Ashesh Prosad Mitra FNA, FASc, FRS (21 February 1927 - 3 September 2007) was a physicist who headed the National Physics Laboratory in Delhi, India and was the Director General of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). He is primarily known for his work on environmental physics.
Mitra studied at the Bangabasi College, an affiliated college of the University of Calcutta.
He was the director of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) from 1982 to 1986 and the Director General of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) from 1986 to 1991.
He died at New Delhi in September, 2007.
Radio & Space Physics was his area of specialization. He performed major work in the field of earth's near-space environment, through group based and space techniques. He worked on cosmic radio noise for studying the upper atmosphere led to a series of discoveries in ionosphere, solar physics and cosmic rays.
Honours and awards
- He was awarded the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Physical Science in 1968. The citation read: "Dr Mitra is one of the acknowledged authorities on ionosphere and on some aspects of space research. His pioneering work on the use of cosmic radio noise for upper atmosphere studies resulted in a whole series of scientific discoveries in ionosphere, solar physics and cosmic rays. He has carried out comprehensive studies on the ionospheric effects of solar flares and has established one of the most extensive radio flare systems at the National Physical Laboratory. He developed an atmospheric model from observations of satellite drag and initiated new D region rocket experiments. Dr Mitra’s work on ion and neutral chemistry in the upper atmosphere, especially on the minor constituent nitric oxide, provided the basis for much of our present knowledge about the lower ionosphere. He has contributed substantially to the establishment and operation of the International Spacewarn System and the International Ursi-gramme and World Day Service. 
- He was a Foreign Fellow of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences 
- He was recipient of the Padma Bhushan award in the year 1987.
- He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1988.
- He was awarded the "padma Bhushanff - a civilian honour, by the President of India in 1989
- He was elected President, International Union of Radio Sciences - URSI between 1984-1987.
- He was served as Member, General Committee of International Council of Scientific Unions between 1984-1988.
- He was elected Fellow - Indian National Science Academy in 1961,
- he was elected Fellow, Indian Academy Sciences in 1974.
- He was elected Fellow of the Thud World Academy of Sciences in 1988, President, National Academy of Sciences between 1992-1993.
- He was elected Honary President, URSI in 2002.
- He was awarded Jawahar La1 Nehru Fellowship between 1978-1980.
- He was awarded Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Fellowslup between 1991-1996.
- He was awarded Senior Homi Bhabha Fellowshp between 1996-1998.
- He was bestowed Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Memorial Award for Physical Sciences in 1968.
- He was bestowed CV Raman Award of University Grants Commission in 1982.
- He was bestowed Om Prakash Bhasin Award for Physical Physical Sciences in 1987.
- He was bestowed FICCI Award for Physical Sciences in 1982.
- He was bestowed Meghnad Saha Golden Jubilee Award of Indian Association of Science in 1991.
- He was bestowed Modi Science Award in 1992.
- he was bestowed Vasuic Award on Environmental Science and Technology in 2002.
- He was awarded Meghnad Saha Medal by Asiatic Society in 1994.
- He was awarded SK Miha Centenary Medal by Indian Science Congress Association in 1995.
- He was awarded DSc (Honors Causa) from Universities of Manipur, Kolkata, Jadavpur, Burdwan North Bangal, Vidhyasagar.
Ashesh Prosad Mitra had two daughters, Anasua, is an archtect and Patralekha (Mila Mitra), is an astrophysicist. And his wife Sunanda Mitra (married on 12 August 1956) is a dancer.