earth Day
Earth Day
(22) Election Day (Thursday)

May

International Workers' Day
International Workers' Day
(1) World Press Freedom Day (3) Mother's Day
Mother's Day
(last Sunday)

June–July–August

Summer vacation (varies)

June

Children's Day
Children's Day
(1) Father's Day
Father's Day
(21)

July

Independence Day (5)

September

International Day of Peace
International Day of Peace
(21)

October

International Day of Non-Violence
International Day of Non-Violence
(2) Halloween
Halloween
(31)

November

Revolution Day (1)

December

Christmas Eve
Christmas Eve
(24) Christmas
Christmas
(25) New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
(31) Winter vacation (2 last weeks)

Varies (year round)

Hijri New Year's Day
New Year's Day
( Muharram
Muharram
1) Ashura
Ashura
( Muharram
Muharram
10) Mawlid
Mawlid
(Rabi' al-Awwal 12) Ramadan
Ramadan
( Ramadan
Ramadan
1) Laylat al-Qadr
Laylat al-Qadr
( Ramadan
Ramadan
27) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(Shawwal 1) Day of Arafah
Day of Arafah
(Dhu al-Hijjah 9) Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(Dhu al-Hijjah 10) Holi
Holi
(varies)

Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in Algeria, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays.

v t e

Public holidays in Pakistan

Kashmir Solidarity Day Pakistan
Pakistan
Day Labour Day Independence Day Iqbal Day Quaid-e-Azam Day Eid ul-Adha Eid-ul-Fitr Milad al-Nabi Day of Ashura Isra and

.