ART is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks ), expressing the author's imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art.
The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts , which include creation of images or objects in fields including today painting, sculpture, printmaking , photography, and other visual media.
Music, theatre, film, dance, and other performing arts , as well as literature and other media such as interactive media , are included in a broader definition of art or the arts . Until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences .
In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts .
Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.
The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics .
* 1 Creative art and fine art * 2 History
* 3 Forms, genres, media, and styles
* 3.1 Skill and craft
* 4 Purpose
* 4.1 Non-motivated functions * 4.2 Motivated functions
* 5 Public access * 6 Controversies
* 7 Theory
* 8 Classification disputes
* 8.1 Value judgment
* 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 Bibliography * 12 Further reading * 13 External links
CREATIVE ART AND FINE ART
Works of art can tell stories or simply express an aesthetic truth or feeling. Panorama of a section of A Thousand Li of Mountains and Rivers, a 12th-century painting by Song dynasty artist Wang Ximeng .
In the perspective of the history of art, artistic works have existed for almost as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art ; however, some theories restrict the concept of "artistic works" to modern Western societies. One early sense of the definition of art is closely related to the older Latin meaning, which roughly translates to "skill" or "craft," as associated with words such as "artisan." English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artificial, artifice, medical arts, and military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of the word, all with some relation to its etymology . 20th-century Rwandan bottle. Artistic works may serve practical functions, in addition to their decorative value.
Few modern scholars have been more divided than Plato and Aristotle on the question concerning the importance of art, with Aristotle strongly supporting art in general and Plato generally being opposed to its relative importance.
Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says
that poetry is inspired by the muses , and is not rational. He speaks
approvingly of this, and other forms of divine madness (drunkenness,
eroticism, and dreaming) in the Phaedrus (265a–c), and yet in the
Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetic art, and laughter as
well. In Ion , Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of
With regards to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle
considered epic poetry , tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music
to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium,
object, and manner. For example, music imitates with the media of
rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and
poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of
imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse
than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than
average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of
imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no
change, and through drama or no drama.
The second, and more recent, sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Fine art refers to a skill used to express the artist's creativity, or to engage the audience's aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art.
Within this latter sense, the word art may refer to several things:
(i) a study of a creative skill, (ii) a process of using the creative
skill, (iii) a product of the creative skill, or (iv) the audience's
experience with the creative skill. The creative arts (art as
discipline) are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks
(art as objects) that are compelled by a personal drive (art as
activity) and convey a message, mood, or symbolism for the perceiver
to interpret (art as experience).
Often, if the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. Likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand, crafts and design are sometimes considered applied art . Some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. However, even fine art often has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression. The purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art; to create a sense of beauty (see aesthetics ); to explore the nature of perception; for pleasure; or to generate strong emotions . The purpose may also be seemingly nonexistent.
The nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim
as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human
Sculptures, cave paintings , rock paintings and petroglyphs from the
Upper Paleolithic dating to roughly 40,000 years ago have been found,
but the precise meaning of such art is often disputed because so
little is known about the cultures that produced them. The oldest art
objects in the world—a series of tiny, drilled snail shells about
75,000 years old—were discovered in a South African cave.
Containers that may have been used to hold paints have been found
dating as far back as 100,000 years. Etched shells by Homo erectus
from 430,000 and 540,000 years ago were discovered in 2014. Cave
painting of a horse from the
Many great traditions in art have a foundation in the art of one of
the great ancient civilizations:
In Byzantine and Medieval art of the Western Middle Ages, much art focused on the expression of subjects about Biblical and religious culture, and used styles that showed the higher glory of a heavenly world, such as the use of gold in the background of paintings, or glass in mosaics or windows, which also presented figures in idealized, patterned (flat) forms. Nevertheless, a classical realist tradition persisted in small Byzantine works, and realism steadily grew in the art of Catholic Europe.
Renaissance art had a greatly increased emphasis on the realistic
depiction of the material world, and the place of humans in it,
reflected in the corporeality of the human body, and development of a
systematic method of graphical perspective to depict recession in a
three-dimensional picture space. The stylized signature of Sultan
Mahmud II of the
In the east,
Islamic art 's rejection of iconography led to emphasis
on geometric patterns, calligraphy , and architecture . Further east,
religion dominated artistic styles and forms too. India and Tibet saw
emphasis on painted sculptures and dance, while religious painting
borrowed many conventions from sculpture and tended to bright
contrasting colors with emphasis on outlines. China saw the
flourishing of many art forms: jade carving, bronzework, pottery
(including the stunning terracotta army of Emperor Qin), poetry,
calligraphy, music, painting, drama, fiction, etc. Chinese styles vary
greatly from era to era and each one is traditionally named after the
ruling dynasty. So, for example,
Tang dynasty paintings are
monochromatic and sparse, emphasizing idealized landscapes, but Ming
Dynasty paintings are busy and colorful, and focus on telling stories
via setting and composition. Japan names its styles after imperial
dynasties too, and also saw much interplay between the styles of
calligraphy and painting.
Woodblock printing became important in Japan
after the 17th century.
Age of Enlightenment
The history of twentieth-century art is a narrative of endless
possibilities and the search for new standards, each being torn down
in succession by the next. Thus the parameters of impressionism ,
Modernism , the idealistic search for truth, gave way in the latter half of the 20th century to a realization of its unattainability. Theodor W. Adorno said in 1970, "It is now taken for granted that nothing which concerns art can be taken for granted any more: neither art itself, nor art in relationship to the whole, nor even the right of art to exist." Relativism was accepted as an unavoidable truth, which led to the period of contemporary art and postmodern criticism , where cultures of the world and of history are seen as changing forms, which can be appreciated and drawn from only with skepticism and irony. Furthermore, the separation of cultures is increasingly blurred and some argue it is now more appropriate to think in terms of a global culture, rather than of regional ones.
FORMS, GENRES, MEDIA, AND STYLES
The creative arts are often divided into more specific categories, typically along perceptually distinguishable categories such as media , genre , styles , and form. ART FORM refers to the elements of art that are independent of its interpretation or significance. It covers the methods adopted by the artist and the physical composition of the artwork, primarily non-semantic aspects of the work (i.e., figurae ), such as color , contour , dimension , medium , melody , space , texture , and value . Form may also include visual design principles , such as arrangement , balance , contrast , emphasis , harmony , proportion , proximity , and rhythm .
In general there are three schools of philosophy regarding art, focusing respectively on form, content, and context. Extreme Formalism is the view that all aesthetic properties of art are formal (that is, part of the art form). Philosophers almost universally reject this view and hold that the properties and aesthetics of art extend beyond materials, techniques, and form. Unfortunately, there is little consensus on terminology for these informal properties. Some authors refer to subject matter and content – i.e., denotations and connotations – while others prefer terms like meaning and significance .
Extreme Intentionalism holds that authorial intent plays a decisive
role in the meaning of a work of art, conveying the content or
essential main idea, while all other interpretations can be discarded.
It defines the subject as the persons or idea represented, and the
content as the artist's experience of that subject. For example, the
Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne is partly borrowed
Statue of Zeus at Olympia . As evidenced by the title, the
Finally, the developing theory of post-structuralism studies art's
significance in a cultural context, such as the ideas, emotions, and
reactions prompted by a work. The cultural context often reduces to
the artist's techniques and intentions, in which case analysis
proceeds along lines similar to formalism and intentionalism. However,
in other cases historical and material conditions may predominate,
such as religious and philosophical convictions, sociopolitical and
economic structures, or even climate and geography.
SKILL AND CRAFT
There is an understanding that is reached with the material as a
result of handling it, which facilitates one's thought processes. A
common view is that the epithet "art", particular in its elevated
sense, requires a certain level of creative expertise by the artist,
whether this be a demonstration of technical ability, an originality
in stylistic approach, or a combination of these two. Traditionally
skill of execution was viewed as a quality inseparable from art and
thus necessary for its success; for
Leonardo da Vinci
A common contemporary criticism of some modern art occurs along the
lines of objecting to the apparent lack of skill or ability required
in the production of the artistic object. In conceptual art, Marcel
The non-motivated purposes of art are those that are integral to being human, transcend the individual, or do not fulfill a specific external purpose. In this sense, Art, as creativity, is something humans must do by their very nature (i.e., no other species creates art), and is therefore beyond utility.
* Basic human instinct for harmony, balance, rhythm .
"Imitation, then, is one instinct of our nature. Next, there is the
instinct for 'harmony' and rhythm, meters being manifestly sections of
rhythm. Persons, therefore, starting with this natural gift developed
by degrees their special aptitudes, till their rude improvisations
gave birth to Poetry." -
"The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is
the source of all true art and science." -Albert Einstein
* Expression of the imagination.
"Jupiter's eagle is not, like logical (aesthetic) attributes of an
object, the concept of the sublimity and majesty of creation, but
rather something else—something that gives the imagination an
incentive to spread its flight over a whole host of kindred
representations that provoke more thought than admits of expression in
a concept determined by words. They furnish an aesthetic idea, which
serves the above rational idea as a substitute for logical
presentation, but with the proper function, however, of animating the
mind by opening out for it a prospect into a field of kindred
representations stretching beyond its ken." -Immanuel
"Most scholars who deal with rock paintings or objects recovered from prehistoric contexts that cannot be explained in utilitarian terms and are thus categorized as decorative, ritual or symbolic, are aware of the trap posed by the term 'art'." -Silva Tomaskova
Motivated purposes of art refer to intentional, conscious actions on the part of the artists or creator. These may be to bring about political change, to comment on an aspect of society, to convey a specific emotion or mood, to address personal psychology, to illustrate another discipline, to (with commercial arts) sell a product, or simply as a form of communication.
* Communication. Art, at its simplest, is a form of communication. As most forms of communication have an intent or goal directed toward another individual, this is a motivated purpose. Illustrative arts, such as scientific illustration, are a form of art as communication. Maps are another example. However, the content need not be scientific. Emotions, moods and feelings are also communicated through art.
" artefacts or images with symbolic meanings as a means of
communication." -Steve Mithen *
* The Avante-Garde.
"By contrast, the realistic attitude, inspired by positivism, from
Thomas Aquinas to Anatole France, clearly seems to me to be
hostile to any intellectual or moral advancement. I loathe it, for it
is made up of mediocrity, hate, and dull conceit. It is this attitude
which today gives birth to these ridiculous books, these insulting
plays. It constantly feeds on and derives strength from the newspapers
and stultifies both science and art by assiduously flattering the
lowest of tastes; clarity bordering on stupidity, a dog's life."
-André Breton (Surrealism) *
The functions of art described above are not mutually exclusive, as many of them may overlap. For example, art for the purpose of entertainment may also seek to sell a product, i.e. the movie or video game.
Versailles: Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive entrance cour d\'honneur , later copied all over Europe.
Since ancient times, much of the finest art has represented a deliberate display of wealth or power, often achieved by using massive scale and expensive materials. Much art has been commissioned by political rulers or religious establishments, with more modest versions only available to the most wealthy in society.
Nevertheless, there have been many periods where art of very high quality was available, in terms of ownership, across large parts of society, above all in cheap media such as pottery, which persists in the ground, and perishable media such as textiles and wood. In many different cultures, the ceramics of indigenous peoples of the Americas are found in such a wide range of graves that they were clearly not restricted to a social elite , though other forms of art may have been. Reproductive methods such as moulds made mass-production easier, and were used to bring high-quality Ancient Roman pottery and Greek Tanagra figurines to a very wide market. Cylinder seals were both artistic and practical, and very widely used by what can be loosely called the middle class in the Ancient Near East . Once coins were widely used these also became an art form that reached the widest range of society.
Another important innovation came in the 15th century in Europe, when printmaking began with small woodcuts , mostly religious, that were often very small and hand-colored, and affordable even by peasants who glued them to the walls of their homes. Printed books were initially very expensive, but fell steadily in price until by the 19th century even the poorest could afford some with printed illustrations. Popular prints of many different sorts have decorated homes and other places for centuries.
Public buildings and monuments , secular and religious, by their nature normally address the whole of society, and visitors as viewers, and display to the general public has long been an important factor in their design. Egyptian temples are typical in that the most largest and most lavish decoration was placed on the parts that could be seen by the general public, rather than the areas seen only by the priests. Many areas of royal palaces, castles and the houses of the social elite were often generally accessible, and large parts of the art collections of such people could often be seen, either by anybody, or by those able to pay a small price, or those wearing the correct clothes, regardless of who they were, as at the Palace of Versailles , where the appropriate extra accessories (silver shoe buckles and a sword) could be hired from shops outside.
Most modern public museums and art education programs for children in
schools can be traced back to this impulse to have art available to
everyone. Museums in the United States tend to be gifts from the very
rich to the masses. (
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
There have been attempts by artists to create art that can not be bought by the wealthy as a status object. One of the prime original motivators of much of the art of the late 1960s and 1970s was to create art that could not be bought and sold. It is "necessary to present something more than mere objects" said the major post war German artist Joseph Beuys. This time period saw the rise of such things as performance art , video art , and conceptual art . The idea was that if the artwork was a performance that would leave nothing behind, or was simply an idea, it could not be bought and sold. "Democratic precepts revolving around the idea that a work of art is a commodity impelled the aesthetic innovation which germinated in the mid-1960s and was reaped throughout the 1970s. Artists broadly identified under the heading of Conceptual art ... substituting performance and publishing activities for engagement with both the material and materialistic concerns of painted or sculptural form ... endeavored to undermine the art object qua object."
In the decades since, these ideas have been somewhat lost as the art market has learned to sell limited edition DVDs of video works, invitations to exclusive performance art pieces, and the objects left over from conceptual pieces. Many of these performances create works that are only understood by the elite who have been educated as to why an idea or video or piece of apparent garbage may be considered art. The marker of status becomes understanding the work instead of necessarily owning it, and the artwork remains an upper-class activity. "With the widespread use of DVD recording technology in the early 2000s, artists, and the gallery system that derives its profits from the sale of artworks, gained an important means of controlling the sale of video and computer artworks in limited editions to collectors."
Théodore Géricault 's Raft of the Medusa , circa 1820
The content of much formal art through history was dictated by the patron or commissioner rather than just the artist, but with the advent of Romanticism , and economic changes in the production of art, the artists' vision became the usual determinant of the content of his art, increasing the incidence of controversies, though often reducing their significance. Strong incentives for perceived originality and publicity also encouraged artists to court controversy. Théodore Géricault 's Raft of the Medusa (c. 1820), was in part a political commentary on a recent event. Édouard Manet 's Le Déjeuner sur l\'Herbe (1863), was considered scandalous not because of the nude woman, but because she is seated next to men fully dressed in the clothing of the time, rather than in robes of the antique world. John Singer Sargent 's Madame Pierre Gautreau (Madam X) (1884), caused a controversy over the reddish pink used to color the woman's ear lobe, considered far too suggestive and supposedly ruining the high-society model's reputation.
The gradual abandonment of naturalism and the depiction of realistic representations of the visual appearance of subjects in the 19th and 20th centuries led to a rolling controversy lasting for over a century. In the twentieth century, Pablo Picasso 's Guernica (1937) used arresting cubist techniques and stark monochromatic oils , to depict the harrowing consequences of a contemporary bombing of a small, ancient Basque town. Leon Golub 's Interrogation III (1981), depicts a female nude, hooded detainee strapped to a chair, her legs open to reveal her sexual organs, surrounded by two tormentors dressed in everyday clothing. Andres Serrano 's Piss Christ (1989) is a photograph of a crucifix, sacred to the Christian religion and representing Christ 's sacrifice and final suffering, submerged in a glass of the artist's own urine. The resulting uproar led to comments in the United States Senate about public funding of the arts.
Before Modernism, aesthetics in Western art was greatly concerned with achieving the appropriate balance between different aspects of realism or truth to nature and the ideal ; ideas as to what the appropriate balance is have shifted to and fro over the centuries. This concern is largely absent in other traditions of art. The aesthetic theorist John Ruskin , who championed what he saw as the naturalism of J. M. W. Turner , saw art's role as the communication by artifice of an essential truth that could only be found in nature.
The definition and evaluation of art has become especially problematic since the 20th century. Richard Wollheim distinguishes three approaches to assessing the aesthetic value of art: the Realist , whereby aesthetic quality is an absolute value independent of any human view; the Objectivist , whereby it is also an absolute value, but is dependent on general human experience; and the Relativist position , whereby it is not an absolute value, but depends on, and varies with, the human experience of different humans.
ARRIVAL OF MODERNISM
Composition II in Red, Blue, and Yellow (1930) by Piet Mondrian (Dutch, 1872–1944)
The arrival of Modernism in the late nineteenth century lead to a radical break in the conception of the function of art, and then again in the late twentieth century with the advent of postmodernism . Clement Greenberg 's 1960 article "Modernist Painting" defines modern art as "the use of characteristic methods of a discipline to criticize the discipline itself". Greenberg originally applied this idea to the Abstract Expressionist movement and used it as a way to understand and justify flat (non-illusionistic) abstract painting:
Realistic, naturalistic art had dissembled the medium, using art to conceal art; modernism used art to call attention to art. The limitations that constitute the medium of painting—the flat surface, the shape of the support, the properties of the pigment—were treated by the Old Masters as negative factors that could be acknowledged only implicitly or indirectly. Under Modernism these same limitations came to be regarded as positive factors, and were acknowledged openly.
After Greenberg, several important art theorists emerged, such as Michael Fried , T. J. Clark , Rosalind Krauss , Linda Nochlin and Griselda Pollock among others. Though only originally intended as a way of understanding a specific set of artists, Greenberg's definition of modern art is important to many of the ideas of art within the various art movements of the 20th century and early 21st century.
Pop artists like
NEW CRITICISM AND THE "INTENTIONAL FALLACY"
In 1946, William K. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley published a classic and controversial New Critical essay entitled "The Intentional Fallacy ", in which they argued strongly against the relevance of an author\'s intention , or "intended meaning" in the analysis of a literary work. For Wimsatt and Beardsley, the words on the page were all that mattered; importation of meanings from outside the text was considered irrelevant, and potentially distracting.
In another essay, "The Affective Fallacy ," which served as a kind of sister essay to "The Intentional Fallacy" Wimsatt and Beardsley also discounted the reader's personal/emotional reaction to a literary work as a valid means of analyzing a text. This fallacy would later be repudiated by theorists from the reader-response school of literary theory. Ironically, one of the leading theorists from this school, Stanley Fish , was himself trained by New Critics. Fish criticizes Wimsatt and Beardsley in his essay "Literature in the Reader" (1970).
As summarized by Gaut and Livingston in their essay "The Creation of Art": "Structuralist and post-structuralists theorists and critics were sharply critical of many aspects of New Criticism, beginning with the emphasis on aesthetic appreciation and the so-called autonomy of art, but they reiterated the attack on biographical criticisms's assumption that the artist's activities and experience were a privileged critical topic." These authors contend that: "Anti-intentionalists, such as formalists, hold that the intentions involved in the making of art are irrelevant or peripheral to correctly interpreting art. So details of the act of creating a work, though possibly of interest in themselves, have no bearing on the correct interpretation of the work."
Gaut and Livingston define the intentionalists as distinct from formalists stating that: "Intentionalists, unlike formalists, hold that reference to intentions is essential in fixing the correct interpretation of works." They quote Richard Wollheim as stating that, "The task of criticism is the reconstruction of the creative process, where the creative process must in turn be thought of as something not stopping short of, but terminating on, the work of art itself."
"LINGUISTIC TURN" AND ITS DEBATE
The end of the 20th century fostered an extensive debate known as the linguistic turn controversy, or the "innocent eye debate", and generally referred to as the structuralism-poststructuralism debate in the philosophy of art. This debate discussed the encounter of the work of art as being determined by the relative extent to which the conceptual encounter with the work of art dominates over the perceptual encounter with the work of art.
Decisive for the linguistic turn debate in art history and the
humanities were the works of yet another tradition, namely the
Ferdinand de Saussure
Classificatory disputes about art The original
Marcel Duchamp , 1917, photographed by
Disputes as to whether or not to classify something as a work of art
are referred to as classificatory disputes about art. Classificatory
disputes in the 20th century have included cubist and impressionist
Anti-art is a label for art that intentionally challenges the established parameters and values of art; it is term associated with Dadaism and attributed to Marcel Duchamp just before World War I, when he was making art from found objects . One of these, Fountain (1917), an ordinary urinal, has achieved considerable prominence and influence on art. Anti-art is a feature of work by Situationist International , the lo-fi Mail art movement, and the Young British Artists , though it is a form still rejected by the Stuckists , who describe themselves as anti-anti-art .
Aboriginal hollow log tombs. National Gallery, Canberra , Australia
Somewhat in relation to the above, the word art is also used to apply
judgments of value, as in such expressions as "that meal was a work of
art" (the cook is an artist), or "the art of deception", (the highly
attained level of skill of the deceiver is praised). It is this use of
the word as a measure of high quality and high value that gives the
term its flavor of subjectivity. Making judgments of value requires a
basis for criticism. At the simplest level, a way to determine whether
the impact of the object on the senses meets the criteria to be
considered art is whether it is perceived to be attractive or
repulsive. Though perception is always colored by experience, and is
necessarily subjective, it is commonly understood that what is not
somehow aesthetically satisfying cannot be art. However, "good" art is
not always or even regularly aesthetically appealing to a majority of
viewers. In other words, an artist's prime motivation need not be the
pursuit of the aesthetic. Also, art often depicts terrible images made
for social, moral, or thought-provoking reasons. For example,
The assumption of new values or the rebellion against accepted
notions of what is aesthetically superior need not occur concurrently
with a complete abandonment of the pursuit of what is aesthetically
appealing. Indeed, the reverse is often true, that the revision of
what is popularly conceived of as being aesthetically appealing allows
for a re-invigoration of aesthetic sensibility, and a new appreciation
for the standards of art itself. Countless schools have proposed their
own ways to define quality, yet they all seem to agree in at least one
point: once their aesthetic choices are accepted, the value of the
work of art is determined by its capacity to transcend the limits of
its chosen medium to strike some universal chord by the rarity of the
skill of the artist or in its accurate reflection in what is termed
the zeitgeist .
* Arts portal * Visual arts portal
* Art movement * Artist in residence * Formal analysis * List of artistic media * Mathematics and art * Street art (or "independent public art") * Outline of the visual arts , a guide to the subject of art presented as a tree structured list of its subtopics.
* ^ A B "Art: definition". Oxford Dictionaries.
* ^ "art". Merriam-Websters Dictionary.
* ^ Is advertising art?
* ^ "Art, n. 1". OED Online. December 2011. Oxford University
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* ^ Gombrich, Ernst. (2005). "Press statement on The Story of Art".
The Gombrich Archive. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008.
Retrieved 18 November 2008.
* ^ Stephen Davies (1991). Definition of Art. Cornell University
Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9794-0 .
* ^ Robert Stecker (1997). Artworks: Definition, Meaning, Value.
Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 978-0-271-01596-5 .
* ^ Noël Carroll, ed. (2000). Theories of
* ^ Tolstoy, Leo (1899). What is Art?. Crowell. p. 24. Retrieved 26
* ^ Emiroğlu, Melahat Küçükarslan; Koş, Fitnat Cimşit
(16–20 September 2014). Design Semiotics and Post-Structuralism.
12th World Congress of Semiotics. New Bulgarian University. Retrieved
26 February 2017. CS1 maint: Date format (link )
* ^ Breskin, Vladimir, "Triad: Method for studying the core of the
semiotic parity of language and art", Signs – International Journal
of Semiotics 3, pp.1–28, 2010. ISSN 1902-8822
* ^ Aristotle. " The Poetics". Republic. www.authorama.com. Note:
Although speaking mostly of poetry here, the Ancient Greeks often
speak of the arts collectively.
* ^ Einstein, Albert. "The World as I See It".
* ^ Immanuel Kant, Critique of
* ^ "Bra art raising awareness for breast cancer". The Palm Beach
Post. n.d. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
* ^ Flynn, Marella (10 January 2007). "October art walk aims to
raise money, awareness for breast cancer". Flagler College Gargoyle.
Retrieved 21 February 2013.
* ^ "Students get creative in the fight against human trafficking".
WDTN Channel 2 News. 26 November 2012. Archived from the original on
June 30, 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
* ^ "Looking to raise awareness at ArtPrize". WWMT, Newschannel 3.
10 January 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012.
Retrieved 21 February 2013.
* ^ "SciCafe – Art/Sci Collision: Raising Ocean Conservation
Awareness". American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 21 February
* ^ "SMU students raise awareness with \'
* Shiner, Larry. The Invention of Art: A Cultural History . Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-226-75342-3
Arthur Danto , The Abuse of Beauty:
* Shiner, Larry. The Invention of Art: A Cultural History. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-226-75342-3
* Augros, Robert M., Stanciu, George N. The New Story of Science:
mind and the universe, Lake Bluff, Ill.: Regnery Gateway, 1984. ISBN
0-89526-833-7 (this book has significant material on art and science)
Richard Wollheim ,
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