Arunachal Pradesh (English: /ˌɑːrəˌnɑːtʃəl prəˈdɛʃ/) is
one of the 29 states of
India and is the northeastern-most state of
Arunachal Pradesh borders the states of
Nagaland to the south and shares international borders with
Myanmar in the east and is separated from
China in the north
by the disputed McMahon Line.
Itanagar is the capital of the state.
A major part of the state is claimed by the Republic of China, and the
People's Republic of
China referring to it as "South Tibet". The major
part of the state which is claimed by China, was temporarily occupied
by Chinese forces during the 1962 war.
Land of the Dawn-Lit Mountains is the sobriquet for the state in
Sanskrit; it is also known as the Orchid State of
India or the
Paradise of the Botanists. Geographically, it is the largest of the
north-eastern states known as the Seven Sister States.
1.1 Early history
1.2 Drawing of McMahon line
1.3 Sino-Indian War
1.4 Current name
5 Major towns
5.1 Municipal councils
5.2 Municipal boards
5.3 Notified towns
11 State symbols
12 See also
14 External links
The history of pre-modern
Arunachal Pradesh is unclear. According to
Arunachal Pradesh government, the
Kalika Purana and
Mahabharata mention the region as the Prabhu Mountains of the Puranas,
and where sage
Parashurama washed away sins, the sage
Bhishmaka founded his kingdom, and Lord
Krishna married his
Recorded history from an outside perspective only became available in
Chutiya chronicles. The Monpa and
Sherdukpen do keep historical
records of the existence of local chiefdoms in the northwest as well.
Northwestern parts of this area came under the control of the Monpa
kingdom of Monyul, which flourished between 500 B.C. and 600 A.D. The
remaining parts of the state, especially those bordering Myanmar, were
under the control of the
Chutiya Kings. However, most Arunachali
tribes remained in practice largely autonomous up until Indian
independence and the formalisation of indigenous administration in
Recent excavations of ruins of
Hindu temples, such as the 14th century
Malinithan at the foot of the Siang hills in West Siang, indicate they
were built during the
Chutiya reign. Another notable heritage site,
Bhismaknagar, has led to suggestions that the Idu (Mishmi) had an
advanced culture and administration in prehistoric times. Again,
however, no evidence directly associates
Bhismaknagar with this or any
other known culture but the
Chutiya rulers held the areas around
Bhismaknagar from the 12th to 16th century. The third heritage site,
Tawang Monastery in the extreme north-west of the
state, provides some historical evidence of the Buddhist tribal
people. The sixth
Dalai Lama Tsangyang Gyatso was born in Tawang.
Drawing of McMahon line
British map published in 1909 showing a line different from the
McMahon line as the border between
Tibet (eastern section,
British map published in 1922 shows an Indo-Bhutan-Tibetan border
different from the 1909 map.
In 1913–1914 representatives of China,
Tibet and Britain met in
India ending with the Simla Accord with Tibetan and British
representatives agreeing on the McMahon Line. However, the Chinese
representatives refused the territory negotiation. This treaty's
objective was to define the borders between Inner and Outer
well as between Outer
Tibet and British India. British administrator,
Sir Henry McMahon, drew up the 550 miles (890 km)
McMahon Line as
the border between British
India and Outer
Tibet during the Simla
Conference. The Tibetan and British representatives at the conference
agreed to the line, and
Tawang and other areas ceded to the British
Empire, since the British were not able to get an acceptance from
China, Chinese considered the McMahon line invalid. The Chinese
representative refused to accept the agreement and walked
The Tibetan and British governments went ahead with the Simla
Agreement and declared that the benefits of other articles of this
treaty would not be bestowed on
China as long as it stays out of the
Tibet administered its territory until 1950. The Chinese
position was that
Tibet was not independent from China:
not have independently signed treaties, and per the Anglo-Chinese
(1906) and Anglo-Russian (1907) conventions, any such agreement was
invalid without Chinese assent.
However, with the collapse of Chinese power in Tibet, the line had no
serious challenges as
Tibet had signed the convention. In 1935, a
Deputy Secretary in the Foreign Department
Olaf Caroe "discovered"
McMahon Line was not drawn on official maps. The Survey of India
published a map showing the
McMahon Line as the official boundary in
In 1938, the British finally published the Simla Convention as a
bilateral accord two decades after the Simla Conference; in 1938 the
India published a detailed map showing
Tawang as part of
North-East Frontier Agency. In 1944 Britain established
administrations in the area from
Dirang Dzong in the west to
The situation developed further as
India became independent in 1947
and the People's Republic of
China (PRC) was established in 1949. In
November 1950, with the PRC poised to take over
Tibet by force, India
showed support for the Tibetan government to some extent irking the
Chinese government. The
McMahon Line was considered invalid by the
Chinese government. Journalist Sudha Ramachandran argued that
Tawang on behalf of Tibetans and Tibetans are not
Tawang to be Tibetan territory.
Dalai Lama was upset over Mao's "Cultural Revolution" which
Tibet seriously. In January 2007, he said that in 1914 both
the Tibetan government and Britain recognized the McMahon Line. In
2008, he said that "Arunchal Pradesh was a part of
India under the
agreement signed by Tibetan and British representatives".
According to the Dalai Lama, "In 1962 during the India-
China war, the
People's Liberation Army (PLA) occupied all these areas (Arunachal
Pradesh) but they announced a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew,
accepting the current international boundary".
Main article: Sino-Indian War
The NEFA (North-East Frontier Agency) was created in 1954. The issue
was quiet for nearly a decade, with a period of cordial Sino-Indian
relations, but its resurgence in 1960 was a factor leading to the
Sino-Indian border conflict of 1962. During the war in 1962, China
captured most of the area of Arunachal Pradesh. However,
declared victory, withdrew back to the
McMahon Line and returned
Indian prisoners of war in 1963. It is believed by some commentators
that Mao wanted to intimidate
India for its continued support of the
Dalai Lama, and for its stance on
Tibet being an independent state and
not a Chinese territory. There was a significant influx of Tibetan
refugees into India, primarily to
Dharamshala in North India.
The war resulted in the termination of barter trade with Tibet,
although since 2007 the Indian government has shown signs of wanting
to resume barter trade.
Tawang Monastery (Tibetan Buddhist)
In recent years,
China has occasionally made statements in conjunction
with its claims on Tawang.
India has rebutted these claims by the
Chinese government and the Indian
Prime Minister has informed the
Chinese government that
Tawang is an integral part of India. India
reiterated this to the Chinese prime minister when the two prime
ministers met in
Thailand in October 2009. It was reported that during
Chinese Army had briefly invaded Arunachal Pradesh. This was
refuted by the Minister of State for Home Affairs, Kiren Rijiju.
Later, in April 2017, a publicized visit to
Tawang by the Dalai Lama
(and an earlier visit by the US ambassador to India) was strongly
objected to by
China and is thought to have strained Indo-China
China has previously also objected to the Dalai Lama's
visits to the area.
NEFA was renamed as
Arunachal Pradesh by Late Sri Bibhabasu Das
Shastri, the then Director of Research and K.A.A. Raja, the then Chief
Arunachal Pradesh on 20 January 1972, and it became a
Arunachal Pradesh became a state on 20 February 1987.
Arunachal Pradesh has come to face threats from certain
insurgent groups, notably the National Socialist Council of Nagaland
(NSCN), who are believed to have base camps in the districts of
Changlang and Tirap. These groups intend to decrease the influence
of Indian government in the region and want to merge a few territories
Arunachal Pradesh into Nagaland.
Especially along the Tibetan border, the
Indian army has a
considerable presence due to concerns about Chinese intentions in the
Special permits called Inner Line Permits (ILP) are required
Arunachal Pradesh through any of its checkgates on the border
China renamed six places in
Arunachal Pradesh in 2017 and
since then these new names started to appear in Chinese maps.
See also: Political Parties in Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh suffered political crisis between April 2016 and
December 2016. The
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress Chief Minister Nabam Tuki
Jarbom Gamlin as the
Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh on 1
November 2011 and continued till January 2016. After a political
crisis in 2016,
President's rule was imposed ending his tenure as the
chief minister. In February 2016,
Kalikho Pul became the Chief
Minister when 14 disqualified MLAs were reinstated by the Supreme
Court. On 13 July 2016, the Supreme Court quashed the Arunachal
Pradesh Governor J.P. Rajkhowa’s order to advance the Assembly
session from 14 January 2016 to 16 December 2015, which resulted in
President's rule in Arunachal Pradesh. As a result,
Nabam Tuki was
reinstated as the
Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh on 13 July 2016.
But hours before floor test, he resigned as the chief minister on 16
July 2016. He was succeeded by
Pema Khandu as the INC Chief Minister
who later joined PPA in September 2016 along with majority of MLAs.
Pema Khandu further joined BJP in December 2016 along with majority of
Arunachal Pradesh becomes 2nd NE state to achieve ODF status
A kettle lake at Se La in
A view from Bhalukpong, a small town by the southern reaches of the
Arunachal Pradesh is located between 26.28° N and 29.30° N latitude
and 91.20° E and 97.30° E longitude and has an area of
83,743 km2 The topography rapidly rises to 7000 m at its highest
peak. Kangte, Nyegi Kangsang, the main Gorichen peak and the Eastern
Gorichen peak are some of the highest peaks in this region of the
Himalayas. Numerous river valleys dissect the precipitous terrain of
Arunachal. Some of the major rivers are Kameng, Subansiri, Siang,
Dibang, Lohit and Noa-Dihing rivers. Mountains till the Siang river
are classified under the Eastern Himalayas mountain range. Between the
Siang river and the Noa-Dihing river is classified as the Mishmi Hills
that may be part of the Hengduan Shan, but the true extents of these
mountains is unclear. South of the Noa-Dihing in Tirap and Longding
districts, these mountains are parts of the
Patkai Range. The rivers
are fed by immense abundance of forest cover that absorb moisture and
transfer it to subsurface flows. Summer melt water from snow caps also
contribute to the volume of water.
Either or both Dong Basti and Vijaynagar basti in Arunachal Pradesh
receives the first morning sun rays in the entire country, as the
easternmost village of the country. The mountain ranges in Arunachal
Pradesh are described as "the place where the sun rises" in historical
Indian texts and named the Aruna Mountains.
The climate of
Arunachal Pradesh varies with elevation. The low
altitude 100 – 1500 m) have a Humid subtropical climate. High
altitude and very high altitude areas (3500 – 5500 m) have a
subtropical highland climate and alpine climate. Arunachal Pradesh
receives 2,000 to 5,000 millimetres (79 to 197 in) of rainfall
annually, 70 - 80% obtained between May and October.
In the year 2000
Arunachal Pradesh was covered with 63,093 km2 of
tree cover  (77% of its land area). Arunachal's forests account
for one-third of habitat area within the Himalayan biodiversity
hot-spot. In 2013, 31,273 km2 of Arunachal's forests were
identified as part of a vast area of continuous forests
(65,730 km2, including forests in Myanmar,
China and Bhutan)
known as Intact Forest Landscapes. It harbours over 5000 plants,
about 85 terrestrial mammals, over 500 birds and a large number of
butterflies, insects and reptiles. At the lowest elevations,
essentially at Arunachal Pradesh's border with Assam, are Brahmaputra
Valley semi-evergreen forests. Much of the state, including the
Himalayan foothills and the
Patkai hills, are home to Eastern
Himalayan broadleaf forests. Toward the northern border with Tibet,
with increasing elevation, come a mixture of Eastern and Northeastern
Himalayan subalpine conifer forests followed by Eastern Himalayan
alpine shrub and meadows and ultimately rock and ice on the highest
peaks. It supports a large number of medicinal plants and within Ziro
Lower Subansiri district
Lower Subansiri district 158 medicinal plants are being used
by its inhabitants. The mountain slopes and hills are covered with
alpine, temperate, and subtropical forests of dwarf rhododendron, oak,
pine, maple and fir. The state has Mouling and Namdapha national
Main article: Districts of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh districts
Arunachal Pradesh is divided into twenty-three districts, each
administered by a district collector. The districts are:
West Kameng District
East Kameng District
Papum Pare District
Kurung Kumey District
Kra Daadi District
Lower Subansiri District
Upper Subansiri District
West Siang District
Lower Siang district
East Siang District
Upper Siang District
Upper Dibang Valley District
Lower Dibang Valley District
Below are the major towns in Arunachal Pradesh.
Itanagar Municipal Council (for greater Itanagar)
Pasighat Municipal Council
See also: List of Indian states by GDP
The chart below displays the trend of the gross state domestic product
Arunachal Pradesh at market prices by the Ministry of Statistics
and Programme Implementation with figures in billions of Indian
Gross Domestic Product (Billion INR)
Arunachal Pradesh's gross state domestic product was estimated at
US$706 million at current prices in 2004 and US$1.75 billion at
current prices in 2012. Agriculture primarily drives the economy.
Jhum, the local term used for shifting cultivation is being widely
practised among the tribal groups, though owing to the gradual growth
of other sources of income in the recent years, it is not being
practised as prominently as it was earlier.
Arunachal Pradesh has
close to 61,000 square kilometres of forests, and forest products are
the next most significant sector of the economy. Among the crops grown
here are rice, maize, millet, wheat, pulses, sugarcane, ginger, and
oilseeds. Arunachal is also ideal for horticulture and fruit orchards.
Its major industries are rice mills, fruit preservation and processing
units, and handloom handicrafts. Sawmills and plywood trades are
prohibited under law. There are many saw mills in AP.
Arunachal Pradesh accounts for a large percentage share of India's
untapped hydroelectric potential. In 2008, the government of Arunachal
Pradesh signed numerous memorandum of understanding with various
companies planning some 42 hydroelectric schemes that will produce
electricity in excess of 27,000 MW. Construction of the Upper
Siang Hydroelectric Project, which is expected to generate between
10,000 and 12,000 MW, began in April 2009.
Main article: Tourism in North East India
Birsa Munda Waterfall
Popular tourist attractions include
Tawang (a town with a Buddhist
monastery) at 3000 m elevation,
Ziro (which holds cultural
festivals), Yomcha (limestone caves called 'tapen uru'), the Namdapha
tiger project in
Changlang district and Sela lake near
its bamboo bridges overhanging the river. Religious places of interest
Malinithan in Lekhabali, Rukhmininagar near
Roing (the place
as per the popular
Hindu mythology, Rukmini, Lord Krishna's wife, said
to have lived), and
Parshuram Kund in
Lohit district as
Puranas is the
lake where sage
Parshuram washed away his sins, The Ganga
lake(Gyaker sinyi or Gekar Sinyi) and various other tourist hot spots.
Golden Pagoda at Namsai
The state provides abundant scope for angling, boating, rafting,
trekking and hiking. Rafting and trekking are common activities. Some
suggested routes for travel or trekking are
Tezpur–Tipi–Bomdila-Tawang-se la pass
Itanagar–Ziro-Daporijo–Along (or Aalo)-Pasighat.
Aalo – Yomcha (52 km)
Over the years, the Jawaharlal Nehru Museum,
Itanagar has become an
important tourist destination in the state capital.
The Golden Pagoda Monastery at Namsai is another tourist
The state is rich in wildlife and has a number of wildlife sanctuaries
and national parks with rare animals, birds and plants. Perhaps the
highest diversity of mammals in
India is in
Arunachal Pradesh (200+
species). The diversity of birds is also very high, 700+ and is
second only to Assam.
Main article: Demographics of Arunachal Pradesh
Nishi man in traditional dress
Source:Census of India
First ever census was carried out in 1961.
Arunachal Pradesh can be roughly divided into a set of semi-distinct
cultural spheres, on the basis of tribal identity, language, religion
and material culture: the Tibetic area bordering
Bhutan in the west,
the Tani area in the centre of the state, the Mishmi area to the east
of the Tani area, the Tai/Singpho/
Tangsa area bordering Myanmar, and
the "Naga" area to the south, which also borders Myanmar. In between
there are transition zones, such as the Aka/Hruso/Miji/Sherdukpen
area, which provides a "buffer" of sorts between the Tibetan Buddhist
tribes and the animist Tani hill tribes. In addition, there are
isolated peoples scattered throughout the state, such as the Sulung.
Within each of these cultural spheres, one finds populations of
related tribes speaking related languages and sharing similar
traditions. In the Tibetic area, one finds large numbers of Monpa
tribespeople, with several subtribes speaking closely related but
mutually incomprehensible languages, and also large numbers of Tibetan
refugees. Within the Tani area, major tribes include the Nyishi.
Apatani also live among the Nyishi, but are distinct. In the centre,
one finds predominantly Galo people, with the major sub-groups of
Karka, Lodu, Bogum,
Lare and Pugo among others, extending to the Ramo
and Pailibo areas (which are close in many ways to Galo). In the east,
one finds the Adi with many subtribes including Padam, Pasi, Minyong
and Bokar, among others. Milang, while also falling within the general
"Adi" sphere, are in many ways quite distinct. Moving east, the Idu,
Miju and Digaru make up the "Mishmi" cultural-linguistic area, which
may or may not form a coherent historical grouping.
Moving southeast, the Tai Khamti are linguistically distinct from
their neighbours and culturally distinct from the majority of other
Arunachalese tribes. They follow the
Theravada sect of Buddhism. They
also exhibit considerable convergence with the Singpho and Tangsa
tribes of the same area, all of which are also found in Burma. The
Khamptis and Singphos have a huge demographic presence even in the
neighbouring state of Assam, in places viz. Naharkatiya, Narayanpur of
Lakhimpur districts of Assam. They one of the most recent people group
migrated to Arunachal region from Burma and Asaam. The Nocte and
Wancho are another two major ethnic tribs. Both the tribes exhibit
very much cultural similarities. Finally the Deori tribe is also a
major community in the satate, with their own distinctive identity.
The Deoris are one of the only Arunachal tribe in the historical
records-which shows they are among the first ethnic groups to inhabit
the Himalayas of the distriects of Dibang Valley and Lohit, before the
arrival of other many tribesin the region between 1600 and 1900.
Buddhism is practised by 13% of the population. Shown here is a statue
of the Buddha in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh.
Literacy has risen in official figures to 66.95% in 2011 from 54.74%
in 2001. The literate population is said to number 789,943. The number
of literate males is 454,532 (73.69%) and the number of literate
females is 335,411 (59.57%).
Main article: Religion in Arunachal Pradesh
Religion in State (2011)
Tibetan Buddhism (11.76%)
An uncertain but relatively large percentage of Arunachal's population
are nature worshippers (indigenous religions), and follow their own
distinct traditional institutions like the Nyedar Namlo by the Nyishi,
the Rangfrah by the
Tangsa & Nocte, Medar Melo by the Apatani, the
Kargu Gamgi by the Galo and
Donyi-Polo Dere by the Adi under the
umbrella of the indigenous religion the Donyi-Polo. A small number of
Arunachali people have traditionally identified as Hindus,
although the number may grow as animist traditions are merged with
Tibetan Buddhism predominates in the districts of
Tawang, West Kameng, and isolated regions adjacent to Tibet. Theravada
Buddhism is practised by groups living near the Burmese border. Around
30% of the population are followers of the Christian faith.
According to the 2011 Indian Census, the religions of Arunachal
Pradesh break down as follows:
Christian: 418,732 (30.26%)
Hindu: 401,876 (29.04%)
Others (mostly Donyi-Polo): 362,553 (26.2%)
Buddhist: 162,815 (11.76%)
Muslim: 27,045 (1.9%)
Sikh: 1,865 (0.1%)
Jain: 216 (<0.1%)
As per 2001 census, out of the 705,158 tribals living in Arunachal,
333,102 are Animist (47.24%), 186,617 are Christian (26.46%), 92,577
Hindu (13.13%), and 82,634 are Buddhist (11.72%).
Out of the 101 recognised tribes, 37 have an animist majority (Nyishi,
Adi Gallong, Tagin, Adi Minyong, Adi, Apatani.etc.), 23 have a
Christian majority (Wancho, Mossang Tangsa, Bori, Lisu or Yobin.etc.),
15 have a
Hindu majority (Mishmi, Mishing/Miri, Deori, Aka, Longchang
Tangsa.etc.) and 17 have a Buddhist majority (Monpa, Khampti, Tawang
Monpa, Momba, Singpho, Sherdukpen.etc.). The remaining eight tribes
are multi-faith, i.e., they do not have a dominant religion (Nocte,
Arunachal Pradesh in 2001
Arunachal Pradesh is one of the linguistically richest and
most diverse regions in all of Asia, being home to at least 30 and
possibly as many as 50 distinct languages in addition to innumerable
dialects and subdialects thereof. Boundaries between languages very
often correlate with tribal divisions—for example, the Apatani and
Nyishi are tribally and linguistically distinct—but shifts in tribal
identity and alignment over time have also ensured that a certain
amount of complication enters into the picture—for example, the Galo
language is and has seemingly always been linguistically distinct from
Adi, whereas the earlier tribal alignment of Galo with Adi (i.e., "Adi
Gallong") has only recently been essentially dissolved.
The vast majority of languages indigenous to modern-day Arunachal
Pradesh belong to the Tibeto-Burman family. The majority of these in
turn belong to a single branch of Tibeto-Burman, namely Abo-Tani
language. Almost all
Tani languages are indigenous to central
Arunachal Pradesh, including (moving from west to east) the Nyishi,
the Apatani, the Tagin, the Galo, the Bokar, the Adi, the Padam, the
Pasi, and the Minyong. The
Tani languages are noticeably characterised
by an overall relative uniformity, suggesting relatively recent origin
and dispersal within their present-day area of concentration. Most of
Tani languages are mutually intelligible with at least one other
Tani language, meaning that the area constitutes a dialect chain, as
was once found in much of Europe; only Apatani and
Milang stand out as
relatively unusual in the Tani context.
Tani languages are among the
better-studied languages of the region.
To the east of the Tani area lie three virtually undescribed and
highly endangered languages of the "Mishmi" group of Tibeto-Burman:
Idu, Digaru and Miju. A number of speakers of these languages are also
found in Tibet. The relationships of these languages, both amongst one
another and to other area languages, are as yet uncertain. Further
south, one finds the Singpho (Kachin) language, which is primarily
spoken by large populations in Myanmar's Kachin State, and the Nocte
and Wancho languages, which show affiliations to certain Naga
languages spoken to the south in modern-day Nagaland.
To the west and north of the Tani area are found at least one and
possibly as many as four Bodic languages, including Dakpa and Tshangla
language; within modern-day India, these languages go by the cognate
but, in usage, distinct designations Monpa and Memba. Most speakers of
these languages or closely related
Bodic languages are found in
Bhutan and Tibet, and Monpa and
Memba populations remain
closely adjacent to these border regions.
Between the Bodic and Tani areas lie a large number of almost
completely undescribed and unclassified languages, which,
speculatively considered Tibeto-Burman, exhibit many unique structural
and lexical properties that probably reflect both a long history in
the region and a complex history of language contact with neighbouring
populations. Among them are Sherdukpen, Bugun, Aka/Hruso, Koro, Miji,
Bangru and Puroik/Sulung. The high linguistic significance these
languages is belied by the extreme paucity of documentation and
description of them, even in view of their highly endangered status.
Puroik, in particular, is perhaps one of the most culturally and
linguistically unique and significant populations in all of Asia from
proto-historical and anthropological-linguistic perspectives, and yet
virtually no information of any real reliability regarding their
culture or language can be found in print.
Finally, other than the Bodic and Tani groups, there are also certain
migratory languages which are largely spoken by migratory and central
government employees serving in the state in different departments and
institutions in modern-day Arunachal Pradesh. They are classified as
Non-Tribal as per the provisions of the Constitution of India.
Outside of Tibeto-Burman, one finds in
Arunachal Pradesh a single
representative of the Tai family, spoken by tribes like the Khampti
and Singpho, which is closely affiliated to the
Shan language of
Myanmar's Shan State. Seemingly, Khampti is a recent arrival in
Arunachal Pradesh whose presence dates to 18th and/or early
19th-century migrations from northern Myanmar.
In addition to these non-Indo-European languages, the Indo-European
languages Assamese, Bengali, English, Nepali and especially
making strong inroads into Arunachal Pradesh. Primarily as a result of
the primary education system—in which classes are generally taught
by Hindi-speaking immigrant teachers from
Bihar and other
Hindi-speaking parts of northern India, a large and growing section of
the population now speaks a semi-creolized variety of
Hindi as a
Hindi acts as a lingua franca for most of the people in
the state. Despite, or perhaps because of, the linguistic
diversity of the region, English is the only official language
recognised in the state.
The speakers of major languages of the state according to the 2001
census are Nyishi (208,337), Adi (193,379), Bengali (97,149), Nepali
Hindi (81,186), Monpa (55,428), Assamese (51,551), Wancho
Tangsa (34,231), Mishmi (33,522), Mishing (33,381), Nocte
(32,591), and Others (64,711).
Itanagar Airport, a
Greenfield project serving
Itanagar is being
planned at Holongi at a cost of Rs. 6.50 billion. The
existing state owned
Ziro Airport, Along Airport,
Tezu Airport and
Pasighat Airport are small and are not in operation.
The government has proposed to operationalise these airports.
Before the state was connected by roads, these airstrips were
originally used for the transportation of food.
Road Tinsukia to Parashuram Kund in Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh has two highways: the 336 km National Highway
52, completed in 1998, which connects
Jonai with Dirak, and
another highway, which connects
Assam with Tawang. Arunachal
Pradesh State Transport Services (or APSTS) is the state-owned road
transport corporation. APSTS is running daily bus services from
Itanagar to most district headquarters including Tezpur,
Meghalaya as well as
Nagaland. As of 2007, every village has been connected
by road thanks to funding provided by the central government. Every
small town has its own bus station and daily bus services are
available. All places are connected to Assam, which has increased
trading activity. An additional National Highway is being constructed
following the Stillwell Ledo Road, which connects Ledo in
Jairampur in Arunachal. Work on the ambitious 2,400 km two-lane
Trans-Arunachal Highway Project announced by
Prime Minister Manmohan
Singh on 31 January 2008 on his maiden visit to the state, was
scheduled to be completed by 2015–16 but now due to political and
social reasons it may take another decade. New longest
India bridge is
already constructed because of prime minister
Narendra modi on 28 May
In 2014, two major highways were proposed to be built in the state:
East-West Industrial Corridor Highway, Arunachal Pradesh in the lower
foot hills of the state and 2,000-kilometre-long (1,200 mi)
Thingbu to Vijaynagar
Arunachal Pradesh Frontier Highway along
the McMahon Line, alignment map of which can be seen
here  and here.
Arunachal Pradesh got its first railway line in late 2013 with the
opening of the new link line from Harmuti on the main Rangpara
North-Murkongselak railway line to
Naharlagun in Arunachal Pradesh.
The construction of the 33 kilometre 1,676 mm
(5 ft 6 in) broad gauge railway line was completed in
2012, and the link became operational after the gauge conversion of
the main line from Assam. The state capital
Itanagar was added to the
Indian railway map on 12 April 2014 via the newly built 20 kilometre
Naharlagun railway line, when a train from Dekargaon in Assam
Naharlagun railway station, 10 kilometres from the centre of
Itanagar, a total distance of 181 kilometres.
On 20 February 2015 the first through train was run from
New Delhi to
Naharlagun, flagged off from the capital by the Indian prime minister,
India plans to eventually extend the railway to Tawang,
near the border with China.
Main article: Education in Arunachal Pradesh
See also: List of institutions of higher education in Arunachal
NERIST academic block
St Claret College Ziro
The state government is expanding the relatively underdeveloped
education system with the assistance of NGOs like Vivekananda Kendra,
leading to a sharp improvement in the state's literacy rate. The main
universities are the
Rajiv Gandhi University (formerly known as
Arunachal University), under which come 36 institutions offering
regular undergraduate courses as well as teacher education and health
sciences and nursing degrees, both under governmental and private
managements, Indira Gandhi Technological and Medical Sciences
University and Himalayan University as well. The first college,
Jawaharlal Nehru College, Pasighat, was established in 1964. The First
Technical University is Established in 2014 namely North East Frontier
Technical University (NEFTU). In Aalo,
West Siang District by The
Automobile Society India, New Delhi. There is also a deemed
university, the North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and
Technology as well as the National Institute of Technology, Arunachal
Pradesh, established on 18 August 2010, is located in Yupia
(headquarter of Itanagar). NERIST plays an important role in
technical and management higher education. The directorate of
technical education conducts examinations yearly so that students who
qualify can continue on to higher studies in other states.
Of the above institutions, only the following institutions are
accredited by NAAC (National Assessment and Accreditation Council), in
the order of their grade: Jawaharlal Nehru College,
A), St Claret College,
Ziro (Grade A), Indira Gandhi Govt. College,
Tezu (Grade B++),
Rajiv Gandhi University (Grade B), National
Institute of Technology,
Arunachal Pradesh (Grade B), Dera Natung
Itanagar (Grade B), Govt. College,
B), Donyi Polo Govt. College, Kamki (Grade B), and Rang Frah Govt.
College, Changeling (Grade C).
There are also trust institutes, like Pali Vidyapith, run by
Buddhists. They teach Pali and Khamti scripts in addition to typical
education subjects. Khamti is the only tribe in
Arunachal Pradesh that
has its own script. Libraries of scriptures are in a number of places
in Lohit district, the largest one being in Chowkham.
The state has two polytechnic institutes: Rajiv Gandhi Government
Itanagar established in 2002 and Tomi Polytechnic
College in Basar established in 2006. There is one law college called
Arunachal Law Academy at Itanagar. The College of Horticulture and
Forestry is affiliated to the Central Agricultural University, Imphal.
See also: List of symbols of Indian states and territories
Mithun (Bos frontalis)
Hornbill (Buceros bicornis)
Foxtail orchid (Rhynchostylis retusa)
Hollong (Dipterocarpus macrocarpus)
South Asia portal
Himalaya region portal
Cuisine of Arunachal Pradesh
Religion in Arunachal Pradesh
List of people from Arunachal Pradesh
List of institutions of higher education in Arunachal Pradesh
Ministry for Development of North Eastern Region
Sino-Indian border dispute
North-East Frontier Agency
Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly election, 2014;
Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly election, 2009
Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
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Places adjacent to Arunachal Pradesh
Tibet Autonomous Region, China
Samdrup Jongkhar, Trashigang and Trashiyangtse Districts, Bhutan
Kachin State, Myanmar
Sagaing Region, Myanmar
State of Arunachal Pradesh
Lower Dibang Valley
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Kaziranga National Park
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Zang Dhok Palri Phodang
Seven Sister States
Tourism in North East India
Tourism in Assam
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Territorial disputes in East, South, and Southeast Asia
Islands and waters
Bhutanese enclaves ( )
Bolshoy Ussuriysky/Heixiazi Island1 ( )
Kashmir2 ( )
Khao Phra Wihan1 ( )
Korean Peninsula ( )
China ( )
North Borneo (Sabah)1 ( )
Sixty-Four Villages East of the River1 ( )
Arunachal Pradesh ( )
Mongolia1 ( )
Jiangxinpo / Northern Kachin1 ( )
Kuril ( )
Liancourt Rocks ( )
Noktundo1 ( )
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Sir Creek1 ( )
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Bạch Long Vĩ island1 ( )
Pedra Branca, Middle Rocks and South Ledge ( )
1: Inactive dispute
2: Divided among multiple claimants