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Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
(English: /ˌɑːrəˌnɑːtʃəl prəˈdɛʃ/) is one of the 29 states of India
India
and is the northeastern-most state of the country. Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
borders the states of Assam
Assam
and Nagaland
Nagaland
to the south and shares international borders with Bhutan
Bhutan
in the west, Myanmar
Myanmar
in the east and is separated from China
China
in the north by the disputed McMahon Line. Itanagar
Itanagar
is the capital of the state. A major part of the state is claimed by the Republic of China, and the People's Republic of China
China
referring to it as "South Tibet". The major part of the state which is claimed by China, was temporarily occupied by Chinese forces during the 1962 war.[11] Land of the Dawn-Lit Mountains is the sobriquet for the state in Sanskrit;[12] it is also known as the Orchid State of India
India
or the Paradise of the Botanists. Geographically, it is the largest of the north-eastern states known as the Seven Sister States.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 Drawing of McMahon line 1.3 Sino-Indian War

1.3.1 Tawang

1.4 Current name

2 Politics 3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity

4 Districts 5 Major towns

5.1 Municipal councils 5.2 Municipal boards 5.3 Notified towns

6 Economy 7 Tourism 8 Demographics

8.1 Religion 8.2 Languages

9 Transport

9.1 Air 9.2 Roads 9.3 Railway

10 Education 11 State symbols 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit] The history of pre-modern Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
is unclear. According to the Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
government, the Hindu
Hindu
texts Kalika Purana
Kalika Purana
and Mahabharata
Mahabharata
mention the region as the Prabhu Mountains of the Puranas, and where sage Parashurama
Parashurama
washed away sins, the sage Vyasa
Vyasa
meditated, King Bhishmaka
Bhishmaka
founded his kingdom, and Lord Krishna
Krishna
married his consort Rukmini.[13] Recorded history from an outside perspective only became available in the Chutiya
Chutiya
chronicles. The Monpa and Sherdukpen
Sherdukpen
do keep historical records of the existence of local chiefdoms in the northwest as well. Northwestern parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 B.C. and 600 A.D. The remaining parts of the state, especially those bordering Myanmar, were under the control of the Chutiya
Chutiya
Kings. However, most Arunachali tribes remained in practice largely autonomous up until Indian independence and the formalisation of indigenous administration in 1947. Recent excavations of ruins of Hindu
Hindu
temples, such as the 14th century Malinithan
Malinithan
at the foot of the Siang hills in West Siang, indicate they were built during the Chutiya
Chutiya
reign. Another notable heritage site, Bhismaknagar, has led to suggestions that the Idu (Mishmi) had an advanced culture and administration in prehistoric times. Again, however, no evidence directly associates Bhismaknagar with this or any other known culture but the Chutiya
Chutiya
rulers held the areas around Bhismaknagar from the 12th to 16th century. The third heritage site, the 400-year-old Tawang Monastery
Tawang Monastery
in the extreme north-west of the state, provides some historical evidence of the Buddhist tribal people. The sixth Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Tsangyang Gyatso was born in Tawang. Drawing of McMahon line[edit]

British map published in 1909 showing a line different from the McMahon line as the border between India
India
and Tibet
Tibet
(eastern section, top right)

British map published in 1922 shows an Indo-Bhutan-Tibetan border different from the 1909 map.

In 1913–1914 representatives of China, Tibet
Tibet
and Britain met in India
India
ending with the Simla Accord with Tibetan and British representatives agreeing on the McMahon Line.[14] However, the Chinese representatives refused the territory negotiation. This treaty's objective was to define the borders between Inner and Outer Tibet
Tibet
as well as between Outer Tibet
Tibet
and British India. British administrator, Sir Henry McMahon, drew up the 550 miles (890 km) McMahon Line
McMahon Line
as the border between British India
India
and Outer Tibet
Tibet
during the Simla Conference. The Tibetan and British representatives at the conference agreed to the line, and Tawang
Tawang
and other areas ceded to the British Empire, since the British were not able to get an acceptance from China, Chinese considered the McMahon line invalid.[11] The Chinese representative refused to accept the agreement and walked out.[citation needed] The Tibetan and British governments went ahead with the Simla Agreement and declared that the benefits of other articles of this treaty would not be bestowed on China
China
as long as it stays out of the purview.[15] Tibet
Tibet
administered its territory until 1950. The Chinese position was that Tibet
Tibet
was not independent from China: Tibet
Tibet
could not have independently signed treaties, and per the Anglo-Chinese (1906) and Anglo-Russian (1907) conventions, any such agreement was invalid without Chinese assent.[16] However, with the collapse of Chinese power in Tibet, the line had no serious challenges as Tibet
Tibet
had signed the convention. In 1935, a Deputy Secretary in the Foreign Department Olaf Caroe "discovered" that McMahon Line
McMahon Line
was not drawn on official maps. The Survey of India published a map showing the McMahon Line
McMahon Line
as the official boundary in 1937.[17] In 1938, the British finally published the Simla Convention as a bilateral accord two decades after the Simla Conference; in 1938 the Survey of India
India
published a detailed map showing Tawang
Tawang
as part of North-East Frontier Agency. In 1944 Britain established administrations in the area from Dirang Dzong in the west to Walong
Walong
in the east. The situation developed further as India
India
became independent in 1947 and the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) was established in 1949. In November 1950, with the PRC poised to take over Tibet
Tibet
by force, India showed support for the Tibetan government to some extent irking the Chinese government. The McMahon Line
McMahon Line
was considered invalid by the Chinese government.[11] Journalist Sudha Ramachandran argued that China
China
claims Tawang
Tawang
on behalf of Tibetans and Tibetans are not claiming Tawang
Tawang
to be Tibetan territory.[18] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was upset over Mao's "Cultural Revolution" which affected Tibet
Tibet
seriously. In January 2007, he said that in 1914 both the Tibetan government and Britain recognized the McMahon Line.[19] In 2008, he said that "Arunchal Pradesh was a part of India
India
under the agreement signed by Tibetan and British representatives".[20] According to the Dalai Lama, "In 1962 during the India- China
China
war, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) occupied all these areas (Arunachal Pradesh) but they announced a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew, accepting the current international boundary".[21] Sino-Indian War[edit] Main article: Sino-Indian War The NEFA (North-East Frontier Agency) was created in 1954. The issue was quiet for nearly a decade, with a period of cordial Sino-Indian relations, but its resurgence in 1960 was a factor leading to the Sino-Indian border conflict of 1962. During the war in 1962, China captured most of the area of Arunachal Pradesh. However, China
China
soon declared victory, withdrew back to the McMahon Line
McMahon Line
and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963. It is believed by some commentators that Mao wanted to intimidate India
India
for its continued support of the Dalai Lama, and for its stance on Tibet
Tibet
being an independent state and not a Chinese territory. There was a significant influx of Tibetan refugees into India, primarily to Dharamshala
Dharamshala
in North India. The war resulted in the termination of barter trade with Tibet, although since 2007 the Indian government has shown signs of wanting to resume barter trade.[22] Tawang[edit]

Tawang Monastery
Tawang Monastery
(Tibetan Buddhist)

In recent years, China
China
has occasionally made statements in conjunction with its claims on Tawang. India
India
has rebutted these claims by the Chinese government and the Indian Prime Minister
Prime Minister
has informed the Chinese government that Tawang
Tawang
is an integral part of India. India reiterated this to the Chinese prime minister when the two prime ministers met in Thailand
Thailand
in October 2009. It was reported that during 2016, the Chinese Army
Chinese Army
had briefly invaded Arunachal Pradesh. This was refuted by the Minister of State for Home Affairs, Kiren Rijiju.[23] Later, in April 2017, a publicized visit to Tawang
Tawang
by the Dalai Lama (and an earlier visit by the US ambassador to India) was strongly objected to by China
China
and is thought to have strained Indo-China relations.[24] China
China
has previously also objected to the Dalai Lama's visits to the area.[25] Current name[edit] NEFA was renamed as Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
by Late Sri Bibhabasu Das Shastri, the then Director of Research and K.A.A. Raja, the then Chief Commissioner of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
on 20 January 1972, and it became a Union Territory. Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
became a state on 20 February 1987. More recently, Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
has come to face threats from certain insurgent groups, notably the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), who are believed to have base camps in the districts of Changlang
Changlang
and Tirap.[26] These groups intend to decrease the influence of Indian government in the region and want to merge a few territories of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
into Nagaland. Especially along the Tibetan border, the Indian army
Indian army
has a considerable presence due to concerns about Chinese intentions in the region. Special
Special
permits called Inner Line Permits (ILP) are required to enter Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
through any of its checkgates on the border with Assam. China
China
renamed six places in Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
in 2017 and since then these new names started to appear in Chinese maps. Politics[edit] See also: Political Parties in Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
suffered political crisis between April 2016 and December 2016. The Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
Chief Minister Nabam Tuki replaced Jarbom Gamlin
Jarbom Gamlin
as the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh on 1 November 2011 and continued till January 2016. After a political crisis in 2016, President's rule was imposed ending his tenure as the chief minister. In February 2016, Kalikho Pul became the Chief Minister when 14 disqualified MLAs were reinstated by the Supreme Court. On 13 July 2016, the Supreme Court quashed the Arunachal Pradesh Governor J.P. Rajkhowa’s order to advance the Assembly session from 14 January 2016 to 16 December 2015, which resulted in President's rule in Arunachal Pradesh. As a result, Nabam Tuki was reinstated as the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh on 13 July 2016. But hours before floor test, he resigned as the chief minister on 16 July 2016. He was succeeded by Pema Khandu
Pema Khandu
as the INC Chief Minister who later joined PPA in September 2016 along with majority of MLAs. Pema Khandu
Pema Khandu
further joined BJP in December 2016 along with majority of MLAs. Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
becomes 2nd NE state to achieve ODF status[27] Geography[edit]

A kettle lake at Se La in Tawang
Tawang
district.

A view from Bhalukpong, a small town by the southern reaches of the Himalayas.

Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
is located between 26.28° N and 29.30° N latitude and 91.20° E and 97.30° E longitude and has an area of 83,743 km2 The topography rapidly rises to 7000 m at its highest peak. Kangte, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the Himalayas. Numerous river valleys dissect the precipitous terrain of Arunachal. Some of the major rivers are Kameng, Subansiri, Siang, Dibang, Lohit and Noa-Dihing rivers. Mountains till the Siang river are classified under the Eastern Himalayas mountain range. Between the Siang river and the Noa-Dihing river is classified as the Mishmi Hills that may be part of the Hengduan Shan, but the true extents of these mountains is unclear. South of the Noa-Dihing in Tirap and Longding districts, these mountains are parts of the Patkai
Patkai
Range. The rivers are fed by immense abundance of forest cover that absorb moisture and transfer it to subsurface flows. Summer melt water from snow caps also contribute to the volume of water. Either or both Dong Basti and Vijaynagar basti in Arunachal Pradesh receives the first morning sun rays in the entire country, as the easternmost village of the country. The mountain ranges in Arunachal Pradesh are described as "the place where the sun rises" in historical Indian texts and named the Aruna Mountains. Climate[edit] The climate of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
varies with elevation. The low altitude 100 – 1500 m) have a Humid subtropical climate. High altitude and very high altitude areas (3500 – 5500 m) have a subtropical highland climate and alpine climate. Arunachal Pradesh receives 2,000 to 5,000 millimetres (79 to 197 in) of rainfall annually,[28] 70 - 80% obtained between May and October. Biodiversity[edit] In the year 2000 Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
was covered with 63,093 km2 of tree cover [29] (77% of its land area). Arunachal's forests account for one-third of habitat area within the Himalayan biodiversity hot-spot.[30] In 2013, 31,273 km2 of Arunachal's forests were identified as part of a vast area of continuous forests (65,730 km2, including forests in Myanmar, China
China
and Bhutan) known as Intact Forest Landscapes.[31] It harbours over 5000 plants, about 85 terrestrial mammals, over 500 birds and a large number of butterflies, insects and reptiles.[32] At the lowest elevations, essentially at Arunachal Pradesh's border with Assam, are Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests. Much of the state, including the Himalayan foothills and the Patkai
Patkai
hills, are home to Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests. Toward the northern border with Tibet, with increasing elevation, come a mixture of Eastern and Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests followed by Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows and ultimately rock and ice on the highest peaks. It supports a large number of medicinal plants and within Ziro valley of Lower Subansiri district
Lower Subansiri district
158 medicinal plants are being used by its inhabitants.[33] The mountain slopes and hills are covered with alpine, temperate, and subtropical forests of dwarf rhododendron, oak, pine, maple and fir.[34] The state has Mouling and Namdapha national parks. Districts[edit] Main article: Districts of Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
districts

Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
is divided into twenty-three districts, each administered by a district collector. The districts are:

Tawang
Tawang
District West Kameng District East Kameng District Papum Pare District Kurung Kumey District Kra Daadi District Kamle District Lower Subansiri District Upper Subansiri District West Siang
West Siang
District Siang District Lower Siang district East Siang District Upper Siang District Upper Dibang Valley District Lower Dibang Valley District Namsai District Lohit District Anjaw District Changlang
Changlang
District Tirap District Longding District

Major towns[edit] Below are the major towns in Arunachal Pradesh. Municipal councils[edit]

Itanagar
Itanagar
Municipal Council (for greater Itanagar) Pasighat
Pasighat
Municipal Council

Municipal boards[edit]

Aalo Seppa Tezu Daporijo Namsai Ziro Roing Tawang Khonsa Bomdila Pasighat

Notified towns[edit]

Jairampur Deomali Aalo Yingkiong Changlang Miao Basar Dirang Anini Koloriang Rupa Boleng Hawai Sagalee Yupia Doimukh Gumto Longding Pangin Likabali Malinithan Bhalukpong Nampong Hayuliang Palin Jamin Bhismaknagar Akshiganga Mechukha Pasighat

Economy[edit] See also: List of Indian states by GDP The chart below displays the trend of the gross state domestic product of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
at market prices by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in billions of Indian Rupees.[citation needed]

Year Gross Domestic Product (Billion INR)

1980 1.070

1985 2.690

1990 5.080

1995 11.840

2000 17.830

2005 31.880

2010 65.210

2014 155.880

Arunachal Pradesh's gross state domestic product was estimated at US$706 million at current prices in 2004 and US$1.75 billion at current prices in 2012. Agriculture primarily drives the economy. Jhum, the local term used for shifting cultivation is being widely practised among the tribal groups, though owing to the gradual growth of other sources of income in the recent years, it is not being practised as prominently as it was earlier. Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
has close to 61,000 square kilometres of forests, and forest products are the next most significant sector of the economy. Among the crops grown here are rice, maize, millet, wheat, pulses, sugarcane, ginger, and oilseeds. Arunachal is also ideal for horticulture and fruit orchards. Its major industries are rice mills, fruit preservation and processing units, and handloom handicrafts. Sawmills and plywood trades are prohibited under law.[35] There are many saw mills in AP.[36] Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
accounts for a large percentage share of India's untapped hydroelectric potential. In 2008, the government of Arunachal Pradesh signed numerous memorandum of understanding with various companies planning some 42 hydroelectric schemes that will produce electricity in excess of 27,000 MW.[37] Construction of the Upper Siang Hydroelectric Project, which is expected to generate between 10,000 and 12,000 MW, began in April 2009.[38] Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in North East India

Birsa Munda Waterfall

Mehao Lake

Popular tourist attractions include Tawang
Tawang
(a town with a Buddhist monastery) at 3000 m elevation, Ziro
Ziro
(which holds cultural festivals), Yomcha (limestone caves called 'tapen uru'), the Namdapha tiger project in Changlang district
Changlang district
and Sela lake near Bomdila
Bomdila
with its bamboo bridges overhanging the river. Religious places of interest include Malinithan
Malinithan
in Lekhabali, Rukhmininagar near Roing
Roing
(the place as per the popular Hindu
Hindu
mythology, Rukmini, Lord Krishna's wife, said to have lived), and Parshuram Kund
Parshuram Kund
in Lohit district
Lohit district
as Puranas
Puranas
is the lake where sage Parshuram
Parshuram
washed away his sins,[39] The Ganga lake(Gyaker sinyi or Gekar Sinyi) and various other tourist hot spots.

Golden Pagoda at Namsai

The state provides abundant scope for angling, boating, rafting, trekking and hiking. Rafting and trekking are common activities. Some suggested routes for travel or trekking are

Tezpur–Tipi–Bomdila-Tawang-se la pass Tinsukia–Tezu-Parasuramkund Margherita–Miao-Namdapha Itanagar–Ziro-Daporijo–Along (or Aalo)-Pasighat. Aalo
Aalo
– Yomcha (52 km)

Over the years, the Jawaharlal Nehru Museum, Itanagar
Itanagar
has become an important tourist destination in the state capital.[40][41] The Golden Pagoda Monastery at Namsai is another tourist attraction.[42] The state is rich in wildlife and has a number of wildlife sanctuaries and national parks with rare animals, birds and plants. Perhaps the highest diversity of mammals in India
India
is in Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
(200+ species).[43] The diversity of birds is also very high, 700+ and is second only to Assam.[44] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Arunachal Pradesh

Nishi man in traditional dress

Population Growth 

Census Pop.

1961 337,000

1971 468,000

38.9%

1981 632,000

35.0%

1991 865,000

36.9%

2001 1,098,000

26.9%

2011 1,382,611

25.9%

Source:Census of India[45] First ever census was carried out in 1961.

Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
can be roughly divided into a set of semi-distinct cultural spheres, on the basis of tribal identity, language, religion and material culture: the Tibetic area bordering Bhutan
Bhutan
in the west, the Tani area in the centre of the state, the Mishmi area to the east of the Tani area, the Tai/Singpho/ Tangsa
Tangsa
area bordering Myanmar, and the "Naga" area to the south, which also borders Myanmar. In between there are transition zones, such as the Aka/Hruso/Miji/Sherdukpen area, which provides a "buffer" of sorts between the Tibetan Buddhist tribes and the animist Tani hill tribes. In addition, there are isolated peoples scattered throughout the state, such as the Sulung. Within each of these cultural spheres, one finds populations of related tribes speaking related languages and sharing similar traditions. In the Tibetic area, one finds large numbers of Monpa tribespeople, with several subtribes speaking closely related but mutually incomprehensible languages, and also large numbers of Tibetan refugees. Within the Tani area, major tribes include the Nyishi. Apatani also live among the Nyishi, but are distinct. In the centre, one finds predominantly Galo people, with the major sub-groups of Karka, Lodu, Bogum, Lare
Lare
and Pugo among others, extending to the Ramo and Pailibo areas (which are close in many ways to Galo). In the east, one finds the Adi with many subtribes including Padam, Pasi, Minyong and Bokar, among others. Milang, while also falling within the general "Adi" sphere, are in many ways quite distinct. Moving east, the Idu, Miju and Digaru make up the "Mishmi" cultural-linguistic area, which may or may not form a coherent historical grouping. Moving southeast, the Tai Khamti are linguistically distinct from their neighbours and culturally distinct from the majority of other Arunachalese tribes. They follow the Theravada
Theravada
sect of Buddhism. They also exhibit considerable convergence with the Singpho and Tangsa tribes of the same area, all of which are also found in Burma. The Khamptis and Singphos have a huge demographic presence even in the neighbouring state of Assam, in places viz. Naharkatiya, Narayanpur of Lakhimpur districts of Assam. They one of the most recent people group migrated to Arunachal region from Burma and Asaam. The Nocte and Wancho are another two major ethnic tribs. Both the tribes exhibit very much cultural similarities. Finally the Deori tribe is also a major community in the satate, with their own distinctive identity. The Deoris are one of the only Arunachal tribe in the historical records-which shows they are among the first ethnic groups to inhabit the Himalayas of the distriects of Dibang Valley and Lohit, before the arrival of other many tribesin the region between 1600 and 1900.

Buddhism
Buddhism
is practised by 13% of the population. Shown here is a statue of the Buddha in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh.

Literacy has risen in official figures to 66.95% in 2011 from 54.74% in 2001. The literate population is said to number 789,943. The number of literate males is 454,532 (73.69%) and the number of literate females is 335,411 (59.57%).[46] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Arunachal Pradesh

Religion in State (2011)[47]    Christianity
Christianity
(30.26%)    Hinduism
Hinduism
(29.04%)    Donyi-Polo
Donyi-Polo
(26.2%)    Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
(11.76%)    Islam
Islam
(1.9%)   Other (0.84%)

An uncertain but relatively large percentage of Arunachal's population are nature worshippers (indigenous religions), and follow their own distinct traditional institutions like the Nyedar Namlo by the Nyishi, the Rangfrah by the Tangsa
Tangsa
& Nocte, Medar Melo by the Apatani, the Kargu Gamgi by the Galo and Donyi-Polo
Donyi-Polo
Dere by the Adi under the umbrella of the indigenous religion the Donyi-Polo. A small number of Arunachali people have traditionally identified as Hindus,[48] although the number may grow as animist traditions are merged with Hindu
Hindu
traditions. Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
predominates in the districts of Tawang, West Kameng, and isolated regions adjacent to Tibet. Theravada Buddhism
Buddhism
is practised by groups living near the Burmese border. Around 30% of the population are followers of the Christian faith.[49] According to the 2011 Indian Census, the religions of Arunachal Pradesh break down as follows:[50]

Christian: 418,732 (30.26%) Hindu: 401,876 (29.04%) Others (mostly Donyi-Polo): 362,553 (26.2%) Buddhist: 162,815 (11.76%) Muslim: 27,045 (1.9%) Sikh: 1,865 (0.1%) Jain: 216 (<0.1%)

As per 2001 census, out of the 705,158 tribals living in Arunachal, 333,102 are Animist (47.24%), 186,617 are Christian (26.46%), 92,577 are Hindu
Hindu
(13.13%), and 82,634 are Buddhist (11.72%). Out of the 101 recognised tribes, 37 have an animist majority (Nyishi, Adi Gallong, Tagin, Adi Minyong, Adi, Apatani.etc.), 23 have a Christian majority (Wancho, Mossang Tangsa, Bori, Lisu or Yobin.etc.), 15 have a Hindu
Hindu
majority (Mishmi, Mishing/Miri, Deori, Aka, Longchang Tangsa.etc.) and 17 have a Buddhist majority (Monpa, Khampti, Tawang Monpa, Momba, Singpho, Sherdukpen.etc.). The remaining eight tribes are multi-faith, i.e., they do not have a dominant religion (Nocte, Tangsa, Naga.etc.).[51] Languages[edit]

Languages of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
in 2001[52][53][54]   Nyishi (18.94%)   Adi (17.57%)   Bengali (8.8%)   Nepali (8.5%)    Hindi
Hindi
(7.3%)   Assamese (4.6%)   Monpa (5.1%)   Wancho (4.3%)    Tangsa
Tangsa
(3.1%)   Mishmi (3.1%)   Mishing (3.0%)   Nocte (2.9%)   Other (11.5%)

Modern-day Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
is one of the linguistically richest and most diverse regions in all of Asia, being home to at least 30 and possibly as many as 50 distinct languages in addition to innumerable dialects and subdialects thereof. Boundaries between languages very often correlate with tribal divisions—for example, the Apatani and Nyishi are tribally and linguistically distinct—but shifts in tribal identity and alignment over time have also ensured that a certain amount of complication enters into the picture—for example, the Galo language is and has seemingly always been linguistically distinct from Adi, whereas the earlier tribal alignment of Galo with Adi (i.e., "Adi Gallong") has only recently been essentially dissolved. The vast majority of languages indigenous to modern-day Arunachal Pradesh belong to the Tibeto-Burman family. The majority of these in turn belong to a single branch of Tibeto-Burman, namely Abo-Tani language. Almost all Tani languages are indigenous to central Arunachal Pradesh, including (moving from west to east) the Nyishi, the Apatani, the Tagin, the Galo, the Bokar, the Adi, the Padam, the Pasi, and the Minyong. The Tani languages are noticeably characterised by an overall relative uniformity, suggesting relatively recent origin and dispersal within their present-day area of concentration. Most of the Tani languages are mutually intelligible with at least one other Tani language, meaning that the area constitutes a dialect chain, as was once found in much of Europe; only Apatani and Milang
Milang
stand out as relatively unusual in the Tani context. Tani languages are among the better-studied languages of the region. To the east of the Tani area lie three virtually undescribed and highly endangered languages of the "Mishmi" group of Tibeto-Burman: Idu, Digaru and Miju. A number of speakers of these languages are also found in Tibet. The relationships of these languages, both amongst one another and to other area languages, are as yet uncertain. Further south, one finds the Singpho (Kachin) language, which is primarily spoken by large populations in Myanmar's Kachin State, and the Nocte and Wancho languages, which show affiliations to certain Naga languages spoken to the south in modern-day Nagaland. To the west and north of the Tani area are found at least one and possibly as many as four Bodic languages, including Dakpa and Tshangla language; within modern-day India, these languages go by the cognate but, in usage, distinct designations Monpa and Memba. Most speakers of these languages or closely related Bodic languages
Bodic languages
are found in neighbouring Bhutan
Bhutan
and Tibet, and Monpa and Memba populations remain closely adjacent to these border regions. Between the Bodic and Tani areas lie a large number of almost completely undescribed and unclassified languages, which, speculatively considered Tibeto-Burman, exhibit many unique structural and lexical properties that probably reflect both a long history in the region and a complex history of language contact with neighbouring populations. Among them are Sherdukpen, Bugun, Aka/Hruso, Koro, Miji, Bangru and Puroik/Sulung. The high linguistic significance these languages is belied by the extreme paucity of documentation and description of them, even in view of their highly endangered status. Puroik, in particular, is perhaps one of the most culturally and linguistically unique and significant populations in all of Asia from proto-historical and anthropological-linguistic perspectives, and yet virtually no information of any real reliability regarding their culture or language can be found in print. Finally, other than the Bodic and Tani groups, there are also certain migratory languages which are largely spoken by migratory and central government employees serving in the state in different departments and institutions in modern-day Arunachal Pradesh. They are classified as Non-Tribal as per the provisions of the Constitution of India. Outside of Tibeto-Burman, one finds in Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
a single representative of the Tai family, spoken by tribes like the Khampti and Singpho, which is closely affiliated to the Shan language
Shan language
of Myanmar's Shan State. Seemingly, Khampti is a recent arrival in Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
whose presence dates to 18th and/or early 19th-century migrations from northern Myanmar. In addition to these non-Indo-European languages, the Indo-European languages Assamese, Bengali, English, Nepali and especially Hindi
Hindi
are making strong inroads into Arunachal Pradesh. Primarily as a result of the primary education system—in which classes are generally taught by Hindi-speaking immigrant teachers from Bihar
Bihar
and other Hindi-speaking parts of northern India, a large and growing section of the population now speaks a semi-creolized variety of Hindi
Hindi
as a mother tongue. Hindi
Hindi
acts as a lingua franca for most of the people in the state.[55] Despite, or perhaps because of, the linguistic diversity of the region, English is the only official language recognised in the state. The speakers of major languages of the state according to the 2001 census are Nyishi (208,337), Adi (193,379), Bengali (97,149), Nepali (94,919), Hindi
Hindi
(81,186), Monpa (55,428), Assamese (51,551), Wancho (48,544), Tangsa
Tangsa
(34,231), Mishmi (33,522), Mishing (33,381), Nocte (32,591), and Others (64,711).[56][57] Transport[edit] Air[edit] Itanagar
Itanagar
Airport, a Greenfield project serving Itanagar
Itanagar
is being planned at Holongi at a cost of Rs. 6.50 billion.[58] The existing state owned Daporijo
Daporijo
Airport, Ziro
Ziro
Airport, Along Airport, Tezu
Tezu
Airport and Pasighat
Pasighat
Airport are small and are not in operation. The government has proposed to operationalise these airports.[59] Before the state was connected by roads, these airstrips were originally used for the transportation of food. Roads[edit]

Road Tinsukia to Parashuram Kund in Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
has two highways: the 336 km National Highway 52, completed in 1998, which connects Jonai
Jonai
with Dirak,[60] and another highway, which connects Tezpur
Tezpur
in Assam
Assam
with Tawang. Arunachal Pradesh State Transport Services (or APSTS) is the state-owned road transport corporation. APSTS is running daily bus services from Itanagar
Itanagar
to most district headquarters including Tezpur, Guwahati
Guwahati
in Assam
Assam
and Shillong
Shillong
in Meghalaya
Meghalaya
as well as Dimapur
Dimapur
in Nagaland.[61][62][63][64] As of 2007, every village has been connected by road thanks to funding provided by the central government. Every small town has its own bus station and daily bus services are available. All places are connected to Assam, which has increased trading activity. An additional National Highway is being constructed following the Stillwell Ledo Road, which connects Ledo in Assam
Assam
to Jairampur
Jairampur
in Arunachal. Work on the ambitious 2,400 km two-lane Trans-Arunachal Highway Project announced by Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Manmohan Singh on 31 January 2008 on his maiden visit to the state, was scheduled to be completed by 2015–16 but now due to political and social reasons it may take another decade. New longest India
India
bridge is already constructed because of prime minister Narendra modi
Narendra modi
on 28 May 2017. In 2014, two major highways were proposed to be built in the state: East-West Industrial Corridor Highway, Arunachal Pradesh in the lower foot hills of the state and 2,000-kilometre-long (1,200 mi) Mago- Thingbu
Thingbu
to Vijaynagar Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Frontier Highway along the McMahon Line,[65][66][67][68] alignment map of which can be seen here [69] and here.[70][71] Railway[edit] Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
got its first railway line in late 2013 with the opening of the new link line from Harmuti on the main Rangpara North-Murkongselak railway line to Naharlagun
Naharlagun
in Arunachal Pradesh. The construction of the 33 kilometre 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge railway line was completed in 2012, and the link became operational after the gauge conversion of the main line from Assam. The state capital Itanagar
Itanagar
was added to the Indian railway map on 12 April 2014 via the newly built 20 kilometre Harmuti- Naharlagun
Naharlagun
railway line, when a train from Dekargaon in Assam reached Naharlagun
Naharlagun
railway station, 10 kilometres from the centre of Itanagar, a total distance of 181 kilometres.[72][73] On 20 February 2015 the first through train was run from New Delhi
New Delhi
to Naharlagun, flagged off from the capital by the Indian prime minister, Narendra Modi. India
India
plans to eventually extend the railway to Tawang, near the border with China.[74] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Arunachal Pradesh See also: List of institutions of higher education in Arunachal Pradesh

NERIST academic block

St Claret College Ziro

The state government is expanding the relatively underdeveloped education system with the assistance of NGOs like Vivekananda Kendra, leading to a sharp improvement in the state's literacy rate. The main universities are the Rajiv Gandhi University (formerly known as Arunachal University), under which come 36 institutions offering regular undergraduate courses as well as teacher education and health sciences and nursing degrees, both under governmental and private managements, Indira Gandhi Technological and Medical Sciences University and Himalayan University[75] as well. The first college, Jawaharlal Nehru College, Pasighat, was established in 1964. The First Technical University is Established in 2014 namely North East Frontier Technical University (NEFTU). In Aalo, West Siang
West Siang
District by The Automobile Society India, New Delhi. There is also a deemed university, the North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology as well as the National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, established on 18 August 2010, is located in Yupia (headquarter of Itanagar).[76] NERIST plays an important role in technical and management higher education. The directorate of technical education conducts examinations yearly so that students who qualify can continue on to higher studies in other states. Of the above institutions, only the following institutions are accredited by NAAC (National Assessment and Accreditation Council), in the order of their grade: Jawaharlal Nehru College, Pasighat
Pasighat
(Grade A), St Claret College, Ziro
Ziro
(Grade A), Indira Gandhi Govt. College, Tezu
Tezu
(Grade B++), Rajiv Gandhi University (Grade B), National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
(Grade B), Dera Natung Government College, Itanagar
Itanagar
(Grade B), Govt. College, Bomdila
Bomdila
(Grade B), Donyi Polo Govt. College, Kamki (Grade B), and Rang Frah Govt. College, Changeling (Grade C). There are also trust institutes, like Pali Vidyapith, run by Buddhists. They teach Pali and Khamti scripts in addition to typical education subjects. Khamti is the only tribe in Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
that has its own script. Libraries of scriptures are in a number of places in Lohit district, the largest one being in Chowkham. The state has two polytechnic institutes: Rajiv Gandhi Government Polytechnic in Itanagar
Itanagar
established in 2002 and Tomi Polytechnic College in Basar established in 2006. There is one law college called Arunachal Law Academy at Itanagar. The College of Horticulture and Forestry is affiliated to the Central Agricultural University, Imphal. State symbols[edit] See also: List of symbols of Indian states and territories

Animal Mithun (Bos frontalis)

Bird Hornbill (Buceros bicornis)

Flower Foxtail orchid (Rhynchostylis retusa)

Tree Hollong (Dipterocarpus macrocarpus)[77]

Sport

See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia portal South Asia portal India
India
portal Himalaya region portal

Cuisine of Arunachal Pradesh Religion in Arunachal Pradesh List of people from Arunachal Pradesh List of institutions of higher education in Arunachal Pradesh Ministry for Development of North Eastern Region Sino-Indian border dispute

South Tibet McMahon Line North-East Frontier Agency Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
election, 2014; Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
election, 2009 Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Legislative Assembly

References[edit]

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Tibet
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China
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Dalai Lama
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Arunachal Pradesh
Himalayas". Weather. 59 (6): 155–157. doi:10.1256/wea.87.03. ISSN 1477-8696.  ^ Hansen, M. C.; Potapov, P. V.; Moore, R.; Hancher, M.; Turubanova, S. A.; Tyukavina, A.; Thau, D.; Stehman, S. V.; Goetz, S. J. (2013-11-15). "High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st-Century Forest Cover Change". Science. 342 (6160): 850–853. doi:10.1126/science.1244693. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 24233722.  ^ Mittermeier, Russell A. (2004). Hotspots revisited. Cemex.  ^ Potapov, Peter; Hansen, Matthew C.; Laestadius, Lars; Turubanova, Svetlana; Yaroshenko, Alexey; Thies, Christoph; Smith, Wynet; Zhuravleva, Ilona; Komarova, Anna (2017-01-01). "The last frontiers of wilderness: Tracking loss of intact forest landscapes from 2000 to 2013". Science Advances. 3 (1): e1600821. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1600821. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 5235335 . PMID 28097216.  ^ Govt of Arunachal Pradesh. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-31.  ^ Kala, CP (2005). "Ethnomedicinal botany of the Apatani in the Eastern Himalayan region of India". J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 1: 11. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-1-11. PMC 1315349 . PMID 16288657.  ^ Champion, Sir HG, and Shiam Kishore Seth. (1968). A revised survey of the forest types of India(1968). CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Economy Archived 8 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine., This Is My India ^ http://www.mapsofindia.com/arunachal-pradesh/economy.html ^ "Massive dam plans for Arunachal". Indiatogether.org. Retrieved 6 October 2010.  ^ " India
India
pre-empts Chinese design in Arunachal". The New Indian Express.  ^ "70,000 devotees take holy dip in Parshuram
Parshuram
Kund". Indian Express. Jan 18, 2013. Retrieved 2014-06-29.  ^ "Itanagar". Government of Arunachal Pradesh. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Jawaharlal Nehru State Museum..  ^ "President to visit Arunachal Pradesh". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 14 October 2002. ..Jawaharlal Nehru State Museum..  ^ Hundred novice monks ordained at the Golden Pagoda Archived 22 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The Arunachal Times ^ Choudhury, Anwaruddin (2003) The mammals of Arunachal Pradesh. Regency Pub., New Delhi. ^ Choudhury, Anwaruddin (2006) A pocket guide to the birds of Arunachal Pradesh. Gibbon Books & Rhino Foundation (supported by OBC, UK), Guwahati, India. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2008.  ^ "Census of India: Provisional Population Tables – Census 2011" (PDF). Censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2011.  ^ "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.  ^ "How churches in Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
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India
– Religious Composition". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 27 August 2015.  ^ Table ST-14, Census of India
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2001 ^ "Distribution of the 22 Scheduled Languages". Census of India. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2001. Retrieved 4 January 2014.  ^ "Census Reference Tables, A-Series – Total Population". Census of India. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2001. Retrieved 4 January 2014.  ^ [1] Census 2011 Non scheduled languages ^ https://scroll.in/article/675419/how-hindi-became-the-language-of-choice-in-arunachal-pradesh ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/partb.htm Archived 11 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine. 2001 census language data ^ Scheduled languages, census 2001 ^ "PMO ends tussle between AAI and Arunachal". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 28 July 2012. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.  ^ "Govt considering setting up of 3 greenfield airports in NE". The Hindu
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bus service flagged off ^ Night coach bus services introduced Archived 3 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine. ^ PSTS: ^ [2] Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Top officials to meet to expedite road building along China border". Dipak Kumar Dash. timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ " Narendra Modi
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Capital Itanagar
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Arunachal Pradesh
Symbols". knowindia.gov.in. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutArunachal Pradeshat's sister projects

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Government

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General information

Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
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Arunachal Pradesh
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Geographic data related to Arunachal Pradesh
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at OpenStreetMap

Places adjacent to Arunachal Pradesh

Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region,  China

Samdrup Jongkhar, Trashigang and Trashiyangtse Districts,  Bhutan

Arunachal Pradesh

 Kachin State,  Myanmar

Assam Nagaland  Sagaing Region,  Myanmar

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Capital: Itanagar

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Major Towns

Itanagar Naharlagun Pasighat Along (Aalo) Seppa Tezu Daporijo Namsai Ziro Roing Tawang Khonsa Bomdila Jairampur Deomali Yingkiong Changlang Miao Basar Dirang Anini Koloriang Rupa Boleng Hawai Sagalee Yupia Doimukh Gumto Longding Pangin Likabali Malinithan Bhalukpong Nampong Hayuliang Palin Jamin Bhismaknagar Akshiganga

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Protected Areas

Kaziranga National Park Namdapha National Park Orang National Park Manas National Park Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Nameri National Park Balphakram National Park Nokrek National Park Mouling National Park Keibul Lamjao National Park Sirohi National Park Murlen National Park Ntangki National Park Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary Gorumara National Park Singalila National Park Neora Valley National Park Jaldapara National Park

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Kangchenjunga Naga Hills Patkai
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 244714

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