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TEACHERS (Acharyas )

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OTHERS

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------------------------- VEDAS

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------------------------- SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS

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* v * t * e

ARYA SAMAJ ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
ārya samāja आर्य समाज "Noble Society" Hindi
Hindi
आर्य समाज, Bengali আর্য সমাজ, Punjabi ਆਰੀਆ ਸਮਾਜ, Gujarati આર્ય સમાજ) is an Indian Hindu reform movement that promotes values and practices based on the belief in the infallible authority of the Vedas
Vedas
. The samaj was founded by the sannyasi (ascetic), Dayananda Saraswati , on 7 April 1875. Members of the Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
believe in one God
God
and reject the worship of idols.

CONTENTS

* 1 Foundation by Dayananda

* 1.1 Vedic schools * 1.2 Adi Brahmo Samaj
Adi Brahmo Samaj
* 1.3 "The Light of Truth" lecture series * 1.4 New samaj * 1.5 Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
debates * 1.6 Rajkot
Rajkot
Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
* 1.7 Bombay
Bombay
Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj

* 2 Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
after Dayanand

* 2.1 Pandit Lekh Ram and Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
in Punjab
Punjab
* 2.2 Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
in Gujarat
Gujarat
* 2.3 Reconversion in Malabar * 2.4 Language Issue * 2.5 Humanitarian efforts

* 3 Contemporary Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj

* 3.1 Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
in India
India
* 3.2 Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
around the world

* 4 Core beliefs

* 5 Practices

* 5.1 Diwali
Diwali
* 5.2 Holi
Holi

* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

FOUNDATION BY DAYANANDA

The Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
was established in Bombay
Bombay
on 7 April 1875 by Dayananda Saraswati (born "Mool Shankar" in Kathiawar
Kathiawar
, Gujarat
Gujarat
1824 – died Ajmer
Ajmer
, 1883)

An alternative date for the foundation of the samaj is 24 June 1877 because it was then, in Lahore
Lahore
when the samaj became more than just a regional movement based in Punjab
Punjab
.

VEDIC SCHOOLS

Between 1869 and 1873, Saraswati began his efforts to reform orthodox Hinduism in India. He established Gurukul (Vedic schools) which emphasised Vedic values, culture, Satya (virtue) and Sanatana Dharma (the essence of living). The schools gave separate educations to boys and girls based on ancient Vedic principles. The Vedic school system was also to relieve Indians from the pattern of a British education.

The first Vedic school was established at Farrukhabad in 1869. Fifty students were enrolled in its first year. This success led to the founding of schools at Mirzapur (1870), Kasganj (1870), Chhalesar ( Aligarh ) (1870) and Varanasi
Varanasi
(1873).

At the schools, students received all meals, lodging, clothing and books free of charge. Discipline was strict. Students were not allowed to perform murti puja (worship of sculpted stone idols). Rather, they performed Sandhyavandanam (meditative prayer using Vedic mantras with divine sound) and agnihotra (making a heated milk offering twice daily).

The study of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scriptural texts which accepted the authority of the Vedas
Vedas
were taught. They included the Vedas, Upanishads , Aranyaka , Kashika, Nirukta , Mahabhasya , Ashtadhyayi , Darshanas. The teaching was open to girls and to children who were not of the Brahmins
Brahmins
class.

Dayanand had difficulty finding qualified teachers who agreed with his views on religious reform. There were few textbooks which he considered suitable. Funding was sporadic, attendance fluctuated and students did not achieve desired standards and so some schools closed soon after opening. The last remaining school at Farrukhabad closed in 1876.

ADI BRAHMO SAMAJ

Main article: Adi Brahmo Samaj
Adi Brahmo Samaj

In 1872 and 1873, Dayanand travelled and came to know some pro-Western Indian intellectuals including Navin Chandra Roy, Rajnarayan Basu , Debendranath Tagore and Hemendranath Tagore who were actively involved in the Brahmo Samaj . This reform organization, founded in 1828, held many views similar to those of Dayanand. The organisation promoted monotheism and the eternality of the soul; and the abolishment of the hereditary caste or varna system and uplifting people through education. Dayanand disagreed with the Brahmo Samaj about the proper position of the Vedas. Dayanand strongly held the Vedas
Vedas
to be divine revelation.

"THE LIGHT OF TRUTH" LECTURE SERIES

After visiting Calcutta
Calcutta
, Dayanand's work changed. He began lecturing in Hindi
Hindi
rather than in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. Although Sanskrit
Sanskrit
garnered respect, in Hindi, Dayanand reached a much larger audience. His ideas of reform began to reach the poorest people.

In Varanasi
Varanasi
, after hearing Dayanand speak, a local government official called Jaikishen Das encouraged Dayanand to publish a book about his ideas. From June to September 1874, Dayanand dictated a series of lectures to his scribe, Bhimsen Sharma. The lectures recorded Dayanand's views on a wide range of subjects. They were published in 1875 in Varanasi
Varanasi
with the title Satyarth Prakash ("the light of truth").

NEW SAMAJ

While his manuscript for Satyarth Prakash was being edited in Varanasi, Dayanand received an invitation to travel to Bombay
Bombay
. There, he was to debate representatives of the Vallabhacharya sect. On 20 October, 1874, Dayanand arrived in Bombay. The debate, though well publicized, never took place. Nonetheless, two members of the Prarthana Samaj approached Dayanand and invited him to speak at one of their gatherings. He did so and was well received. They recognized Dayanand's desire to uplift the Hindu community and protect Hindus from the pressures to convert to Christianity
Christianity
or Islam . Dayanand spent over one month in Bombay
Bombay
and attracted sixty people to his cause. They proposed founding a new samaj with Dayanand's ideas as its spiritual and intellectual basis.

AHMEDABAD DEBATES

On 11 December 1874, Dayanand arrived in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
, Gujarat
Gujarat
on the invitation of Gopal Hari Deshmukh . There, he debated with interested parties.

RAJKOT ARYA SAMAJ

On 31 December, 1874, Dayanand arrived in Rajkot
Rajkot
, Gujarat, on the invitation of Hargovind Das Dvarkadas, the secretary of the local Prarthana Samaj. He invited topics of discourse from the audience and spoke on eight. Again, Dayanand was well received and the Rajkot
Rajkot
group elected to join his cause. The Samaj was renamed Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
(Society of Nobles). Dayanand published a list of twenty-eight rules and regulations for the followers. After leaving Rajkot, Dayanand went to Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
but his audience at a meeting on 27 January, 1875, did not elect to form a new Arya Samaj. Meanwhile, the Rajkot
Rajkot
group had become in a political row.

BOMBAY ARYA SAMAJ

A meeting of the Arya Samāj for investing boys with the sacred thread

On his return to Bombay, Dayanand began a membership drive for a local Arya samaj and received one hundred enrolees. On 7 April 1875, the Bombay
Bombay
Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
was established. Dayanand himself enrolled as a member rather than the leader of the Bombay
Bombay
group. The samaj began to grow.

ARYA SAMAJ AFTER DAYANAND

Dayanand died in 1883. The Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
continued to grow, especially in Punjab. The early leaders of the samaj were Pandit Lekh Ram (1858 – 1897) and Swami Shraddhanand
Swami Shraddhanand
(Mahatma Munshi Ram Vij) (1856 – 1926). In Punjab, the Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
was opposed by the Sikh dominated Singh Sabha , the forerunner of the Akali Dal .

Some authors claim that the activities of the Samaj led to increased antagonism between Muslims and Hindus. Shraddhanand led the Shuddhi movement that aimed to bring Hindus who had converted to other religions back to Hinduism.

In 1893, the Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
members of Punjab
Punjab
were divided on the question of vegetarianism . The group that refrained from eating meat were called the "Mahatma" group and the other group, the "Cultured Party".

In the early 1900s, the samaj (or organizations inspired by it such as Jat Pat Todak Mandal) campaigned against caste discrimination. They also campaigned for widow remarriage and women\'s education . The samaj also established chapters in British colonies with an Indian diaspora such as South Africa
South Africa
, Fiji
Fiji
, Mauritius
Mauritius
, Suriname
Suriname
, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
.

Prominent Indian Nationalists such as Lala Lajpat Rai belonged to Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
and were active in its campaigning.

In the 1930s, when the Hindu Nationalist group, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh grew in prominence in Northern India, they found support in the Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
of Punjab.

PANDIT LEKH RAM AND ARYA SAMAJ IN PUNJAB

Pandit Lekh Ram (1858 – 1897) was an Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
leader who was a contemporary of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
(1835 – 1908), the founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community . Ram contested Ahmad's text, Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya in a work entitled Takzeeb e Barahin Ahmadiyya ("A falsification of the Barahin e Ahmadiyya"). Ram was assassinated on 6 March 1897. Members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community claimed that this was in accordance with the prophecies of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
.

Ian Talbot of the University of Southampton wrote, "Relations grew particularly bad between the Aryas and the Muslims. Serious violence broke out in 1897 when Pandit Lekh Ram was assassinated. Lekh Ram's greatest influence was in the north-west of Punjab. He had in fact joined the Peshawar Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
in 1880 and rose to prominence first as a missionary and then as editor of the Arya Gazette. At first he had limited his attacks to the Ahmadi movement of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, but he increasingly attacked orthodox Muslims as well. His pamphlet, Risala-i-Jihad ya'ri Din-i-Muhammad ki Bunyad (A treatise on waging holy war, or the foundation of the Muhammadan Religion) caused a considerable outcry, when it was published in 1892. Until his murder by a Muslim five years later, Lekh Ram continued to stir up animosity by his vituperative writings."

ARYA SAMAJ IN GUJARAT

The Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
of Gujerat members were missionaries from Punjab
Punjab
who had been encouraged to move to Gujarat
Gujarat
to carry out educational work amongst the untouchable castes by the maharaja , Sayajirao Gaekwad III . The Gujarat
Gujarat
samaj opened orphanages. In 1915, the samaj lost its following to Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
.

RECONVERSION IN MALABAR

In 1921, during a rebellion by the Muslim Moplah
Moplah
community of Malabar a number of Hindus were forcibly converted to Islam. The Arya Samaj received these people back to Hinduism through Shuddhi ceremonies. :p.141–152

LANGUAGE ISSUE

Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
promoted the use of Hindi
Hindi
in Punjab
Punjab
and discouraged the use of Punjabi . This was a serious point of difference between the Sikhs, represented by the Shiromani Akali Dal group and the Arya Samaj. The difference was marked during the period immediately following the independence of India
India
and the time of the Punjabi Suba movement (demand for a Punjabi speaking state).

HUMANITARIAN EFFORTS

Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
was a charitable organisation. For example, donations were made to victims of the 1905 Kangra earthquake . The samaj campaigned for women\'s right to vote , and for the protection of widows.

CONTEMPORARY ARYA SAMAJ

ARYA SAMAJ IN INDIA

Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
schools and temples are still found in India. Some are authorised to conduct weddings. The samaj is associated with the Dayanand Anglo Vedic (DAV) schools which number over two hundred.

The former Indian prime minister Charan Singh , as a young man, was a member of Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
in Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh and later in the United Provinces .

ARYA SAMAJ AROUND THE WORLD

Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
is active in countries including Guyana
Guyana
, Suriname
Suriname
, Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
, Fiji
Fiji
, Australia
Australia
, South Africa, Kenya, Mauritius
Mauritius
and other countries where a significant Hindu diaspora is present.

Immigrants to Canada from East Africa
East Africa
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
countries form Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
for their communities in many Canadian cities including Toronto. Most major metropolitan areas of United States have chapters of Arya Samaj.

CORE BELIEFS

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ओ३म् O3m (Aum ), considered by the Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
to be the highest and most proper name of God.

Members of the Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
believe in one almighty creator known as Aum who is mentioned in the Yajur Veda (40:17). They believe the Vedas is an infallible authority. The Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
members reject other Hindu religious texts because they are not "revealed" works. For instance, they believe books like the Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
are legends of historical figures, which secondarily have been used as reference to supreme beings and avatars . The members of Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
reject other scriptural works such as the Bible
Bible
, and the Quran
Quran
. They reject the worship of idols . The Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
promotes the equality of all human beings and the empowerment of women.

PRACTICES

The Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
members recite the Gayatri Mantra , meditation and make offering to the holy fire '('havan ) . The havan can be performed without a priest in acts of personal worship. Members celebrate Holi (the start of spring) and Diwali
Diwali
(a harvest festival and the victory of good over evil).

Some members of the Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
are lacto-vegetarian and in general, the eating of beef is avoided. The cow is viewed with respect for its contribution to Indian civilization.

After a death, Arya samaji will often conduct a havan and collect the ashes on the fourth day.

DIWALI

Diya with one wick. Diya with two wicks, pointing in each direction (N, W, S, E).

The Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
celebration of Diwali
Diwali
is typified by the celebration in Suriname
Suriname
. The festival celebrates the victory of good over evil. A vegetarian fast is kept. The Gayatri mantra is spoken while oil lamps are lit. One Diya lamp, which is of a larger size has two wicks crossed to produce four lights, one in each direction and is lit first. The smaller lamp has one wick. The recitation of the Gayatri mantra occurs in front of a fire altar lit with sandalwood. A lamp is kept in every room except the bathroom and restroom. More lamps can be lit, which can be placed arbitrarily in the yard, living room and so on.

HOLI

Holi
Holi
is celebrated as the conclusion of winter and the start of spring to sow the land and hope for a good harvest. This day is marked by colors and song (Chautal). It does not require specific prayer or fasting, however some people keep a vegetarian fast on this day. The Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
does not associate Holi
Holi
with a particular deity such as Vishnu or Shiva and in comparison to some interpretations of the festival, the Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
version in more sober.

SEE ALSO

* Hinduism portal * India
India
portal

* Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
in Fiji
Fiji
* Arya Samaj in Ghana * Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
in Guyana
Guyana
* Arya Samaj in Kenya * Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
in Mauritius
Mauritius
* Arya Samaj in Mozambique * Arya Samaj in Singapore * Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
in South Africa
South Africa
* Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
in Suriname
Suriname
* Arya Samaj in Tanzania * Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
in Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
* Arya Samaj in Thailand * Arya Samaj in Uganda * Hindu reform movements

REFERENCES

* ^ Shvikarpathra Paropkarini Sabha website. Accessed 3 February 2017. * ^ Hastings J. and Selbi J. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Kessinger 2003 part 3. p. 57. ISBN 0-7661-3671-X * ^ E News Aryasamaj website 2 March 2010. Accessed 3 February 2017 * ^ Dayanand Saraswati Himalaya publishing documents. * ^ Sharma R. N and Sharma R. K. Problems of Education in India Atlantic 2006 p. 356 ISBN 817156612X * ^ Saxena G. S. Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
movement in India, 1875-1947 Commonwealth publishers 1990 p. 47 * ^ Russell R. V. The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India
India
1916 vol. 1 * ^ Jones K. W. Ham Hindū Nahīn*: Arya Sikh Relations, 1877–1905 The Journal of Asian Studies May 1973 32:3 p. 457 – 475. JSTOR 2052684 * ^ Barrier N. The Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
and Congress Politics in the Punjab, 1894–1908 The Journal of Asian Studies May 1967 26:3 p. 363 – 379. doi :10.2307/2051414 JSTOR 2051414 Accessed 1 October 2014. * ^ Nair N. Changing Homelands: Hindu Politics and the Partition of India
India
Permanent Black, New Delhi 2011 p. 53 ISBN 9780674057791 * ^ "Punjab" Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
1909. vol. 20 p. 291. Accessed 2 October 2014. * ^ Rajivlochan M. Coping with Exclusions the Non-Political Way in Judge P. S. Mapping Social Exclusion in India: Caste, Religion and Borderlands Cambridge University Press 2014 p. 82 – 83. ISBN 1107056098 * ^ Kishwar M. " Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
and Women's Education: Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Jalandhar" Economic and Political Weekly 26 April 1986. 21:17 p. 9 JSTOR 4375593 doi :10.2307/4375593 doi broken 3 February 2017. * ^ Vertovec S. The Hindu Diaspora: Comparative Patterns Routledge, London 2000 first edition p. 29, 54 and 69. ISBN 9780415238939 . * ^ Rai L. L. The Arya Samaj: an Account of its Aims, Doctrine and Activities, with a Biographical Sketch of the Founder Longman, London 1915. ISBN 978-81-85047-77-5 * ^ Jaffrelot C. The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics: 1925 to the 1990s Penguin Books, New Delhi 1999. p. 67 and 68. ISBN 9780140246025 . * ^ Pandit Lekh Ram (1858-1897) Quern organisation website. Accessed 3 February 2017 * ^ Talbot I. Punjab
Punjab
and the Raj, 1849–1947 Riverdale, 1988. p. 72 and 73. ISBN 0913215287 * ^ Hardiman D. Purifying the nation, the Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
in Gujarat 1895–1930 Indian Economic and Social History Review 2000. 44:1 p. 41 – 65. * ^ Thursby G. R. Hindu-Muslim relations in British India
British India
: a study of controversy, conflict, and communal movements in northern India 1923-1928 Brill, Leiden, 1975. ISBN 9789004043800 * ^ Lamba K. G. Dynamics of Punjabi Suba Movement Deep and Deep 1999. p. 90 ISBN 9788176291293 Accessed 3 February 2017. * ^ Chopra R. Love Is The Ultimate Winner Partridge, India
India
2013. p. 9072. ISBN 9781482800050 Accessed 3 February 2017. * ^ Grewal J. S. The Sikhs of the Punjab
Punjab
Cambridge University Press 1998. p. 187 ISBN 9780521637640 Accessed 3 February 2017. * ^ Sharma S. C. Punjab, the Crucial Decade Atlantic 1987. p. 133. * ^ Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
website. * ^ Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
Queensland website. Accessed 3 February 2017. * ^ Lal V. and Vahed G. Hinduism in South Africa: Caste, Ethnicity, and Invented Traditions, 1860-Present J Sociology Soc Anth 2013. 4:1-2 p. 1 – 15. * ^ Ombongi K. S. Hindu socio-religious organizations in Kenya: a case study of Arya Samaj, 1903-1978 University of Nairobi
University of Nairobi
1993. * ^ Eisenlohr P. Little India: Diaspora, Time, and Ethnolinguistic Belonging in Hindu Mauritius
Mauritius
University of California Press, Berkeley, California 2006. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-520-24879-3 * ^ Coward H. Hindus in Canada, the Third National Metropolis Conference Centre of Excellence for Research on Immigration and Integration in the Metropolis 1999. * ^ Arya Pratinidhi Sabha America Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
website. Accessed 30 December 2013. * ^ Naidoo T. The Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
movement in South Africa
South Africa
Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1992 first edition. p.30 and 71. ISBN 8120807693 * ^ Morgan, Kenneth W. (Editor); Sharma, D.S.; et al. (1987). The Religion of the Hindus (Reprint. ed.). Delhi: M. Banarsidass. p. 199. ISBN 978-8120803879 . Retrieved 26 July 2017. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ Firth S. Dying, death and bereavement in a British Hindu community Peeters, Leuven 1997. p. 89. ISBN 9789068319767 * ^ Arya Dharm: Hindu Consciousness in 19th-Century Punjab Paperback – January 1, 2006Jones, Kenneth W. (1976). Arya dharm : Hindu consciousness in 19th-century Punjab. New Delhi: Manohar. ISBN 978-8173047091 . Retrieved 30 November 2016. * ^ Dalal R. The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths Penguin Books India, 2010. p. 148 ISBN 0143415174 * ^ Jones K. W. Arya Dharm: Hindu Consciousness in 19th-century Punjab
Punjab
University of California Press, 1976. p. 95. ISBN 0520029208

FURTHER READING

* Chamupati M. A. (2001) Ten Commandments of Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
New Delhi: D.A.V. Publications. * Jordens J. T. F. (1978) Dayanada Saraswati Oxford University Press, Delhi. * Rai L. (1915) The Arya Samaj: an Account of its Aims, Doctrine and Activities, with a Biographical Sketch of the Founder D.A.V. College Managing Committee, New Delhi ISBN 978-81-85047-77-5 . * Rai L. (1993) A History of the Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
New Delhi ISBN 81-215-0578-X . * Ruthven M. (2007) Fundamentalism: a Very Short Introduction Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-921270-5 . * Sharma J. M. (1998) Swami Dayanand: a Biography USB, India
India
ISBN 81-7476-212-4 . * Sethi R. "Rashtra Pitamah Swami Dayanand Saraswati" M R Sethi Educational Trust, Chandigarh. * Upadhyaya G. P. (1954) The Origin, Scope and Mission of the Arya Samaj Arya Samaj. * Shastri V. (1967) The Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
Sarvadeshik Arya Pratinidhi Sabha. * Pandey D. (1972) The Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
and Indian Nationalism, 1875–1920 S. Chand. * Pandit S. (1975) A Critical Study of the Contribution of the Arya Samaj to Indian Education Sarvadeshik Arya, Pratinidhi Sabha. * Vedalanker N. and Somera M. (1975) Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
and Indians Abroad Sarvadeshik Arya Pratinidhi Sabha. * Vable D. (1983) The Arya Samaj: Hindu Without Hinduism VikasISBN 0-7069-2131-3 . * Sharma S. K. (1985) Social Movements and Social Change: a Study of Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
and Untouchables in Punjab
Punjab
B.R. Publishing. * Yadav K. C. and Arya K. S. (1988) Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
and the Freedom Movement: 1875–1918 Manohar Publications. ISBN 81-85054-42-8 . * Saxena G. S. (1990) Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
Movement in India, 1875–1947 Commonwealth Publishers. ISBN 81-7169-045-9 . * Sethi R. (2009) Rashtra Pitamah, Swami Dayanand Saraswati M R Sethi Educational Trust, Chandigarh * Chopra R. M. (2009) Hinduism Today * Jamnager A. S. and Pandya D. Aryasamaj Ke Stambh A. S. Jamnager's website. * Jones K. Arya Dharm: Hindu Consciousness in 19th-Century Punjab

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Official website * Aryasamaj Jamnagar * Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
India * Arya/ Pratinidhi Sabha, America * Arya/ Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj
Delhi

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