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Asclepius
Asclepius
(/æsˈkliːpiəs/; Greek: Ἀσκληπιός, Asklēpiós [asklɛːpiós]; Latin: Aesculapius) was a hero and god of medicine in ancient Greek religion and mythology. Asclepius
Asclepius
represents the healing aspect of the medical arts; his daughters are Hygieia
Hygieia
("Hygiene", the goddess/personification of health, cleanliness, and sanitation), Iaso (the goddess of recuperation from illness), Aceso (the goddess of the healing process), Aglæa/Ægle (the goddess of the glow of good health), and Panacea
Panacea
(the goddess of universal remedy). He was associated with the Roman/Etruscan god Vediovis
Vediovis
and the Egyptian Imhotep.[1] He was one of Apollo's sons, sharing with Apollo
Apollo
the epithet Paean ("the Healer").[2] The rod of Asclepius, a snake-entwined staff, remains a symbol of medicine today. Those physicians and attendants who served this god were known as the Therapeutae of Asclepius.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Family 3 Mythology

3.1 Birth 3.2 Education and adventures 3.3 Death

4 Sacred places and practices 5 References 6 Sources 7 External links

Etymology[edit] The etymology of the name is unknown. In his revised version of Frisk's Griechisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (Greek Etymological Dictionary), R. S. P. Beekes gives this summary of the different attempts:

"H. Grégoire (with R. Goossens and M. Mathieu) in Asklépios, Apollon Smintheus et Rudra 1949 (Mém. Acad. Roy. de Belgique. Cl. d. lettres. 2. sér. 45), explains the name as 'the mole-hero', connecting σκάλοψ, ἀσπάλαξ 'mole' and refers to the resemblance of the Tholos in Epidauros and the building of a mole. (Thus Puhvel, Comp. Mythol. 1987, 135.) But the variants of Asklepios and those of the word for 'mole' do not agree.

The name is typical for Pre-Greek words; apart from minor variations (β for π, αλ(α) for λα) we find α/αι (a well known variation; Fur. 335–339) followed by -γλαπ- or -σκλαπ-/-σχλαπ/β-, i.e. a voiced velar (without -σ-) or a voiceless velar (or an aspirated one: we know that there was no distinction between the three in the substr. language) with a -σ-. I think that the -σ- renders an original affricate, which (prob. as δ) was lost before the -γ- (in Greek the group -σγ- is rare, and certainly before another consonant).

Szemerényi's etymology (JHS 94, 1974, 155) from Hitt. assula(a)- 'well-being' and piya- 'give' cannot be correct, as it does not explain the velar."[3]

Beekes suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *Atyklap-.[4] Family[edit] Asclepius
Asclepius
was the son of Apollo, either by Coronis, daughter of Phlegyas
Phlegyas
or by Arsinoe,[5] daughter of Leucippus of Messenia. He was the brother of Eriopis.[6][7] Asclepius
Asclepius
was married to Epione, with whom he had five daughters: Hygieia, Panacea, Aceso, Iaso, and Aglaea,[8][9] and three sons: Machaon, Podaleirios and Telesphoros. He also sired a son, Aratus, with Aristodama.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]

Roman coin from Odessos showing Asclepius
Asclepius
with Hygieia
Hygieia
on one side and Gordian III’s portrait on the other side (35mm, 28g)

Mythology[edit] Birth[edit] He was the son of Apollo
Apollo
and, according to the earliest accounts, a mortal woman named Coronis.[16] His mother was killed for being unfaithful to Apollo
Apollo
and was laid out on a funeral pyre to be consumed, but the unborn child was rescued from her womb. Or, alternatively, his mother died in labor and was laid out on the pyre to be consumed, but Apollo
Apollo
rescued the child, cutting him from Coronis's womb.[17] Education and adventures[edit] Apollo
Apollo
carried the baby to the centaur Chiron
Chiron
who raised Asclepius
Asclepius
and instructed him in the art of medicine.[18] It is said that in return for some kindness rendered by Asclepius, a snake licked Asclepius's ears clean and taught him secret knowledge (to the Greeks snakes were sacred beings of wisdom, healing, and resurrection). Asclepius
Asclepius
bore a rod wreathed with a snake, which became associated with healing. A species of non-venomous pan-Mediterranean serpent, the Aesculapian snake (Zamenis longissimus) is named for the god.

Asclepius
Asclepius
(center) arrives in Kos
Kos
and is greeted by Hippocrates
Hippocrates
(left) and a citizen (right), mosaic, 2nd–3rd century AD

Asclepius
Asclepius
became so proficient as a healer that he surpassed both Chiron
Chiron
and his father, Apollo. Asclepius
Asclepius
was therefore able to evade death and to bring others back to life from the brink of death and beyond. This caused an influx of human beings and Zeus
Zeus
resorted to killing him to maintain balance in the numbers of the human population. At some point, Asclepius
Asclepius
was among those who took part in the Calydonian Boar
Calydonian Boar
hunt. Death[edit]

Asclepios with his daughter Hygieia

Zeus
Zeus
killed Asclepius
Asclepius
with a thunderbolt because he brought Hippolytus back alive from the dead and accepted gold for it.[19] Other stories say that Asclepius
Asclepius
was killed because after bringing people back from the dead, Hades
Hades
thought that no more dead spirits would come to the underworld, so he asked his brother Zeus
Zeus
to stop him. This angered Apollo
Apollo
who in turn killed the Cyclopes who made the thunderbolts for Zeus.[20] For this act, Zeus
Zeus
suspended Apollo
Apollo
from the night sky[21] and commanded Apollo
Apollo
to serve Admetus, King of Thessaly
Thessaly
for a year. Once the year had passed, Zeus
Zeus
brought Apollo back to Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
and revived the Cyclopes that made his thunderbolts.[15][22] After Asclepius's death, Zeus
Zeus
placed his body among the stars as the constellation Ophiuchus
Ophiuchus
("the Serpent Holder").[23] Some sources[citation needed] also stated that Asclepius
Asclepius
was later resurrected as a god by Zeus
Zeus
to prevent any further feuds with Apollo. It was also claimed that Asclepius
Asclepius
was instructed by Zeus
Zeus
to never revive the dead without his approval again. Sacred places and practices[edit]

Majestic Zeus-like facial features of Asclepius
Asclepius
(Melos)

The most famous temple of Asclepius
Asclepius
was at Epidaurus
Epidaurus
in north-eastern Peloponnese, dated to the fourth century BC.[24] Another famous healing temple (or asclepieion) was built approximately a century later on the island of Kos,[24] where Hippocrates, the legendary "father of medicine", may have begun his career. Other asclepieia were situated in Trikala, Gortys
Gortys
(in Arcadia), and Pergamum
Pergamum
in Asia. From the fifth century BC onwards,[25] the cult of Asclepius
Asclepius
grew very popular and pilgrims flocked to his healing temples (Asclepieia) to be cured of their ills. Ritual purification would be followed by offerings or sacrifices to the god (according to means), and the supplicant would then spend the night in the holiest part of the sanctuary – the abaton (or adyton). Any dreams or visions would be reported to a priest who would prescribe the appropriate therapy by a process of interpretation.[26] Some healing temples also used sacred dogs to lick the wounds of sick petitioners.[27] In honor of Asclepius, a particular type of non-venomous snake was often used in healing rituals, and these snakes — the Aesculapian Snakes — slithered around freely on the floor in dormitories where the sick and injured slept. These snakes were introduced at the founding of each new temple of Asclepius
Asclepius
throughout the classical world. The original Hippocratic Oath
Hippocratic Oath
began with the invocation "I swear by Apollo
Apollo
the Physician and by Asclepius
Asclepius
and by Hygieia
Hygieia
and Panacea
Panacea
and by all the gods …".[27]

Asclepius
Asclepius
– a fragment of mosaic bathroom in Kyustendil
Kyustendil
(Bulgaria), author Nikolai Zikov

Some later religious movements claimed links to Asclepius. In the 2nd century AD the controversial miracle-worker Alexander claimed that his god Glycon, a snake with a "head of linen"[28] was an incarnation of Asclepius. The Greek language
Greek language
rhetorician and satirist Lucian
Lucian
produced the work Alexander the False Prophet to denounce the swindler for future generations. He described Alexander as having a character "made up of lying, trickery, perjury, and malice; [it was] facile, audacious, venturesome, diligent in the execution of its schemes, plausible, convincing, masking as good, and wearing an appearance absolutely opposite to its purpose."[28] In Rome, the College of Aesculapius and Hygia was an association (collegium) that served as a burial society and dining club that also participated in Imperial cult. The botanical genus Asclepias
Asclepias
(commonly known as milkweed) is named after him and includes the medicinal plant A. tuberosa or "Pleurisy root". Asclepius
Asclepius
was depicted on the reverse of the Greek 10,000 drachmas banknote of 1995–2001.[29] References[edit]

^ Pinch, Geraldine (2002-01-01). Handbook of Egyptian Mythology. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781576072424.  ^ Mitchell-Boyask, p. 141 ^ Greek etymology database (online source requires login and is located at iedo.brillonline.nl). Originally: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2009-04-11.  Also in: R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 151. ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. xxv. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece 2.26.6 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ Scholia on Pindar, Pythian Ode, 3. 14 ^ Hesiod. Catalogue of Women, 63 ^ Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments 939 (Inscription from Erythrai) (trans. Campbell) (BC) ^ a b Suidas s.v. Epione (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon 10th century AD) ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 2.29.1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue 2nd century AD) ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
4.193 and 217ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic 8th century BC) ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
11.518ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic 8th century BC) ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
2.730ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic 8th century BC) ^ Lycophron, Alexandra 1047ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet 3rd century BC) ^ a b Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4.71.3 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian 1st century BC) ^ Edelstein, Ludwig and Emma Edelstein. Asclepius: a Collection and Interpretation of the Testimonies. Vol. II. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1998. pg. 68 ^ NIH U.S. National Library of Medicine ^ Pindar, Pythian Ode 3.5ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric 5th century BC) ^ Philodemus, On Piety (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV Stesichorus Frag. 147 and Cinesias Frag. 774) (7th to 6th centuries BC) ^ Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.121 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer 2nd century AD) ^ Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica
Argonautica
4.610ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic 3rd century BC) ^ Hyginus, Fabulae, 49 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer 2nd century AD) ^ Hyginus, Astronomica 2.14 (Latin Mythography 2nd century AD) ^ a b Edelstein, Ludwig and Emma Edelstein. Asclepius: a Collection and Interpretation of the Testimonies. Vol. 2. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1998. pg. 243 ^ Wickkiser, Bronwen. Asklepios, Medicine, and the Politics of Healing in Fifth-century Greece: Between Craft and Cult. Johns Hopkins Press, 2008. pg. 106 ^ Sigerist 1987, pp. 63ff ^ a b Farnell, Chapter 10, "The Cult of Asklepios" (pp.234–279) ^ a b Lucian, Alexander the False Prophet (trans A.M. Harmon) (Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, 1936), Lucian, vol IV. Accessible online at http://www.tertullian.org/rpearse/lucian/lucian_alexander.htm ^ Bank of Greece. Drachma Banknotes Archived 11 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. 10,000 drachma note (pdf) Archived 11 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. – Retrieved on 26 July 2010.

Sources[edit]

Edelstein, Ludwig and Emma Edelstein. Asclepius: Collection and Interpretation of the Testimonies. JHU Press, 1998. von Ehrenheim, Hedvig. Greek Incubation Rituals in Classical and Hellenistic Times. Kernos. Supplément, 29. Liège: Presses Universitaires de Liège, 2015. Farnell, Lewis Richard. Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality, (Oxford Clarendon Press,1921). Grimal, Pierre, The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Wiley-Blackwell, 1996, ISBN 978-0-631-20102-1. "Asclepius" pp. 62–63 Hart, Gerald D. MD. Asclepius: The God of Medicine
Medicine
(Royal Society of Medicine
Medicine
Press, 2000) Kool, S. "The Soother of Evil Pains: Asclepius
Asclepius
and Freud." Akroterion 60, 2015, pp. 13-32. LiDonnici, Lynn R. The Epidaurian Miracle Inscriptions: Text, Translation, and Commentary. Atlanta: Scholars, 1995. Mitchell-Boyask, Robin, Plague and the Athenian Imagination: Drama, History and the Cult of Asclepius, Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-521-87345-1. Oberhelman, Steven M. (ed.), Dreams, Healing, and Medicine
Medicine
in Greece: From Antiquity to the Present. Farnham; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2013. Renberg, Gil H. “Public and Private Places of Worship in the Cult of Asclepius
Asclepius
at Rome.” Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, 51/52, 2006, pp. 87–172. Riethmüller, Jürgen W. Asklepios : Heiligtümer und Kulte, Heidelberg, Verlag Archäologie und Geschichte, 2005, ISBN 3-935289-30-8 Sigerist, Henry E. (1987). A History of Medicine
Medicine
Volume 2: Early Greek, Hindu, and Persian Medicine
Medicine
(1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-505079-0.  Wickkiser, Bronwen. Asklepios, Medicine, and the Politics of Healing in Fifth-century Greece: Between Craft and Cult. JHU Press, 2008.

External links[edit]

The dictionary definition of Asclepius
Asclepius
at Wiktionary Media related to Asclepius
Asclepius
at Wikimedia Commons Warburg Institute Iconographic Database (c. 100 images of Aesculapius)

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Hecate Hesperus Phosphorus

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Chthonic
Chthonic
deities

Psychopomps

Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos

Achlys Angelos Hades
Hades
/ Pluto Hecate Hypnos Keres Lampad Macaria Melinoe Persephone

Health deities

Aceso Aegle Artemis Apollo Asclepius Chiron Eileithyia Epione Hebe Hygieia Iaso Paean Panacea Telesphorus

Sleep deities

Empusa Epiales Hypnos Morpheus Pasithea Phantasos Phobetor Oneiroi

Messenger deities

Angelia Arke Hermes Iris

Trickster deities

Apate Dolos Hermes Momus

Magic deities

Circe Hecate Hermes
Hermes
Trismegistus Triple deity

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Dioscuri
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Mythical tribes

Amazons Anthropophage Atlantians Bebryces Curetes Dactyls Gargareans Halizones Korybantes Lapiths Lotus-eaters Myrmidons Pygmies Telchines

Oracles/Seers

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Magic

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Underworld

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Places

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Judges of the underworld

Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Guards

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Ferryman

Charon Charon's obol

Symbols-Objects

Bident Cap of invisibility

Animals-Daemons/Spirits

Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle

Mythological wars

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Mythological and religious objects

Adamant Aegis Ambrosia Apple of Discord Ara Baetylus Caduceus Cornucopia Dragon's teeth Diipetes Galatea Golden apple Golden Fleece Gorgoneion Greek terracotta figurines Harpe Ichor Lotus tree Minoan sealstone Moly Necklace of Harmonia Omphalos Orichalcum Palladium Panacea Pandora's box Petasos
Petasos
(Winged helmet) Philosopher's stone Ring of Gyges Rod of Asclepius Sacrificial tripod Sceptre Shield of Achilles Shirt of Nessus Sword of Damocles Talaria Thunderbolt Thymiaterion Thyrsus Trident Trojan Horse Winnowing Oar Wheel of Fortune Wheel of fire Xoanon

Symbols

Arkalochori Axe Labrys Ouroboros Owl of Athena

Mythological powers

Anthropomorphism Divination Eternal youth Evocation Fortune-telling Immortality Language of the birds Nympholepsy Magic Ornithomancy Shamanism Shapeshifting Weather modification

Storage containers/ Cups

Amphora Calathus Chalice Ciborium Cotyla Hydria Hydriske Kalpis Kylix Kantharos Lebes Lekythos Loutrophoros Oenochoe Pelike Pithos Skyphos Stamnos

Musical Instruments

Aulos Barbiton Chelys Cithara Cochilia Crotalum
Crotalum
(Castanets) Epigonion Kollops Lyre Pan flute Pandura Phorminx Psaltery Salpinx Sistrum Tambourine Trigonon Tympanum Water organ

Games

Panhellenic Games

Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games

Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia

Festivals/Feasts

Actia Adonia Agrionia Amphidromia Anthesteria Apellai Apaturia Aphrodisia Arrhephoria Ascolia Bendidia Boedromia Brauronia Buphonia Chalceia Diasia Delphinia Dionysia Ecdysia Elaphebolia Gamelia Haloa Heracleia Hermaea Hieromenia Iolaia Kronia Lenaia Lykaia Metageitnia Munichia Oschophoria Pamboeotia Pandia Plynteria Pyanopsia Skira Synoikia Soteria Tauropolia Thargelia Theseia Thesmophoria

Vessels

Argo Phaeacian ships

Modern offshoot religions

Discordianism Gaianism Hellenismos Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

Modern popular culture

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
in popular culture

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 64798430 LCCN: no2015101384 GN

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