Arrian of Nicomedia (c. 86/89 – c. after 146/160 AD; ; Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos, Latin: Lucius Flavius Arrianus, was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian is considered the best source on the campaigns of Alexander the Great. However, more recently, even though modern scholars have generally preferred Arrian to other extant primary sources, this attitude towards Arrian is beginning to change in the light of studies into Arrian's method.
Arrian was born in Nicomedia (present-day İzmit), the provincial capital of Bithynia, Dio called him Flavius Arrianus Nicomediansis. In respect of his birth date, sources provide similar dates for his birth; within a few years prior to 90, 89, and 85–90 AD. The line of reasoning for dates belonging to 85-90 AD is from the fact of Arrian being made a consul around 130 AD, and the usual age for this, during this period, being forty-two years of age. (ref. p. 312, & SYME 1958, same page).His family was from the provincial aristocracy of Greek stock, and his full name, L. Flavius Arrianus, indicates that he was a Roman citizen, suggesting that the citizenship went back several generations, probably to the time of the Roman conquest some 170 years before.
Sometime during the 2nd century AD (117 to 120 AD) while in Epirus, probably Nicopolis, Arrian attended lectures of Epictetus of Nicopolis, and proceeded within a time to fall into pupillage of him, a fact attested to by Lucian. All that is known about the life of Epictetus is due to Arrian, in that Arrian left a Encheiridion (Handbook) of Epictetus' philosophy. After Epirus he went to Athens, while there he became known as the young Xenophon, as a consequence of the similarity of his relation to Epictetus as Xenophon had to Socrates.
For a period, some time about 126 AD, a friend of the emperor Hadrian, who appointed him to the Senate. First consul suffectus, during 132 AD (Howatson shows 131) he was made prefect or legate (governor) of Cappadocia, by Hadrian, a service he continued for a six-year duration. When he retired, Arrian went to live in Athens, where he became archon sometime during 145 or 146 (EJ chinnock shows, he retired to Nicomedia and was appointed priest to Demeter and Persephone while there). He died in the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Arrian referred to himself as the second Xenophon, on account of the reputation and esteem of him. Lucian stated him to be:
a Roman of the first rank with a life-long attachment to learning
— quote of Lucian in P. E. Easterling, B. M. W. Knox, p.143
Τhis quality is identified as paideia (παιδεία) which is the quality considered to be of one who is known as an educated and learned personage, i.e., one who is highly esteemed and important.
There are eight extant works (cf. Syvänne, footnote of p. 260). The Indica and the Anabasis are the only works completely extant. The entire remaining are known as FGrH 156 to designate those collected fragments which exist.
Periplus of the Euxine Sea
This work is the earliest extant that is dated with any confidence. It is a writing addressed to the Emperor, Hadrian.
Discourses of Epictetus and Enchiridion of Epictetus
Arrian was a pupil of Epictetus around 108 AD, and, according to his own account, he was moved to publish his notes of Epictetus' lectures, which are known as Discourses of Epictetus, by their unauthorized dissemination. According to George Long, Arrian noted from Epictetus' lectures for his private use and some time later made of these, the Discourses. Photius states that Arrian produced two books the Dissertations and the Discourses. The Discourses are also known as Diatribai and are apparently a verbatim recording of Epictetus' lectures.
The Enchiridion is a short compendium of all Epictetus' philosophical principles. It is also known as a handbook, and A Mehl considers the Enchiridion to have been a vade mecum for Arrian. The Enchiridion is apparently a summary of the Discourses.
JB Stockdale considered that Arrian wrote eight books of which four were lost by the Middle Ages and the remaining ones became the Discourses. In a comparison of the contents of the Enchiridion with the Discourses, it is apparent that the former contains material not present within the latter, suggesting an original lost source for the Enchiridion.
Friendly conversations with Epictetus (Homiliai Epiktetou) is a 12 book work mentioned by Photius in his Bibliotheca, of which only fragments remain.
Anabasis of Alexander
The work comprises seven books. Arrian used Xenophon' account of the March of Cyrus as the basis for this work.
Ta met' Alexandron
History of the Diadochi or Events after Alexander is a work originally of ten books, a commentary on this work was written by Photius (FW Walbank, p. 8).
Three extant fragments are the Vatican Palimsest (of the 10th century AD), PSI 12.1284 (Oxyrhynchus), and the Gothenburg palimpsest (of the 10th century also), these possibly stemming originally from Photius.
The writing is about the successors of Alexander the Great, circa 323 – 321 or 319.
A lost work of seventeen books, fragments were maintained by the Suda and Stephen of Byzantium. The work survives only in states of adaptation made later by Photius and Syncellus. Translated, the title is History of the Parthians. Arrian's aim in the work, was to set forth events of the Parthian war of Trajan. The writing mentioned the Parthians trace their clan to Artaxerxes II.
A work of eight books, Bibliotheca (via Photius) states it is the fourth to have been written by Arrian.
Nicomediensis Scripta minora
A work translated a Nicodemian script (minor).
Indica is a work on a variety of things pertaining to India, and the voyage of Nearchus in the Persian Gulf. The first part of Indica was based largely on the work of the same name of Megasthenes, the second part based on a journal written by Nearchos.
Written 136/137 AD (in the 20th year of Hadrian), it is a treatise on Roman cavalry and military tactics, and includes information on the nature, arms and discipline of the phalanx. The hippika gymnasia is particularly a concern of Arrian in the writing.
Another translation of the title is Ars tactica, in Greek is Τέχνη τακτική.
This work has generally been considered to be in large part a panegyric to Hadrian, written for the occasion of his vicenallia, although some scholars have argued that its second half may have had practical use.
Cynegeticus (Κυνηγετικός), translated as the hunting man, is a work about hunting dogs, canes venatici, the Celtic grey-hound.
The work is based on an earlier exposition made by Xenophon, whom Arrian thought to be the authority on the subject of hunting.
Ektaxis kata Alanon
Ektaxis kata Alanon (Ἔκταξις κατὰ Ἀλανῶν) is a work of a now fragmentary nature; the title is translated as Deployment against the Alani or The order of battle against the Alans or referred to simply as Alanica. It is thought not have been written as a presentation of facts but for literary reasons. Pertaining to the relevant historical fact though, while governor of Cappadocia Arrian had to command the repelling of an invasion of the Alani, sometime during 135 AD, a struggle in which Arrian's two legions were victorious.
Arrian identified the particular means, he makes explicit, of pursuing warfare, as being based on Greek methods, within the work.
Ektaxis kata Alanon is also translated as Acies contra Alanos. The work was known for a time as A History of the Alani (Alanike via Photius) a fragment describing a plan of battle contra the Alani was found in Milan c. 17th century which was thought at that time to belong to the History.
Monographs or biographies, including of Dion of Syracuse, Timoleon of Corinth, and Tilliborus, brigand or robber of the Asia minor, which are now lost.
Sources, transmission, translations and publications
Everything known of his life derives from the 9th century writing of Photius in his Bibliotheca, and from those few references which exist within Arrian's writings. The knowledge of the fact of his attaining consularship, is in the least as a result of literature produced by Suidas. Arnobius (c. 3rd century AD) mentions Arrian. Arrian was also known of by Aulus Gellius. Pliny the Younger addressed seven of his epistles to him. Simplicius made a copy of the Encheridion, which was transmitted under the name of the monastic father Nilus, during the 5th century, and as a result found in every monastery library.
Nicholas Blancard made translations of Arrian during 1663 and 1668.
The voyage of Nearchus and Periplus of the Erythrean Sea were translated from the Greek by the then Dean of Westminster, William Vincent, and published 1809. Vincent published a commentary in 1797 on The voyage of Nearchus.The work was also translated into French by M.Billecocq, under the auspices of the government (c.f., p. 321).
- ^ "Arrian". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
Arrian born c. AD 86, Nicomedia, Bithynia [now İzmit, Tur.] died c. AD 160, Athens? [Greece].
- ^ a b c FW Walbank (November 1984). F. W. Walbank, ed. The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press, 6 Sep 1984. ISBN 0-521-23445-X. Retrieved 2015-04-01.
- ^ a b c "Arrian". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
Arrian (born c. ad 86, Nicomedia, Bithynia [now İzmit, Tur.] died c. 160, Athens? [Greece]) Greek historian and philosopher who was one of the most distinguished authors of the 2nd-century Roman Empire. Wolfgang Haase; Hildegard Temporini (1990). Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung, Volume 2;Volume 34. Walter de Gruyter. p. 228. ISBN 3-11-010376-1.
Arrian was of Greek stock, from the provincial aristocracy of Bithynia. His full name, L. Flavius Arrianus, demonstrates that he was a Roman citizen and suggests that the citizenship went back several generations, probably to the triumphal period. Arrian’s home city was the Bithynian capital, Nicomedia, where he held the priesthood of Demeter and Kore, its patron deities. Arrian; Sélincourt, Aubrey De (1971). The campaigns of Alexander. Penguin Classics. p. 13. ISBN 0-14-044253-7.
Flavius Arrianus Xenophon, to give him his full name, was a Greek, born at Nicomedia, the capital of the Roman province of Bithynia, probably a few years before A.D. 90. Grant, Michael (1992). Readings in the classical historians. Scribner's. p. 544. ISBN 0-684-19245-4.
ARRIAN: GREEK HISTORIAN Arrian was an approximate contemporary of Appian, born about AD 95. Like him a Greek, he came from Nicomedia (İzmit) in Bithynia (north-western Asia-Minor) where his family was prominent.
- ^ Stadter's suggestion that his official name was Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (Stadter, Philip (1967). "Flavius Arrianus: The New Xenophon". Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies. Retrieved April 14, 2016.) is disproven by epigraphic evidence: Bowie, E. L. “Greeks and Their Past in the Second Sophistic.” Past & Present, 46 (1970): 25 n.72.
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- ^ "Arrian". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
Arrian (born c. ad 86, Nicomedia, Bithynia [now İzmit, Tur.] died c. 160, Athens? [Greece]) Greek historian and philosopher who was one of the most distinguished authors of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.Wolfgang Haase; Hildegard Temporini (1990). Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung, Volume 2;Volume 34. Walter de Gruyter. p. 228. ISBN 3-11-010376-1.
Arrian was of Greek stock, from the provincial aristocracy of Bithynia. His full name, L. Flavius Arrianus, demonstrates that he was a Roman citizen and suggests that the citizenship went back several generations, probably to the triumphal period. Arrian’s home city was the Bithynian capital, Nicomedia, where he held the priesthood of Demeter and Kore, its patron deities.Arrian; Sélincourt, Aubrey De (1971). The campaigns of Alexander. Penguin Classics. p. 13. ISBN 0-14-044253-7.
Flavius Arrianus Xenophon, to give him his full name, was a Greek, born at Nicomedia, the capital of the Roman province of Bithynia, probably a few years before A.D. 90.Grant, Michael (1992). Readings in the classical historians. Scribner's. p. 544. ISBN 0-684-19245-4.
ARRIAN: GREEK HISTORIAN Arrian was an approximate contemporary of Appian, born about AD 95. Like him a Greek, he came from Nicomedia in Bithynia (north-western Asia-Minor) where his family was prominent.
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- ^ Oxford Dictionary – monograph Oxford University Press [Retrieved 2015-04-04]
- ^ EJ Chinnock, The Anabasis of Alexander [Retrieved 2015-04-04]
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- ^ Alexander Chalmers, The General Biographical Dictionary: Containing an Historical and Critical Account of the Lives and Writings of the Most Eminent Persons in Every Nation: Particularly the British and Irish; from the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time, Volumes 5-6, p.396-7 J. Nichols, 1812 [Retrieved 2015-04-02]
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- Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt, Penguin Classics, 1958 and numerous subsequent editions.
- Phillips, A. A., and M. M. Willcock (eds.). Xenophon and Arrian On Hunting with Hounds. Cynegeticus. Oxford: Aris & Phillips, 1999. ISBN 0-85668-706-5.
- P. A. Stadter, Arrian of Nicomedia, Chapel Hill, 1980.
- R. Syme, 'The Career of Arrian', Harvard Studies in Classical Philology vol.86 (1982), pp. 171–211.
- E. L. Wheeler, Flavius Arrianus: a political and military biography, Duke University, 1977.nn
- Cartledge, Paul; Romm, James S.; Strassler, Robert B.; Pamela Mensch (2010). The Landmark Arrian: The Campaigns of Alexander. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 0-375-42346-X.
- Yardley, J. & Heckel, W. (2004) The History of Alexander, Penguin, London, pp.5 & 269.
- Brodersen, K. (2017) Arrianos / Asklepiodotos: Die Kunst der Taktik. Greek and German, De Gruyter, Berlin ISBN 978-3-11-056216-3.
||Wikiquote has quotations related to: Arrian
- Texts online
- Collected works: Flavii Arriani quae exstant omnia, A. G. Roos (ed.), 2 vols., Lipsiae, in aedibus B. G. Teubneri, 1967–68.
- Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, Teubner monolingual Greek edition, edited by A.G. Roos (1907)
- Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, translated by E.J. Chinnock (1893)
- Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, (section 1.13-16) (pdf, pp. 18-19), Battle of Granicus, from the Loeb Classical Library edition.
- Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, (section 4.18.4-19.6), Sogdian Rock, translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt
- Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, (Section 7.5.1-16), translated by John Yardley
- Arrian, Cynegeticus, translated and edited by William Dansey (1831)
- Arrian, Events after Alexander (from Photius' Bibliotheca) translated by John Rooke, edited by Tim Spalding
- Arrian, The Indica translated by E. Iliff Robson.
- Arrian, Array against the Alans (Ἔκταξις κατὰ Ἀλανῶν) translated by Sander van Dorst, with the Greek (transliterated) and copious notes.
- Photius' excerpt of Arrian's Anabasis, translated by J. S. Freese
- Photius' excerpt of Arrian's Bithynica, translated by J. S. Freese
- Photius' excerpt of Arrian's Parthica, translated by J. S. Freese
- Photius' excerpt of Arrian's Events after Alexander, translated by J. S. Freese