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The PILLARS OF ASHOKA are a series of columns dispersed throughout the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, erected or at least inscribed with edicts by the Mauryan king Ashoka
Ashoka
during his reign in the 3rd century BC. Of the pillars erected by him, twenty still survive including those with inscriptions of his edicts. Only a few with animal capitals survive of which seven complete specimens are known. Two pillars were relocated by Firuz Shah Tughlaq to Delhi. Several pillars were relocated later by Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
rulers, the animal capitals being removed. Averaging between 12 to 15 m (40 to 50 ft) in height, and weighing up to 50 tons each, the pillars were dragged, sometimes hundreds of miles, to where they were erected.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview

* 2 Complete list of the pillars

* 2.1 The capitals * 2.2 Minor Pillar Inscriptions

* 3 Description of the pillars

* 3.1 Pillars retaining their animals * 3.2 Pillar at Allahabad * 3.3 Pillars at Lauriya-Areraj and Lauriya-Nandangarh * 3.4 Erecting the Pillars * 3.5 Languages and script

* 4 Rediscoveries

* 5 Background of construction

* 5.1 Alternative theories

* 6 Later imitations of the pillars of Ashoka
Ashoka
* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

OVERVIEW

Abacus of the Ashokan Rampurva capital , 3rd century BCE.

The Pillars of Ashoka
Ashoka
are among the earliest known stone sculptural remains from India. Only another pillar fragment, the Pataliputra capital , is possibly from a slightly earlier date. It is thought that before the 3rd century BC, wood rather than stone was used as the main material for India
India
architectural constructions, and that stone may have been adopted following interaction with the Persians
Persians
and the Greeks
Greeks
. Ashoka
Ashoka
's pillar capital of Sarnath
Sarnath
. Ashokan capitals were highly realistic and used a characteristic polished finish, giving a shiny appearance to the stone surface. 3rd century BCE.

All the pillars of Ashoka
Ashoka
were built at Buddhist monasteries, many important sites from the life of the Buddha
Buddha
and places of pilgrimage. Some of the columns carry inscriptions addressed to the monks and nuns. Some were erected to commemorate visits by Ashoka. The traditional idea that all were originally quarried at Chunar , just south of Varanasi
Varanasi
and taken to their sites, before or after carving, "can no longer be confidently asserted", and instead it seems that the columns were carved in two types of stone. Some were of the spotted red and white sandstone from the region of Mathura, the others of buff-colored fine grained hard sandstone usually with small black spots quarried in the Chunar near Varanasi
Varanasi
. The uniformity of style in the pillar capitals suggests that they were all sculpted by craftsmen from the same region. It would therefore seem that stone was transported from Mathura and Chunar to the various sites where the pillars have been found, and there was cut and carved by craftsmen. A possible source of inspiration: Achaemenid
Achaemenid
column with lotus capital and animals, Persepolis
Persepolis
, 6th-4th c. BCE.

The pillars have four component parts in two pieces: the three sections of the capitals are made in a single piece, often of a different stone to that of the monolithic shaft to which they are attached by a large metal dowel . The shafts are always plain and smooth, circular in cross-section, slightly tapering upwards and always chiselled out of a single piece of stone. The lower parts of the capitals have the shape and appearance of a gently arched bell formed of lotus petals. The abaci are of two types: square and plain and circular and decorated and these are of different proportions. The crowning animals are masterpieces of Mauryan art , shown either seated or standing, always in the round and chiselled as a single piece with the abaci. Presumably all or most of the other columns that now lack them once had capitals and animals. Lion designs LEFT IMAGE: Vaishali lion of Ashoka. RIGHT IMAGE: Assyrian relief of a lion at Nineveh
Nineveh
(circa 640 BCE). Many stylistic elements (design of the whiskers, the eyes, the fur etc...) point to similarites.

Currently seven animal sculptures from Ashoka
Ashoka
pillars survive. These form "the first important group of Indian stone sculpture", though it is thought they derive from an existing tradition of wooden columns topped by animal sculptures in copper , none of which have survived. It is also possible that some of the stone pillars predate Ashoka's reign. There has been much discussion of the extent of influence from Achaemenid Persia , where the column capitals supporting the roofs at Persepolis
Persepolis
have similarities, and the "rather cold, hieratic style" of the Sarnath
Sarnath
Lion Capital of Ashoka
Ashoka
especially shows "obvious Achaemenid
Achaemenid
and Sargonid influence". Hellenistic influence has also been suggested.

Five of the pillars of Ashoka, two at Rampurva , one each at Vaishali , Lauriya-Araraj and Lauria Nandangarh possibly marked the course of the ancient Royal highway from Pataliputra
Pataliputra
to the Nepal
Nepal
valley. Several pillars were relocated by later Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
rulers, the animal capitals being removed.

COMPLETE LIST OF THE PILLARS

The two Chinese medieval pilgrim accounts record sightings of several columns that have now vanished: Faxian
Faxian
records six and Xuanzang fifteen, of which only five at most can be identified with surviving pillars. All surviving pillars, listed with any crowning animal sculptures and the edicts inscribed, are as follows: Geographical spread of known pillar capitals.

* Delhi-Topra , Feroz Shah Kotla
Feroz Shah Kotla
, Delhi
Delhi
(Pillar Edicts I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII; moved in 1356 CE from Topra Kalan
Topra Kalan
in Yamunanagar district of Haryana
Haryana
to Delhi
Delhi
by Firuz Shah Tughluq
Firuz Shah Tughluq
. * Delhi- Meerut , Delhi ridge , Delhi
Delhi
(Pillar Edicts I, II, III, IV, V, VI; moved from Meerut to Delhi
Delhi
by Firuz Shah Tughluq
Firuz Shah Tughluq
in 1356. * Lauriya Araraj , Champaran, Bihar
Bihar
(Pillar Edicts I, II, III, IV, V, VI). * Nigali Sagar (or Nigliva, Nigalihawa), near Lumbini
Lumbini
, Nepal
Nepal
. Pillar missing capital, one Ashoka
Ashoka
edict. Erected in the 20th regnal year of Ashoka
Ashoka
(c. 249 BCE). * Rummindei , near Lumbini
Lumbini
, Nepal
Nepal
. Also erected in the 20th regnal year of Ashoka
Ashoka
(c. 249 BCE), to commemorate Ashoka's pilgrimage to Lumbini
Lumbini
. Capital missing, but was apparently a horse. * Allahabad pillar
Allahabad pillar
, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
(originally located at Kausambi and probable moved to Allahabad by Jahangir
Jahangir
; Pillar Edicts I-VI, Queen's Edict, Schism Edict). * Rampurva , Champaran , Bihar
Bihar
. Two columns: a lion with Pillar Edicts I, II, III, IV, V, VI; a bull without inscriptions. The abacus of the bull capital features honeysuckle and palmette designs derived from Greek designs. * Sanchi
Sanchi
, near Bhopal
Bhopal
, Madhya Pradesh, four lions, Schism Edict. * Sarnath
Sarnath
, near Varanasi
Varanasi
, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
, four lions, Pillar Inscription, Schism Edict. This is the famous "Lion Capital of Ashoka " used in the national emblem of India
India
. * Lauriya-Nandangarth , Champaran, Bihar, single lion, Pillar Edicts I, II, III, IV, V, VI. * Vaishali , Bihar
Bihar
, single lion, with no inscription. * Sankissa , Uttar Pradesh, elephant capital only.

A few Ashokan capitals were also found without their pillars:

* Kesariya (capital). Only the capital was found in the Kesaria stupa . * Udaigiri - Vidisha
Vidisha
(capital only at the Udayagiri Caves
Udayagiri Caves
, visible here ). Attribution to Ashoka
Ashoka
however is disputed (ranging from the 2nd century BCE Sunga
Sunga
period, to the Gupta
Gupta
period. ).

THE CAPITALS

Frieze of the lost capital of the Allahabad pillar
Allahabad pillar
, with two lotuses with multiple calyx , framing a "flame palmette" surrounded by small rosette flowers, over a band of beads and reels . This motif can also be seen at the front of the Diamond throne
Diamond throne
, built by Ashoka, in Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
.

There are altogether seven remaining complete capitals, five with lions, one with an elephant and one with a zebu bull. One of them, the four lions of Sarnath
Sarnath
, has become the State Emblem of India
India
. The animal capitals are composed of a lotiform base, with an abacus decorated with floral, symbolic or animal designs, topped by the realistic depiction of an animal, thought to each represent a traditional directions in India. The horse motif on the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka
Ashoka
, is often described as an example of Hellenistic realism.

Various foreign influences have been described in the design of these capitals. The animal on top of a lotiform capital reminds of Achaemenid
Achaemenid
column shapes. The abacus also often seems to display a strong influence of Greek art : in the case of the Rampurva bull or the Sankassa elephant, it is composed of honeysuckles alternated with stylized palmettes and small rosettes . A similar kind of design can be seen in the frieze of the lost capital of the Allahabad pillar
Allahabad pillar
. These designs likely originated in Greek and Near-Eastern arts. They would probably have come from the neighboring Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
, and specifically from a Hellenistic city such as Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
, located at the doorstep of India
India
. Most of these designs and motifs can also be seen in the Pataliputra capital
Pataliputra capital
.

The Diamond throne
Diamond throne
of Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
is another example of Ashokan architecture circa 260 BCE, and displays a band of carvings with honeysuckles and geese , similar to those found on several of the Pillars of Ashoka.

KNOWN CAPITALS OF THE PILLARS OF ASHOKA

*

Sankissa elephant. *

Rampurva Zebu
Zebu
bull. *

Rampurva lion. *

The "Lion Capital of Ashoka
Ashoka
", from Sarnath
Sarnath
. *

Four lions, and possibly a wheel, at in Sanchi
Sanchi
. *

Vaishali lion *

Lauria Nandangarh lion.

MINOR PILLAR INSCRIPTIONS

These contain inscriptions recording their dedication.

* Lumbini
Lumbini
(Rummindei), Rupandehi district , Nepal
Nepal
(the upper part broke off when struck by lightning; the original horse capital mentioned by Xuanzang
Xuanzang
is missing) was erected by Ashoka
Ashoka
where Buddha was born. * Nigali-Sagar (or Nigliva), near Lumbini, Rupandehi district, Nepal (originally near the Buddha
Buddha
Konakarnana stupa)

DESCRIPTION OF THE PILLARS

The Ashoka
Ashoka
lions at Sarnath
Sarnath
, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh

PILLARS RETAINING THEIR ANIMALS

Main article: Lion Capital of Ashoka
Ashoka

The most celebrated capital (the four-lion one at Sarnath
Sarnath
(Uttar Pradesh )) erected by Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
circa 250 BC. also called the " Ashoka
Ashoka
Column" . Four lions are seated back to back. At present the Column remains in the same place whereas the Lion Capital is at the Sarnath
Sarnath
Museum. This Lion Capital of Ashoka
Ashoka
from Sarnath
Sarnath
has been adopted as the National Emblem of India
India
and the wheel " Ashoka
Ashoka
Chakra" from its base was placed onto the centre of the flag of India
India
. Depiction of the four lions capital surmounted by a Wheel of Law at Sanchi, Satavahana
Satavahana
period, South gateway of stupa 3.

The lions probably originally supported a Dharma Chakra wheel with 24 spokes, such as is preserved in the 13th century replica erected at Wat Umong near Chiang Mai , Thailand
Thailand
by Thai king Mangrai
Mangrai
.

The pillar at Sanchi
Sanchi
also has a similar but damaged four-lion capital. There are two pillars at Rampurva, one with a bull and the other with a lion as crowning animals. Sankissa has only a damaged elephant capital, which is mainly unpolished, though the abacus is at least partly so. No pillar shaft has been found, and perhaps this was never erected at the site. Front view of the single lion capital in Vaishali .

The Vaishali pillar has a single lion capital. The location of this pillar is contiguous to the site where a Buddhist monastery and a sacred coronation tank stood. Excavations are still underway and several stupas suggesting a far flung campus for the monastery have been discovered. The lion faces north, the direction Buddha
Buddha
took on his last voyage. Identification of the site for excavation in 1969 was aided by the fact that this pillar still jutted out of the soil. More such pillars exist in this greater area but they are all devoid of the capital.

PILLAR AT ALLAHABAD

Main articles: Allahabad pillar
Allahabad pillar
and Allahabad Stone Pillar Inscription of Samudra Gupta
Gupta

In Allahabad there is a pillar with inscriptions from Ashoka
Ashoka
and later inscriptions attributed to Samudragupta and Jehangir . It is clear from the inscription that the pillar was first erected at Kaushambi , an ancient town some 30 kilometres west of Allahabad that was the capital of the Koshala kingdom, and moved to Allahabad, presumably under Muslim rule. The pillar is now located inside the Allahabad Fort , also the royal palace, built during the 16th century by Akbar
Akbar
at the confluence of the Ganges
Ganges
and Yamuna
Yamuna
rivers. As the fort is occupied by the Indian Army
Indian Army
it is essentially closed to the public and special permission is required to see the pillar. The Ashokan inscription is in Brahmi
Brahmi
and is dated around 232 BC. A later inscription attributed to the second king of the Gupta empire
Gupta empire
, Samudragupta , is in the more refined Gupta script
Gupta script
, a later version of Brahmi, and is dated to around 375 AD. This inscription lists the extent of the empire that Samudragupta built during his long reign. He had already been king for forty years at that time and would rule for another five. A still later inscription in Persian is from the Mughal emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
. The Akbar
Akbar
Fort also houses the Akshay Vat , an Indian fig tree of great antiquity. The Ramayana
Ramayana
refers to this tree under which Lord Rama
Rama
is supposed to have prayed while on exile.

PILLARS AT LAURIYA-ARERAJ AND LAURIYA-NANDANGARH

The column at Lauriya-Nandangarh , 23 km from Bettiah
Bettiah
in West Champaran district , Bihar
Bihar
has single lion capital. The hump and the hind legs of the lion project beyond the abacus. The pillar at Lauriya-Areraj in East Champaran district , Bihar
Bihar
is presently devoid of any capital.

ERECTING THE PILLARS

The Pillars of Ashoka
Ashoka
may have been erected using the same methods that were used to erect the ancient obelisks . Roger Hopkins and Mark Lehrner conducted several obelisk erecting experiments including a successful attempt to erect a 25ton obelisk in 1999. This followed two experiments to erect smaller obelisks and two failed attempts to erect a 25-ton obelisk.

LANGUAGES AND SCRIPT

Brahmi
Brahmi
inscription on a fragment of the 6th Pillar of Ashoka from Meerut, British Museum
British Museum
.

Alexander Cunningham , one of the first to study the inscriptions on the pillars, remarks that they are written in eastern, middle and western Prakrits which he calls "the Punjabi or north-western dialect, the Ujjeni or middle dialect, and the Magadhi or eastern dialect." They are written in the Brahmi
Brahmi
script .

REDISCOVERIES

The "minor" Ashokan pillar at Lumbini
Lumbini
.

A number of the pillars were thrown down by either natural causes or iconoclasts, and gradually rediscovered. One was noticed in the 16th century by the English traveller Thomas Coryat in the ruins of Old Delhi
Delhi
. Initially he assumed that from the way it glowed that it was made of brass, but on closer examination he realized it was made of highly polished sandstone with upright script that resembled a form of Greek. In the 1830s James Prinsep
James Prinsep
began to decipher them with the help of Captain Edward Smith and George Turnour . They determined that the script referred to King Piyadasi which was also the epithet of an Indian ruler known as Ashoka
Ashoka
who came to the throne 218 years after Buddha's enlightenment. Scholars have since found 150 of Ashoka's inscriptions, carved into the face of rocks or on stone pillars marking out a domain that stretched across northern India
India
and south below the central plateau of the Deccan. These pillars were placed in strategic sites near border cities and trade routes.

The Sanchi
Sanchi
pillar was found in 1851 in excavations led by Sir Alexander Cunningham , first head of the Archaeological Survey of India
India
. There were no surviving traces above ground of the Sarnath pillar, mentioned in the accounts of medieval Chinese pilgrims, when the Indian Civil Service engineer F.O. Oertel , with no real experience in archaeology, was allowed to excavate there in the winter of 1904-05. He first uncovered the remains of a Gupta
Gupta
shrine west of the main stupa , overlying an Ashokan structure. To the west of that he found the lowest section of the pillar, upright but broken off near ground level. Most of the rest of the pillar was found in three sections nearby, and then, since the Sanchi
Sanchi
capital had been excavated in 1851, the search for an equivalent was continued, and the Lion Capital of Ashoka
Ashoka
, the most famous of the group, was found close by. It was both finer in execution and in much better condition than that at Sanchi. The pillar appeared to have been deliberately destroyed at some point. The finds were recognised as so important that the first onsite museum in India
India
(and one of the few then in the world) was set up to house them.

BACKGROUND OF CONSTRUCTION

Ashoka
Ashoka
Missionaries set up an edict at Lauchiya Nandagrah, 244 B.C.

Ashoka
Ashoka
ascended to the throne in 269 BC inheriting the empire founded by his grandfather Chandragupta Maurya. Ashoka
Ashoka
was reputedly a tyrant at the outset of his reign. Eight years after his accession he campaigned in Kalinga where in his own words, "a hundred and fifty thousand people were deported, a hundred thousand were killed and as many as that perished..." After this event Ashoka
Ashoka
converted to Buddhism
Buddhism
in remorse for the loss of life. Buddhism
Buddhism
didn't become a state religion but with Ashoka's support it spread rapidly. The inscriptions on the pillars described edicts about morality based on Buddhist tenets. Legend has it that Ashoka
Ashoka
built 84,000 Stupas commemorating the events and relics of Buddha's life. Some of these Stupas contained networks of walls containing the hub, spokes and rim of a wheel, while others contained interior walls in a swastika (卐) shape. The wheel represents the sun, time, and Buddhist law (the wheel of law, or dharmachakra), while the swastika stands for the cosmic dance around a fixed center and guards against evil.

ALTERNATIVE THEORIES

Ranajit Pal suggests that the pillar, now at Feroz Shah Kotla
Feroz Shah Kotla
, Delhi , which was brought from Topra in Ambala
Ambala
was one of the lost altars of Alexander .

LATER IMITATIONS OF THE PILLARS OF ASHOKA

Numerous imitations of the pillar of Ashoka
Ashoka
can be found through the ages and within a wide geographical dispersion. The Heliodorus
Heliodorus
pillar , similar in general design to the pillars of Ashoka, was built in Vidisha
Vidisha
under the Sungas , at the instigation of Heliodorus
Heliodorus
, ambassador of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king Antialcidas circa 100 BCE. The pillar originally supported a statue of Garuda . Recently, China built a replica of a pillar of Ashoka.

LATER IMITATIONS OF THE PILLARS OF ASHOKA

*

Bharhut
Bharhut
lion pillar, 2nd century BCE. *

A later imitation, the Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
had a Garuda on top. Circa 100 BCE *

Lion pillars at the Mahabodhi Temple (1st century BCE). *

A gateway decoration built by the Satavahanas at Sanchi (reconstitution, 1st century BCE). *

The Udayagiri lion capital, inspired by the Pillars of Ashoka, is either of the 2nd century BCE Sunga
Sunga
period, or later of the Gupta period. *

Another imitation, an Indo-Corinthian capital with elephants in the four cardinal directions, Jamal Garhi . First centuries of our era.

*

Probable Gupta
Gupta
period capital with lions, central flame palmette and stub of a Wheel of Law . Sanchi
Sanchi
(reconstitution). *

The iron pillar of Delhi
Delhi
, erected by Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
, circa 400 CE. *

Tomb of Xiao Jing . *

Replica of Ashoka
Ashoka
pillar at Wat
Wat
U Mong near Chiang Mai , Thailand
Thailand
, built by King Mangrai
Mangrai
in 13th century *

A tagundaing replicating the four lions of Sarnath, at the Hpaung Daw U Pagoda
Pagoda
in Inle Lake
Inle Lake
, Myanmar
Myanmar

SEE ALSO

* Stambha * Tagundaing
Tagundaing

NOTES

* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Buddhist architecture, Huu Phuoc Le, Grafikol, 2010 p.36-40 * ^ A B Himanshu Prabha Ray. The Return of the Buddha: Ancient Symbols for a New Nation. Routledge. p. 123. * ^ India: The Ancient Past: A History of the Indian Subcontinent from c. 7000 BCE to CE 1200, Burjor Avari Routledge, 2016 p.139 * ^ A B Krishnaswamy, 697-698 * ^ "KING ASHOKA: His Edicts and His Times". www.cs.colostate.edu. Retrieved 29 October 2017. * ^ India: The Ancient Past: A History of the Indian Subcontinent from c. 7000 BCE to CE 1200, Burjor Avari Routledge, 2016 p.149 * ^ Companion, 430 * ^ Harle, 22 * ^ Thapar, Romila (2001). Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryan, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-564445-X , pp.267-70 * ^ A B C Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007). Ancient India, S.Chand & Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6 , pp.350-3 * ^ Companion, * ^ Buddhist Architecture, by Huu Phuoc Le, Grafikol, 2010 p.44 * ^ Rebecca M. Brown, Deborah S. Hutton. A Companion to Asian Art and Architecture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 423-429. * ^ Harle, 22, 24, quoted in turn * ^ A Comprehensive History Of Ancient India, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 2003, p.87 * ^ Ashoka, 2 * ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. p. 358. ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9 . * ^ A B Story of the Delhi
Delhi
Iron Pillar, R. Balasubramaniam p.19 * ^ A B The Past Before Us, Romila Thapar p.361 * ^ A Brief History of India, Alain Daniélou , Inner Traditions / Bear & Co, 2003, p.89-91 * ^ The pillars "owe something to the pervasive influence of Achaemenid
Achaemenid
architecture and sculpture, with no little Greek architectural ornament and sculptural style as well. Notice the florals on the bull capital from Rampurva, and the style of the horse of the Sarnath
Sarnath
capital, now the emblem of the Republic of India." "The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity" by John Boardman, Princeton University Press, 1993, p.110 * ^ Le, Huu Phuoc (29 October 2017). "Buddhist Architecture". Grafikol. Retrieved 29 October 2017 – via Google Books. * ^ Le, Huu Phuoc (29 October 2017). "Buddhist Architecture". Grafikol. Retrieved 29 October 2017 – via Google Books. * ^ "Reflections on The origins of Indian Stone Architecture", John Boardman, p.15 * ^ Buddhist Architecture, Huu Phuoc Le, Grafikol, 2010 p.240 * ^ " Wat Umong Chiang Mai". Thailand's World. Retrieved 26 November 2013. * ^ Companion, 428-429 * ^ "Destinations :: Vaishali". * ^ "Destinations :: Vaishali :: Bihar
Bihar
State Tourism Development Corporation". bstdc.bih.nic.in. Retrieved 29 October 2017. * ^ Krishnaswamy, 697-700 * ^ "NOVA Online - Mysteries of the Nile - August 27, 1999: The Third Attempt". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 29 October 2017. * ^ Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Ramses II: Magnificence on the Nile (1993)p. 56-57 * ^ " British Museum
British Museum
Highlights". Retrieved 29 October 2017. * ^ Inscriptions of Ashoka
Ashoka
by Alexander Cunningham, Eugen Hultzsch. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. Calcutta: 1877 * ^ Allen, Chapter 15 * ^ Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Ancient India: Land Of Mystery (1994) p. 84-85,94-97 * ^ Oliphant, Margaret "The Atlas Of The Ancient World" 1992 p. 156-7 * ^ Ranajit Pal, "An Altar of Alexander Now Standing Near Delhi", Scholia, vol. 15, p. 78-101. * ^ "China: Buddhist stupa renovated, now has Ashoka
Ashoka
Pillar". 17 September 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2017. * ^ Wright, Colin. "Lion capital of fallen pillar at Udayagiri, Madhya Pradesh". www.bl.uk. Retrieved 29 October 2017. * ^ Buddhist Architecture by Huu Phuoc Le p.45

REFERENCES

* Ashoka, Emperor, Edicts of Ashoka, eds. N. A. Nikam, Richard P. McKeon, 1978, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226586111 , 9780226586113, google books * "Companion": Brown, Rebecca M., Hutton, Deborah S., eds., A Companion to Asian Art and Architecture, Volume 3 of Blackwell companions to art history, 2011, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, ISBN 1444396323 , 9781444396324, google books * Harle, J.C., The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 2nd edn. 1994, Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, ISBN 0300062176 * Krishnaswamy, C.S., Sahib, Rao, and Ghosh, Amalananda, "A Note on the Allahabad Pillar of Aśoka", The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 4 (Oct., 1935), pp. 697–706, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland , JSTOR * Falk, H. Asokan Sites and Artefacts: a A Source-book with Bibliography, 2006, Volume 18 of Monographien zur indischen Archäologie, Kunst und Philologie, Von Zabern, ISSN 0170-8864

FURTHER READING

* Singh, Upinder (2008). "Chapter 7: Power and Piety: The Maurya Empire, c. 324-187 BCE". A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9 .

EXTERNAL

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