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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Arras
Arras
(/ˈærəs/; French pronunciation: ​[aʁɑs]; Dutch: Atrecht) is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais. The historic centre of the Artois
Artois
region, with a Baroque town square, Arras
Arras
is located in Northern France
France
at the confluence of the Scarpe river and the Crinchon River.[1][unreliable source?] The Arras
Arras
plain lies on a large chalk plateau bordered on the north by the Marqueffles fault, on the southwest by the Artois
Artois
and Ternois hills, and on the south by the slopes of Beaufort-Blavincourt. On the east it is connected to the Scarpe valley. Established during the Iron Age
Iron Age
by the Gauls,[citation needed] the town of Arras
Arras
was first known as Nemetocenna, which is believed to have originated from the Celtic word nemeton, meaning 'sacred space'[citation needed]. Saint Vedast
Saint Vedast
(or St. Vaast) was the first Catholic bishop in the year 499 and attempted to eliminate paganism among the Franks. By 843, Arras
Arras
was seat of the County of Artois
Artois
which became part of the Royal domain in 1191.[1][unreliable source?] The first mention of the name Arras
Arras
appeared in the 12th century. Some hypothesize it is a contraction of Atrebates, a Belgic
Belgic
tribe of Gaul
Gaul
and Britain that used to inhabit the area. The name Atrebates
Atrebates
could have successively evolved to become Atrades, Atradis, Aras and finally Arras. Others believe it comes from the Celtic word Ar, meaning 'running water', as the Scarpe river flows through Arras.[2][3] Louis XIII reconquered Arras
Arras
in 1640; the town officially became part of France
France
in 1659. Arras
Arras
is Pas-de-Calais’ third most populous town after Calais
Calais
and Boulogne-sur-Mer. The town counted 43,693 residents in 2012, with the Arras
Arras
metropolitan area having a population of 124,200.[4][5] Arras
Arras
is located 182 kilometers (113 miles) north of Paris
Paris
and can be reached in 2 hours by car and in 50 minutes by TGV. It is the historic center of the former Artois
Artois
province. Its local speech is characterized as a patois. The city of Arras
Arras
is well known for its architecture, culture, and history. It was once part of the Spanish Netherlands, a portion of the Low Countries
Low Countries
controlled by Spain from 1556 to 1714. Each year Arras
Arras
attracts thousands of visitors, who explore the city's architecture and historic buildings. Some famous attractions include the splendid Town Hall and its Belfry (listed as an UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site since 15 July 2005), the "Boves" (a maze 10 m (33 ft) beneath the city), the Squares (La Place des Héros and La Grand'Place), the Art District (the Theatre of Arras
Arras
and the Hôtel de Guînes), the Abbey District (The Saint-Vaast Abbey and the Cathedral
Cathedral
of Arras), the Vauban
Vauban
Citadel, and the Nemetacum site (the ancient town founded by the Romans 2000 years ago).[6] The Canadian National Vimy Memorial
Vimy Memorial
is just outside the town. Unlike many French words, the final s in the name Arras
Arras
should be pronounced.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Prehistory 1.2 Antiquity/Foundation 1.3 Medieval and early modern period

1.3.1 Before the Middle Ages 1.3.2 Early Middle Ages 1.3.3 High Middle Ages 1.3.4 The wool industry and trade 1.3.5 Late Middle Ages 1.3.6 Renaissance

1.4 Modern period

1.4.1 French Revolution 1.4.2 World Wars

1.4.2.1 World War I 1.4.2.2 World War II

1.5 Contemporary period

1.5.1 Recent cooperative agreement

2 Geography

2.1 Localization and area 2.2 Geology 2.3 Hydrography 2.4 Climate

3 Population and society

3.1 Demographics 3.2 Religion 3.3 Education

4 Sights and attractions

4.1 The squares 4.2 The town hall and its belfry 4.3 The Cathedral
Cathedral
of Arras 4.4 The Boves 4.5 The Art District 4.6 The Abbey District 4.7 The Vauban
Vauban
Citadel 4.8 Seasonal events 4.9 UNESCO
UNESCO
recognition 4.10 Outside Arras

5 Transportation

5.1 Railway station

5.1.1 TGV
TGV
lines 5.1.2 TER Nord- Pas-de-Calais
Pas-de-Calais
lines

5.2 Highway

6 Personalities of Arras 7 International relations

7.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] Prehistory[edit] Archaeologists found evidence of prehistoric human settlements in the Scarpe basin. The archaeological sites of Mont-Saint-Vaast in Arras and Biache-Saint-Vaast
Biache-Saint-Vaast
were Stone Age
Stone Age
settlements of the Mousterian culture. They were evidenced by the finds of stone tools. These tools show signs of the Levallois technique, a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of stone knapping, developed by forerunners to modern humans during the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
period 170,000 years ago. Very little was found to document the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and Early Iron Age
Iron Age
in the Arras
Arras
area.[7] Antiquity/Foundation[edit] Arras
Arras
was founded on the boat of Baudimont by the Belgic
Belgic
tribe of the Atrebates, who named it Nemetocenna in reference to a nemeton that probably existed there. It was later renamed Nemetacum/Atrebatum by the Romans, under whom it became an important garrison town.[8][9] In the Scarpe valley archaeologists' excavations and data recovery revealed Late Iron Age
Iron Age
settlements. These buildings, believed to be farms, were found near the municipalities of Arras, Hamblain-les-Prés and Saint-Pol.[10] Medieval and early modern period[edit] Before the Middle Ages[edit]

The ordination of Saint Vaast

In the 4th century, Nemetecacum was renowned for its arts and crafts as well as textiles trade throughout the whole empire. Between 406 and 407, the city was taken and destroyed by Germanic invaders. In 428, the Salian Franks
Salian Franks
led by Clodion le Chevelu
Clodion le Chevelu
took control of the region including the current Somme department. Roman General Aetius then chose to negotiate for peace and concluded a treaty (fœdus) with Clodion that gave the Franks
Franks
the status of «foederati» fighting for Rome. The town's people were converted to Christianity in the late 4th century by Saint Innocent, who was killed in 410 during a barbarian attack on the town. In 499, after the conversion of Clovis I
Clovis I
to Catholicism, a diocese (évêché in French) was created in Arras, the Roman Catholic Diocese
Diocese
of Arras, and given to Saint Vaast (also known as Saint Vedast
Saint Vedast
in English), who remains the diocesan patron saint. Saint Vaast then established an episcopal see and a monastic community. It was suppressed in 580 to found the Roman Catholic Diocese
Diocese
of Cambrai, from which it would reemerge five centuries later. Early Middle Ages[edit] In 667 Saint Aubert, bishop of Cambrai, decided to found the Abbey of Saint Vaast, which developed during the Carolingian
Carolingian
period into an immensely wealthy Benedictine
Benedictine
abbey. The modern town of Arras initially spread around the abbey as a grain market. During the 9th century, both town and abbey suffered from the attacks of the Vikings, who later settled to the west in Normandy. The abbey revived its strength in the 11th century and played an important role in the development of medieval painting, successfully synthesizing the artistic styles of Carolingian, Ottonian
Ottonian
and English art.[11] High Middle Ages[edit]

"Li congié" by Jean Bodel, a trouvère that lived in Arras
Arras
in the 12th century

Arras: tapestry representing God's conversation with Noah

In 1025, a Catholic council was held at Arras
Arras
against certain Manichaean
Manichaean
(dualistic) heretics who rejected the sacraments of the Church. In 1093, the bishopric of Arras
Arras
was refounded on territory split from the Diocese
Diocese
of Cambrai. In 1097 two councils, presided over by Lambert d'Arras, dealt with questions concerning monasteries and persons consecrated to God. In this time, Arras
Arras
became an important cultural center, especially for the group of poets who came to be known as trouvères. One particular society of such poets was later called the Puy d'Arras. The wool industry and trade[edit] The town was granted a commercial charter by the French crown in 1180 and became an internationally important location for banking and trade. The wool industry of Arras, established in the 4th century, became of great importance during the Middle Ages. Already in the third century Romans had lauded about the quality of wool from Tournai and Arras. By the eleventh century Arras
Arras
was the leading city and trading hub of the wool industry. This prominence would eventually shift towards areas north of Arras, and cities such as Lille, Douai and Saint-Omer, followed by Ypres
Ypres
and eventually Bruges
Bruges
would become the centres of the wool industry and trade. However, by the 14th century Arras
Arras
still was renowned and drew considerable wealth from the cloth and wool industry, and was particularly well known for its production of fine tapestries—so much so that in English and Italian the word Arras
Arras
(Arazzi in Italian) was adopted to refer to tapestries in general.[11] The patronage of wealthy cloth merchants ensured that the town became an important cultural center, with major figures such as the poet Jean Bodel and the trouvère Adam de la Halle
Adam de la Halle
making their homes in Arras. Late Middle Ages[edit] The ownership of the town was repeatedly disputed along with the rest of Artois. During the Middle Ages, possession of Arras
Arras
passed to a variety of feudal rulers and fiefs, including the County of Flanders, the Duchy of Burgundy, the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
and the French crown. In 1430, Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
(Jeanne d'Arc in French), was imprisoned in the region of Arras. The town was the site of the Congress of Arras in 1435, an unsuccessful attempt to end the Hundred Years' War that resulted in the Burgundians breaking their alliance with the English. After the death of Duke Charles the Bold
Charles the Bold
of Burgundy in 1477, King Louis XI of France
France
took control of Arras
Arras
but the town's inhabitants, still loyal to the Burgundians, expelled the French. This prompted Louis XI to besiege Arras
Arras
in person and, after taking it by assault, he had the town's walls razed and its inhabitants expelled, to be replaced by more loyal subjects from other parts of France. In a bid to erase the town's identity completely, Louis renamed it temporarily to Franchise. In 1482, the Peace of Arras
Arras
was signed in the town to end a war between Louis XI and Maximilian I of Austria; ten years later, the town was ceded to Maximilian. It was eventually bequeathed to the Spanish Habsburgs as part of the Spanish Netherlands.[12][13] Renaissance[edit] Main article: French Renaissance Arras
Arras
remained under Habsburg
Habsburg
rule from 1493 until 1640 when it was captured by the French. The Spanish ceded it by the peace treaty in 1659 and it has since remained French. The Union of Arras was signed here in January 1579 by the Catholic principalities of the Low Countries that remained loyal to King Philip II of Habsburg; it provoked the declaration of the Union of Utrecht
Union of Utrecht
later the same month. Modern period[edit] French Revolution[edit] Main article: French Revolution

Arras-born lawyer and politician Maximilien de Robespierre

Maximilien de Robespierre, a French lawyer and politician from Arras and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution, was elected fifth deputy of the third estate of Artois
Artois
to the Estates-General in 1789. Robespierre also helped draft to Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.[1] During the French Revolution, the city of Arras
Arras
was first presided over by French reformer Dubois de Fosseux, erudite squire, secretary of the Arras
Arras
district (arrondissement in French) and future president of the Pas-de-Calais
Pas-de-Calais
department. Around the same time, competing against Aire-sur-la-Lys, Calais
Calais
and Saint-Omer, Arras
Arras
won the prefecture of Pas-de-Calais. From September 1793 to July 1794, during the Reign of Terror, the city was under the supervision of Joseph Lebon who implemented food restrictions, ordered 400 executions and destroyed several religious monuments including the Arras
Arras
Cathedral and the Abbey of St. Vaast. Arras' demography and economic activity remained the same throughout the French Revolution
French Revolution
while Lille's grew exponentially. In 1898, under the influence of Mayor Émile Legrelle, some of Arras' ramparts were demolished to build vast boulevards, establish a new sewage system and replace the old railway station from 1846. World Wars[edit] World War I[edit]

Hôtel de Ville, Arras
Arras
on 26 May 1917

Grand'Place of Arras
Arras
in February 1919

During most of the First World War, Arras
Arras
was about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) away from the front line, and a series of battles were fought around the city and nearby, including the Battle of Arras
Arras
(1914), the Battle of Arras (1917)
Battle of Arras (1917)
and the Second Battle of the Somme component of 1918's Hundred Days Offensive. On 31 August 1914, German light cavalry (Uhlans) arrived in Tilloy-lès-Mofflaines, and an army patrol made a foray into Arras. On 6 September 1914, 3,000 soldiers led by General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim barracked within the city and in the Arras
Arras
citadel. Shortly after, Louis Ernest de Maud'huy's soldiers partly repelled the German army troops, and trenches were dug in the Faubourgs d'Arras. On 7 October 1914, the Arras
Arras
city hall burned. On 21 October 1914, the belfry was destroyed, and so was the Arras Cathedral
Arras Cathedral
on 6 July 1915.[14] In 1917, a series of medieval tunnels beneath the city, linked and greatly expanded by the New Zealand Tunnelling Company, became a decisive factor in the British forces holding the city particularly during that year's Battle of Arras.[15]

The nearby Canadian National Vimy
Vimy
Memorial

By the end of World War I, the city was so heavily damaged that three quarters had to be rebuilt. The reconstruction was extremely costly, yet it proved to be a success and allowed the city to expand. The town is located approximately 11 km (6.8 mi) south of the Canadian National Vimy Memorial
Canadian National Vimy Memorial
built in 1936 on Hill 145, the highest point of the Vimy
Vimy
Ridge escarpment.[16][17] It is dedicated to the Battle of Vimy Ridge
Battle of Vimy Ridge
assault (part of the 1917 Battle of Arras) and the missing First World War
First World War
Canadian soldiers with no known grave; it is also the site of two WWI Canadian cemeteries.[17] On 9 April 2017, the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Vimy
Vimy
Ridge, Arras
Arras
Mayor Frédéric Leturque thanked Canadians, as well as Australians and British, New Zealanders and South Africans, for their role in the First World War
First World War
battles in the area.[18][19] World War II[edit] In the early stages of the second World War, during the invasion of France
France
in May 1940, the city was the focus of a major British counterattack. Arras
Arras
saw an Allied counterattack against the flank of the German army. The German forces were pushing north towards the channel coast, in order to entrap the Allied Forces that were advancing east into Belgium. The counterattack at Arras
Arras
was an Allied attempt to cut through the German spearhead and frustrate the German advance. Although the Allies initially made gains, they were repulsed by German forces and forced to withdraw to avoid encirclement. Arras was then occupied by the Germans and 240 suspected French Resistance members were executed in the Arras
Arras
citadel. On 3 September 1944, the city was entered and liberated by the British Guards Armoured Division. Contemporary period[edit] Recent cooperative agreement[edit] In September 1993, Ipswich
Ipswich
(United Kingdom) and Arras
Arras
became twin towns, and a square in the new Ipswich
Ipswich
Buttermarket development was named Arras
Arras
Square to mark the relationship.[20] Geography[edit]

Arras
Arras
in the Pas-de-Calais

"La Scarpe" by Arras-born painter Charles Desavary

Arras
Arras
in the summer

Localization and area[edit] Arras
Arras
is located in northern France
France
in the Hauts-de- France
France
region. Hauts-de- France
France
is divided in 2 departments: Nord and Pas-de-Calais. Arras
Arras
is in the south-east part of the Pas-de-Calais
Pas-de-Calais
department and forms the Arras
Arras
district (arrondissement d' Arras
Arras
in French) in the Artois, a former province of northern France. By car, it is 182 kilometers (113 miles) north of Paris, 110 kilometers (68 miles) east of the English Channel, 152 kilometers (94 miles) south of Brussels, and 335 kilometers (208 miles) south of Amsterdam. The city's total area is 11.63 km2 (4 sq mi). The lowest point in the city is at 52 meters (171 feet) above sea level and the highest is at 99 meters (325 feet). Geology[edit] The soil of Arras
Arras
is primarily composed of chalk, a soft, white, porous sedimentary rock that formed what is called the European stratigraphic unit. That Chalk
Chalk
Group deposited during the Late Cretaceous period 90 million years ago. It used to be extracted to construct the most prestigious buildings and houses of Arras. As a result, residents once nicknamed the city La ville blanche (the White Town). The Arras
Arras
area soil is also composed of clay, which was used to produce bricks, build less noble buildings, and embellish façades. Clay
Clay
is mostly found in the lieu-dit of La Terre Potier in the western part of the city. The level of earthquake hazard in the Arras
Arras
area is low, as it is in the whole Pas-de-Calais
Pas-de-Calais
department. Hydrography[edit] Two rivers flow through Arras: the Scarpe and the Crinchon, both left tributary of the 350-kilometer-long European river called the Scheldt (L'Escaut in French). The Crinchon is a rather small river of 19 kilometers (12 miles) flowing through Arras
Arras
underground while the Scarpe is 102 kilometers (63 miles) long, of which two thirds has been turned into canals. The source of the Scarpe is at Berles-Monchel
Berles-Monchel
near Aubigny-en-Artois. It flows through the cities Arras, Douai
Douai
and Saint-Amand-les-Eaux. The river ends at Mortagne-du-Nord
Mortagne-du-Nord
where it flows into the Scheldt. Climate[edit] Arras
Arras
mainly experiences a Western European oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb) affected by the North Atlantic Current due to its proximity of the English Channel
English Channel
(La Manche
Manche
in French). The city's climate is characterized by frequent rains in all seasons, and temperatures throughout the year are mild because of the proximity of the sea. The thermal amplitude is generally low. However, the city can sometimes endure brief cold temperatures as it is at the crossroads between oceanic and continental influences. Therefore, the region's climate can also be referred as semi-oceanic (known as a Climat océanique dégradé in French). Summer days are usually moderately warm and agreeable with average temperatures hovering between 13 and 23 °C (55 and 73 °F), and a fair amount of sunshine. Yet the temperature occasionally rises above 30 °C (86 °F). Some years have even witnessed some unusual long periods of harsh summer weather, such as the heat wave of 2003 where temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) for weeks, reaching 38 °C (100 °F) on some days and rarely even cooling down at night. Spring and Fall have rather warm days and fresh nights, but remain quite unstable. Winter days are cold but generally above freezing with temperatures around 2 °C (36 °F); sunshine is usually scarce. Light night frosts are common as the temperature often fall below 0 °C (32 °F). Snowfall has been rare in the past decade but happens depending on the year, such as in the Winter of 2009–10, which led to atypical cold weather, and caused many parts of Europe to experience heavy snowfall and record-low temperatures. The most recent warmest winters recorded were in 1989–90, 1994–95, 2006–07 and 2013–14. The Arras
Arras
region (and most Northern Europe) had remarkably warm and sunny weather in the winter of 2013–14.[21] Rain falls throughout the year. Average annual precipitation is 61.88 millimetres (2.436 in) with light rainfall fairly distributed throughout the year. The highest recorded temperature is 36.6 °C (97.9 °F), and the lowest is a −19.5 °C (−3.1 °F). On 28 October 2013, Cyclone Christian (also known as the St. Jude storm), one of the strongest extra-tropical cyclones ever recorded, hit Northern Europe including the Arras
Arras
area. The cyclone's central pressure was 981 mb, and wind speeds reached a maximum of 121 km/h (75 mph).[22] The city of Arras
Arras
did not experience any major damage though.

Climate data for Arras
Arras
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15.2 (59.4) 18.9 (66) 22.7 (72.9) 27.9 (82.2) 31.7 (89.1) 34.8 (94.6) 36.1 (97) 36.6 (97.9) 33.8 (92.8) 27.8 (82) 20.1 (68.2) 15.9 (60.6) 36.6 (97.9)

Average high °C (°F) 6 (43) 6.9 (44.4) 10.6 (51.1) 14.1 (57.4) 17.9 (64.2) 20.6 (69.1) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 19.7 (67.5) 15.2 (59.4) 9.8 (49.6) 6.4 (43.5) 23.3 (73.9)

Average low °C (°F) 1.2 (34.2) 1.3 (34.3) 3.6 (38.5) 5.4 (41.7) 8.9 (48) 11.7 (53.1) 13.8 (56.8) 13.6 (56.5) 11.2 (52.2) 8.1 (46.6) 4.4 (39.9) 1.9 (35.4) 1.2 (34.2)

Record low °C (°F) −19.5 (−3.1) −17.8 (0) −10.5 (13.1) −4.7 (23.5) −2.3 (27.9) 0 (32) 3.4 (38.1) 3.9 (39) 1.2 (34.2) −4.4 (24.1) −7.8 (18) −17.3 (0.9) −19.5 (−3.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 60.5 (2.382) 47.4 (1.866) 58.3 (2.295) 50.7 (1.996) 64 (2.52) 64.6 (2.543) 68.5 (2.697) 62.8 (2.472) 61.6 (2.425) 66.2 (2.606) 70.1 (2.76) 67.8 (2.669) 742.5 (29.231)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 65.5 70.7 121.1 172.2 193.9 206 211.3 199.5 151.9 114.4 61.4 49.6 1,617.6

Source: Météo-France[23]

Population and society[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1793 21,019 —    

1800 19,958 −5.0%

1806 19,286 −3.4%

1821 19,798 +2.7%

1831 23,419 +18.3%

1836 23,485 +0.3%

1841 24,439 +4.1%

1846 26,956 +10.3%

1851 25,271 −6.3%

1856 26,216 +3.7%

1861 25,905 −1.2%

1866 25,749 −0.6%

1872 27,329 +6.1%

1876 26,764 −2.1%

1881 27,041 +1.0%

1886 26,914 −0.5%

1891 25,701 −4.5%

1896 26,144 +1.7%

1901 25,813 −1.3%

1906 24,921 −3.5%

1911 26,080 +4.7%

1921 24,835 −4.8%

1926 29,718 +19.7%

1931 29,490 −0.8%

1936 31,488 +6.8%

1946 33,345 +5.9%

1954 36,242 +8.7%

1962 41,761 +15.2%

1968 49,144 +17.7%

1975 46,483 −5.4%

1982 41,736 −10.2%

1990 38,983 −6.6%

1999 40,535 +4.0%

2006 42,015 +3.7%

2009 42,049 +0.1%

2012 43,693 +3.9%

2015 40,721 −6.8%

Arras' demography in the Pas-de-Calais
Pas-de-Calais
department

The Arras
Arras
Prefecture

Demographics[edit] As of 2012[update], the population of Arras
Arras
is 43,693 for a density of 3,756.92 people per square kilometre (9,880.69 per square mile). The residents go by the name of Arrageois (male) and Arrageoise (female). The population is rather young as the highest number of residents is 15-29 of age. The most recent male to female ratio is 100:113, and the female to male ratio is 100:89. There are 20,198 males (47%) for 22,474 females (53%). The Arras
Arras
metropolitan area has a population of 124,200.[4][24] Religion[edit] Arras's Basilique-Cathédrale Notre-Dame et Saint-Vaast is the cathedral, a minor basilica, episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Diocese
Diocese
of Arras. Education[edit] Arras
Arras
is part of the académie de Lille
Lille
(Lille's School District). There are 11 écoles maternelles (nursery schools), 11 écoles primaires (elementary schools), 8 collèges (junior high schools) and 7 lycées (high schools) within the city.

Sights and attractions[edit]

Flemish-Baroque-style townhouses

The Belfry of Arras

View from the Belfry over the market Place des Héros

The Arras
Arras
Cathedral

The Boves

The Vauban
Vauban
Citadel

The squares[edit] The city centre is marked by two large squares, La Grand' Place and La Place des Héros, also called La Petite Place. The two squares are surrounded by a unique architectural ensemble of 155 Flemish-Baroque-style townhouses. These were built in the 17th and 18th century and were initially made of wood. In 1918, after the end of World War I, most of the townhouses were so severely damaged that they had to be restored to their pre-war conditions. They are now made of bricks.[25] The town hall and its belfry[edit] The Gothic town hall and its belfry were constructed between 1463 and 1554 and had to be rebuilt in a slightly less grandiose style after World War I. The belfry is 75 meters (246 feet) high and used to serve as a watchtower. Nowadays tourists can enjoy ascending the belfry.[26] The Cathedral
Cathedral
of Arras[edit] The original cathedral was constructed between 1030 and 1396 and was one of the most beautiful Gothic structures in Northern France. It was destroyed during the French Revolution
French Revolution
and rebuilt in the 19th century. The present catedral Basilique-Cathédrale Notre-Dame et Saint-Vaast is a minor basilica. The Boves[edit] The Boves, a well-preserved underground network of tunnels, 10 metres (33 feet) beneath the city, was built in the 10th century and can now be visited by tourists. The idea was to set up a vast underground network to make all inhabitants' cellars interconnect by means of tunnels. Excavation material (chalk) was not wasted but rather used to construct houses. During World War I and World War II, the Boves was utilized as an underground bunker to hide and protect residents and valued objects from falling bombs. The Art District[edit] The Art District is renowned for its Italian-style theatre hall built in 1785 and the Hôtel de Guînes, a private 18th-century townhouse that attracts artists, designers and producers of intimist shows. The Abbey District[edit] Many of Arras's most remarkable structures, including the Musée des beaux-arts d' Arras
Arras
and several government buildings, occupy the site of the old Abbey of St. Vaast. The abbey's church was demolished and rebuilt in fashionable classical style in 1833, and now serves as the town's cathedral. The design was chosen by the one-time Abbot of St Vaast, the Cardinal de Rohan, and is stark in its simplicity, employing a vast number of perpendicular angles. There is a fine collection of statuary within the church and it houses a number of religious relics. The Vauban
Vauban
Citadel[edit] Built by Vauban
Vauban
between 1667 and 1672, the Citadel
Citadel
has been nicknamed La belle inutile (the beautiful useless one) by residents as it has never been directly involved in heavy fighting and didn't prevent the Germans from occupying the city in either World War. Since 7 July 2008 it has been part of the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites Fortifications of Vauban
Vauban
which includes eleven other fortifications.[27] Within the citadel on the side of La Place de Manœuvre a small Baroque-style chapel was built. Outside, Le Mur des Fusillés (the wall of the people executed by a firing squad) pays tribute to the 218 members of the French Resistance
French Resistance
shot in the citadel's ditch during World War II. Seasonal events[edit] Arras
Arras
holds the biggest Christmas market[citation needed] north of Paris
Paris
every year from the end of November to the end of December. Around 80 exhibitors offer a wide selection of arts and crafts, as well as local delicacies like chocolate rats, Atrébate beer and Coeurs d' Arras
Arras
– heart-shaped biscuits which come in two flavours, ginger and cheese. Entertainment includes cooking lessons with chefs, craft demonstrations, a merry-go-round, a ferris wheel, an ice-skating rink and heated shelters. It also offers native products from International locations such as Canada, Vietnam, Morocco, Indonesia, Africa and gourmet regional specialities from different parts of France: Auvergne, Savoie, South-Western France
France
and Nord-Pas-de-Calais.[28] The Main Square Festival
Main Square Festival
is held for several days in early July within the Vauban
Vauban
Citadel, attracting tens of thousands of attendees and playing host to major acts such as The Chemical Brothers, Coldplay, Imagine Dragons, David Guetta
David Guetta
and The Black Eyed Peas. The Arras
Arras
Film Festival is a popular film festival held for ten days in November.[29] Le jardin botanique Floralpina is a private botanical garden, specializing in alpine plants. It opens every year on the last Sunday of May and can be visited by appointment. UNESCO
UNESCO
recognition[edit] Two buildings in Arras
Arras
are listed as UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites:

The Belfry of the Town Hall, as part of the Belfries of Belgium
Belgium
and France
France
group, since 2005 The Vauban
Vauban
citadel, as part of the Fortifications of Vauban
Vauban
group, since 2008

Outside Arras[edit] The Vimy Memorial
Vimy Memorial
is a memorial just north of the town honouring a major World War I battle, the Battle of Vimy
Vimy
Ridge, which marked the first time Canada fielded an entire army of her own. Four Canadian divisions fought there on Easter weekend 1917. The Battle of Vimy Ridge was part of the broader Allied offensive in April known as the Battle of Arras. The Canadian National Vimy Memorial
Canadian National Vimy Memorial
is nearby. Vimy was the only victory the Allies would enjoy during their 1917 spring offensive. The Basilica of Notre Dame de Lorette
Notre Dame de Lorette
cemetery, overlooking the nearby village of Ablain-Saint-Nazaire, likewise stands before one of France's largest World War I necropolises. Part of an extensive network of tunnels dug in World War I by British Empire
British Empire
soldiers can be visited at the Carrière Wellington
Carrière Wellington
museum in the suburbs. Transportation[edit] Railway station[edit]

La Gare d'Arras

La Gare d'Arras
Gare d'Arras
before 1907

The Gare d'Arras
Gare d'Arras
railway station is served by a purpose-built branch of the LGV Nord
LGV Nord
high speed railway, with regular TGV
TGV
services to Paris (45 minutes). There are also regular trains to Lille, Amiens, Dunkerque and several regional destinations. TGV
TGV
lines[edit]

Ligne Saint-Omer
Saint-Omer
/ Dunkerque–Lens–Arras–Paris-Nord Ligne Valenciennes–Douai–Arras–Paris-Nord Ligne Lille–Europe–Lyon–Marseille Ligne Lille–Europe–Rennes Ligne Lille–Europe–Nantes–Saint-Nazaire Ligne Lille–Europe–Bordeaux

TER Nord- Pas-de-Calais
Pas-de-Calais
lines[edit]

Ligne 2 : Lille–Douai–Arras–Amiens–Rouen Ligne 6 : Arras–Hazebrouck–Dunkerque Ligne 7 : Arras–Hazebrouck–Calais Ligne 14 : Arras–Saint-Pol-sur-Ternoise–Etaples–Boulogne-sur-Mer Ligne Lille– Arras
Arras
(TERGV)

Highway[edit] Autoroute A1 (A1 highway) is a tollway that connects Arras
Arras
with Lille and Paris. As part of the European 'inter-country' route E15, it also connects Arras
Arras
with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Spain as well as the northern and southern parts of France. Autoroute A26 (A26 highway) connects Arras
Arras
with Calais
Calais
and Reims.

Autoroute A1 connecting Arras
Arras
with Paris
Paris
and Lille

Autoroute A26 connecting Arras
Arras
with Calais
Calais
and Reims

The European route E 15 connecting Arras
Arras
with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Spain as well as the northern and southern parts of France

Personalities of Arras[edit] Arras
Arras
was one of the centers of trouvère poetry, and trouvères from Arras
Arras
include:

Adam de la Halle
Adam de la Halle
(c.1240–88) Andrieu Contredit d'Arras († c.1248) Audefroi le Bastart (fl. c1200–1230) Dame Margot Dame Maroie Gaidifer d'Avion Guillaume le Vinier (fl. c1220–45; died 1245) Jaques le Vinier Jehan Bretel (c1200–1272) Jehan le Cuvelier d'Arras (fl. c1240–70) Jehan Erart († c1259) Mahieu de Gant Moniot d'Arras (fl c1250–75) Robert de Castel Robert de la Piere

Arras
Arras
was the birthplace of:

Matthias of Arras
Matthias of Arras
(c. 1290–1352), architect Antoine de Févin (c. 1470 – 1511 or 1512), composer Charles de l'Écluse
Charles de l'Écluse
(1526–1609), doctor and pioneering botanist Philippe Rogier (c. 1561 – 1596), composer Maximilien de Robespierre
Maximilien de Robespierre
(1758–1794), French revolutionary leader Joseph Le Bon
Joseph Le Bon
(1765–1795), politician Eugène François Vidocq
Eugène François Vidocq
(1775–1857), one of the first modern private investigators Lucien Gaudin
Lucien Gaudin
(1886–1934), fencing champion Gabriel Hanot (1889–1968), journalist Violette Leduc (1907–1972), author Jean-Christophe Novelli
Jean-Christophe Novelli
(born 1961), chef and restaurateur Philippe Hermann (born 1962), winner of the 2000 edition of the Prix des Deux Magots Benoît Assou-Ekotto
Benoît Assou-Ekotto
(born 1984), footballer Jean Pierre Arras
Arras
(born 1998), footballer

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Arras
Arras
is twinned with:

Chemnitz, Saxony, Germany Deva, Romania Herten, Germany Ipswich, United Kingdom[30] Oudenaarde, (Belgium)

See also[edit]

Battles of Arras, for a list of battles named after the city. Abbey of St. Vaast Lion and Sun#Other (non-Iranian) variants Marcel Gaumont
Marcel Gaumont
Sculpture in cathedral

References[edit]

INSEE commune file  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Arras". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. 

^ a b c http://www.eupedia.com/france/arras.shtml ^ "Histoire Générale - Arras-Online". arras-online.com. Retrieved 30 October 2014.  ^ "ARRAS Historique". nordmag.com. Retrieved 30 October 2014.  ^ a b "Mairie de ARRAS (62000) - Conseil-General.com". conseil-general.com. Retrieved 30 October 2014.  ^ " Arras
Arras
in Nord- Pas-de-Calais
Pas-de-Calais
-- a Guide to Arras
Arras
in northern France". gofrance.about.com. Retrieved 30 October 2014.  ^ "Discover the heritage of the city of Arras
Arras
- Arras
Arras
Tourism Office". explorearras.com. Retrieved 30 October 2014.  ^ "Arras", pp. 9-10. Editions des Beffrois, 1988. ISBN 2-903077-76-2 ^ "Arras". Northern France
France
and the Paris
Paris
Region, pp. 120–122. Michelin Travel Publications, 2006. ISBN 2-06-711928-1 ^ "Arras." Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names. John Everett-Heath. Oxford University Press 2005. ^ "Arras", pp. 10. Editions des Beffrois, 1988. ISBN 2-903077-76-2 ^ a b "Arras." Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Ed. André Vauchez. ^ "Arras." Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. (2007). ^ "Arras." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. ^ " Arras
Arras
an Unburied City". New York Times. December 12, 1915. Retrieved 2015-08-16.  ^ Johnson, Matt (20 April 2011). "Legacy of the Kiwi tunnellers". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 16 September 2011.  ^ http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/memorials/overseas/first-world-war/france/vimy/fast-facts ^ a b "Canadian National Vimy
Vimy
Memorial, France". The Great War UK. The Great War UK. 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2017. The ridge runs in a direction from Givenchy-en-Gohelle
Givenchy-en-Gohelle
in the north-west to Farbus
Farbus
in the south-east.  ^ http://thechronicleherald.ca/canada/1458104-slideshow-justin-trudeau-in-france-to-mark-the-100th-anniversary-of-vimy-ridge ^ The Canadian Press (9 April 2017). "Canadian and French leaders pay homage to fallen soldiers at Vimy
Vimy
Ridge". National Newswatch. National Newswatch Inc. Retrieved 7 April 2017.  ^ " Ipswich
Ipswich
– Arras". Ipswich
Ipswich
Borough Council. Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2008.  ^ "Actualité Météo : Hiver 2013-2014 : douceur exceptionnelle et arrosage copieux - La Chaîne Météo". actualite.lachainemeteo.com. Retrieved 30 October 2014.  ^ "The New York Times". nytimes.com. Retrieved 30 October 2014.  ^ "Climatological Information for Arras, France". Météo-France. August 2011.  ^ "POPULATION ARRAS : statistique d' Arras
Arras
62000". cartesfrance.fr. Retrieved 30 October 2014.  ^ "La Grand Place - Arras-Online". arras-online.com. Retrieved 30 October 2014.  ^ "Le Beffroi et Place des Héros - Arras-Online". arras-online.com. Retrieved 30 October 2014.  ^ "Citadelle Vauban - Arras ". arras.fr. Archived from the original on 1 January 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2014.  ^ Arras
Arras
Christmas Market (Pas-de-Calais) - Visiting, Travel, Hotels ^ Fabien Lemercier (14 November 2016). "Glory tastes victory at Arras". Cineuropa. Retrieved 15 November 2016.  ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 11 July 2013. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Arras.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arras.

Official website (in French) Information and pictures about Arras
Arras
(in French) Demographic statistics of Arras Fortifications of Arras "In and around Arras" pages 45–47 Discover Pas-de-Calais Inside the amazing cave city that housed 25,000 Allied troops under German noses in WWI "Rebuilding Arras
Arras
after WW1: old and new ideas" on the website "Remembrance Trails of the Great War in Northern France" Article on Arras
Arras
War Memorial/Sculptor Felix-Alexandre Desruelles

v t e

Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Communes of the Pas-de-Calais
Pas-de-Calais
department

Ablain-Saint-Nazaire Ablainzevelle Acheville Achicourt Achiet-le-Grand Achiet-le-Petit Acq Acquin-Westbécourt Adinfer Affringues Agnez-lès-Duisans Agnières Agny Aire-sur-la-Lys Airon-Notre-Dame Airon-Saint-Vaast Aix-en-Ergny Aix-en-Issart Aix-Noulette Alembon Alette Alincthun Allouagne Alquines Ambleteuse Ambricourt Ambrines Ames Amettes Amplier Andres Angres Annay Annequin Annezin Anvin Anzin-Saint-Aubin Ardres Arleux-en-Gohelle Arques Arras Athies Les Attaques Attin Aubigny-en-Artois Aubin-Saint-Vaast Aubrometz Auchel Auchy-au-Bois Auchy-lès-Hesdin Auchy-les-Mines Audembert Audincthun Audinghen Audrehem Audresselles Audruicq Aumerval Autingues Auxi-le-Château Averdoingt Avesnes Avesnes-le-Comte Avesnes-lès-Bapaume Avion Avondance Avroult Ayette Azincourt Bailleul-aux-Cornailles Bailleul-lès-Pernes Bailleulmont Bailleul-Sir-Berthoult Bailleulval Baincthun Bainghen Bajus Balinghem Bancourt Bapaume Baralle Barastre Barlin Barly Basseux Bavincourt Bayenghem-lès-Éperlecques Bayenghem-lès-Seninghem Bazinghen Béalencourt Beaudricourt Beaufort-Blavincourt Beaulencourt Beaumerie-Saint-Martin Beaumetz-lès-Aire Beaumetz-lès-Cambrai Beaumetz-lès-Loges Beaurains Beaurainville Beauvoir-Wavans Beauvois Bécourt Béhagnies Bellebrune Belle-et-Houllefort Bellinghem Bellonne Bénifontaine Berck Bergueneuse Berlencourt-le-Cauroy Berles-au-Bois Berles-Monchel Bermicourt Berneville Bernieulles Bertincourt Béthonsart Béthune Beugin Beugnâtre Beugny Beussent Beutin Beuvrequen Beuvry Bezinghem Biache-Saint-Vaast Biefvillers-lès-Bapaume Bienvillers-au-Bois Bihucourt Billy-Berclau Billy-Montigny Bimont Blairville Blangerval-Blangermont Blangy-sur-Ternoise Blendecques Bléquin Blessy Blingel Boffles Boiry-Becquerelle Boiry-Notre-Dame Boiry-Sainte-Rictrude Boiry-Saint-Martin Bois-Bernard Boisdinghem Boisjean Boisleux-au-Mont Boisleux-Saint-Marc Bomy Bonnières Bonningues-lès-Ardres Bonningues-lès-Calais Boubers-lès-Hesmond Boubers-sur-Canche Bouin-Plumoison Boulogne-sur-Mer Bouquehault Bourecq Bouret-sur-Canche Bourlon Bournonville Bours Boursin Bourthes Bouvelinghem Bouvigny-Boyeffles Boyaval Boyelles Brebières Brêmes Brévillers Bréxent-Énocq Brias Brimeux Bruay-la-Buissière Brunembert Bucquoy Buire-au-Bois Buire-le-Sec Buissy Bullecourt Bully-les-Mines Buneville Burbure Bus Busnes Caffiers Cagnicourt Calais Calonne-Ricouart Calonne-sur-la-Lys La Calotterie Camblain-Châtelain Camblain-l'Abbé Cambligneul Cambrin Camiers Campagne-lès-Boulonnais Campagne-lès-Guines Campagne-lès-Hesdin Campagne-lès-Wardrecques Campigneulles-les-Grandes Campigneulles-les-Petites Canettemont Canlers Canteleux Capelle-Fermont La Capelle-lès-Boulogne Capelle-lès-Hesdin Carency Carly Carvin La Cauchie Cauchy-à-la-Tour Caucourt Caumont Cavron-Saint-Martin Chelers Chériennes Chérisy Chocques Clairmarais Clenleu Clerques Cléty Colembert Colline-Beaumont La Comté Conchil-le-Temple Conchy-sur-Canche Condette Contes Conteville-en-Ternois Conteville-lès-Boulogne Coquelles Corbehem Cormont Couin Coullemont Coulogne Coulomby Coupelle-Neuve Coupelle-Vieille Courcelles-le-Comte Courcelles-lès-Lens Courrières Courset La Couture Couturelle Coyecques Crémarest Crépy Créquy Croisette Croisilles Croix-en-Ternois Cucq Cuinchy Dainville Dannes Delettes Denier Dennebrœucq Desvres Diéval Divion Dohem Douchy-lès-Ayette Doudeauville Dourges Douriez Douvrin Drocourt Drouvin-le-Marais Duisans Dury Echinghen Éclimeux Écoivres Écourt-Saint-Quentin Écoust-Saint-Mein Ecquedecques Ecques Écuires Écurie Éleu-dit-Leauwette Elnes Embry Enquin-lez-Guinegatte Enquin-sur-Baillons Éperlecques Épinoy Eps Équihen-Plage Équirre Ergny Érin Erny-Saint-Julien Ervillers Escalles Escœuilles Esquerdes Essars Estevelles Estrée Estrée-Blanche Estrée-Cauchy Estrée-Wamin Estréelles Étaing Étaples Éterpigny Étrun Évin-Malmaison Famechon Fampoux Farbus Fauquembergues Favreuil Febvin-Palfart Ferfay Ferques Festubert Feuchy Ficheux Fiefs Fiennes Fillièvres Fléchin Flers Fleurbaix Fleury Floringhem Foncquevillers Fontaine-lès-Boulans Fontaine-lès-Croisilles Fontaine-lès-Hermans Fontaine-l'Étalon Fortel-en-Artois Fosseux Foufflin-Ricametz Fouquereuil Fouquières-lès-Béthune Fouquières-lès-Lens Framecourt Frémicourt Frencq Fresnes-lès-Montauban Fresnicourt-le-Dolmen Fresnoy Fresnoy-en-Gohelle Fressin Fréthun Frévent Frévillers Frévin-Capelle Fruges Galametz Gauchin-Légal Gauchin-Verloingt Gaudiempré Gavrelle Gennes-Ivergny Givenchy-en-Gohelle Givenchy-le-Noble Givenchy-lès-la-Bassée Gomiécourt Gommecourt Gonnehem Gosnay Gouves Gouy-en-Artois Gouy-en-Ternois Gouy-Saint-André Gouy-Servins Gouy-sous-Bellonne Graincourt-lès-Havrincourt Grand-Rullecourt Grenay Grévillers Grigny Grincourt-lès-Pas Groffliers Guarbecque Guémappe Guemps Guigny Guinecourt Guînes Guisy Habarcq Haillicourt Haisnes Halinghen Hallines Halloy Ham-en-Artois Hamblain-les-Prés Hamelincourt Hames-Boucres Hannescamps Haplincourt Haravesnes Hardinghen Harnes Haucourt Haute-Avesnes Hautecloque Hauteville Haut-Loquin Havrincourt Hébuterne Helfaut Hendecourt-lès-Cagnicourt Hendecourt-lès-Ransart Hénin-Beaumont Hénin-sur-Cojeul Héninel Henneveux Hénu Herbinghen Héricourt La Herlière Herlincourt Herlin-le-Sec Herly Hermaville Hermelinghen Hermies Hermin Hernicourt Hersin-Coupigny Hervelinghen Hesdigneul-lès-Béthune Hesdigneul-lès-Boulogne Hesdin Hesdin-l'Abbé Hesmond Hestrus Heuchin Heuringhem Hézecques Hinges Hocquinghen Houchin Houdain Houlle Houvin-Houvigneul Hubersent Huby-Saint-Leu Huclier Hucqueliers Hulluch Humbercamps Humbert Humerœuille Humières Inchy-en-Artois Incourt Inxent Isbergues Isques Ivergny Izel-lès-Équerchin Izel-lès-Hameau Journy Labeuvrière Labourse Labroye Lacres Lagnicourt-Marcel Laires Lambres Landrethun-le-Nord Landrethun-lès-Ardres Lapugnoy Lattre-Saint-Quentin Laventie Lebiez Lebucquière Léchelle Ledinghem Lefaux Leforest Lens Lépine Lespesses Lespinoy Lestrem Leubringhen Leulinghem Leulinghen-Bernes Libercourt Licques Liencourt Lières Liettres Liévin Lignereuil Ligny-lès-Aire Ligny-Saint-Flochel Ligny-sur-Canche Ligny-Thilloy Lillers Linghem Linzeux Lisbourg Locon La Loge Loison-sous-Lens Loison-sur-Créquoise Longfossé Longuenesse Longueville Longvilliers Loos-en-Gohelle Lorgies Lottinghen Louches Lozinghem Lugy Lumbres La Madelaine-sous-Montreuil Magnicourt-en-Comte Magnicourt-sur-Canche Maintenay Maisnil Maisnil-lès-Ruitz Maisoncelle Maizières Mametz Manin Maninghem Maninghen-Henne Marant Marck Marconne Marconnelle Marenla Maresquel-Ecquemicourt Marest Maresville Marles-les-Mines Marles-sur-Canche Marœuil Marquay Marquion Marquise Martinpuich Matringhem Mazingarbe Mazinghem Mencas Menneville Mentque-Nortbécourt Mercatel Merck-Saint-Liévin Méricourt Merlimont Metz-en-Couture Meurchin Mingoval Moncheaux-lès-Frévent Monchel-sur-Canche Monchiet Monchy-au-Bois Monchy-Breton Monchy-Cayeux Monchy-le-Preux Mondicourt Mont-Bernanchon Montcavrel Montenescourt Montigny-en-Gohelle Montreuil Mont-Saint-Éloi Monts-en-Ternois Morchies Moringhem Morval Mory Moulle Mouriez Moyenneville Muncq-Nieurlet Nabringhen Nédon Nédonchel Nempont-Saint-Firmin Nesles Neufchâtel-Hardelot Neulette Neuve-Chapelle Neuville-au-Cornet Neuville-Bourjonval Neuville-Saint-Vaast Neuville-sous-Montreuil Neuville-Vitasse Neuvireuil Nielles-lès-Ardres Nielles-lès-Bléquin Nielles-lès-Calais Nœux-lès-Auxi Nœux-les-Mines Nordausques Noreuil Norrent-Fontes Nortkerque Nort-Leulinghem Nouvelle-Église Noyelles-Godault Noyelles-lès-Humières Noyelles-lès-Vermelles Noyelles-sous-Bellonne Noyelles-sous-Lens Noyellette Noyelle-Vion Nuncq-Hautecôte Oblinghem Œuf-en-Ternois Offekerque Offin Offrethun Oignies Oisy-le-Verger Oppy Orville Ostreville Ourton Outreau Ouve-Wirquin Oye-Plage Palluel Le Parcq Parenty Pas-en-Artois Pelves Penin Pernes Pernes-lès-Boulogne Peuplingues Pierremont Pihem Pihen-lès-Guînes Pittefaux Planques Plouvain Polincove Pommera Pommier Le Ponchel Pont-à-Vendin Le Portel Prédefin Pressy Preures Pronville-en-Artois Puisieux Quéant Quelmes Quercamps Quernes Le Quesnoy-en-Artois Quesques Questrecques Quiéry-la-Motte Quiestède Quilen Quœux-Haut-Maînil Racquinghem Radinghem Ramecourt Rang-du-Fliers Ransart Raye-sur-Authie Rebergues Rebreuve-Ranchicourt Rebreuve-sur-Canche Rebreuviette Reclinghem Récourt Recques-sur-Course Recques-sur-Hem Regnauville Rely Remilly-Wirquin Rémy Renty Rety Richebourg Riencourt-lès-Bapaume Riencourt-lès-Cagnicourt Rimboval Rinxent Rivière Robecq Roclincourt Rocquigny Rodelinghem Roëllecourt Rœux Rollancourt Rombly Roquetoire Rougefay Roussent Rouvroy Royon Ruisseauville Ruitz Rumaucourt Rumilly Ruminghem Ruyaulcourt Sachin Sailly-au-Bois Sailly-en-Ostrevent Sailly-Labourse Sailly-sur-la-Lys Sains-en-Gohelle Sains-lès-Fressin Sains-lès-Marquion Sains-lès-Pernes Saint-Amand Saint-Aubin Saint-Augustin Saint-Denœux Sainte-Austreberthe Sainte-Catherine Sainte-Marie-Kerque Saint-Étienne-au-Mont Saint-Floris Saint-Folquin Saint-Georges Saint-Hilaire-Cottes Saint-Inglevert Saint-Josse Saint-Laurent-Blangy Saint-Léger Saint-Léonard Saint-Martin-Boulogne Saint-Martin-Choquel Saint-Martin-d'Hardinghem Saint-Martin-lez-Tatinghem Saint-Martin-sur-Cojeul Saint-Michel-sous-Bois Saint-Michel-sur-Ternoise Saint-Nicolas Saint-Omer Saint-Omer-Capelle Saint-Pol-sur-Ternoise Saint-Rémy-au-Bois Saint-Tricat Saint-Venant Sallaumines Salperwick Samer Sangatte Sanghen Sapignies Le Sars Sars-le-Bois Sarton Sauchy-Cauchy Sauchy-Lestrée Saudemont Saulchoy Saulty Savy-Berlette Selles Sempy Seninghem Senlecques Senlis Séricourt Serques Servins Setques Sibiville Simencourt Siracourt Sombrin Sorrus Souastre Souchez Le Souich Surques Sus-Saint-Léger Tangry Tardinghen Teneur Ternas Thélus Thérouanne Thiembronne La Thieuloye Thièvres Tigny-Noyelle Tilloy-lès-Hermaville Tilloy-lès-Mofflaines Tilly-Capelle Tilques Tincques Tingry Tollent Torcy Tortefontaine Tortequesne Le Touquet-Paris-Plage Tournehem-sur-la-Hem Tramecourt Le Transloy Trescault Troisvaux Tubersent Vacquerie-le-Boucq Vacqueriette-Erquières Valhuon Vaudricourt Vaudringhem Vaulx Vaulx-Vraucourt Vélu Vendin-lès-Béthune Vendin-le-Vieil Verchin Verchocq Verlincthun Vermelles Verquigneul Verquin Verton Vieil-Hesdin Vieille-Chapelle Vieille-Église Vieil-Moutier Villers-au-Bois Villers-au-Flos Villers-Brûlin Villers-Châtel Villers-lès-Cagnicourt Villers-l'Hôpital Villers-Sir-Simon Vimy Vincly Violaines Vis-en-Artois Vitry-en-Artois Waben Wacquinghen Wail Wailly Wailly-Beaucamp Wambercourt Wamin Wancourt Wanquetin Wardrecques Warlencourt-Eaucourt Warlincourt-lès-Pas Warlus Warluzel Le Wast Wavrans-sur-l'Aa Wavrans-sur-Ternoise Westrehem Wicquinghem Widehem Wierre-au-Bois Wierre-Effroy Willeman Willencourt Willerval Wimereux Wimille Wingles Wirwignes Wismes Wisques Wissant Witternesse Wittes Wizernes Ytres Zoteux Zouafques Zudausques Zutkerque

v t e

Fortifications of Vauban
Vauban
part of the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites

Arras Citadel
Citadel
of Besançon Blaye-Cussac-Fort-Médoc Briançon Camaret-sur-Mer Longwy Mont-Dauphin Mont-Louis Neuf-Brisach Saint-Martin-de-Ré Saint-Vaast-la-Hougue/Tatihou Villefranche-de-Conflent

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 128971390 LCCN: n50003008 GND: 4085976-9 SUDOC: 026492431 BNF:

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