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The Arno
Arno
is a river in the Tuscany
Tuscany
region of Italy. It is the most important river of central Italy
Italy
after the Tiber.

Contents

1 Source and route 2 Etymology 3 Gallery 4 References 5 External links

Source and route[edit]

"Ponte Vecchio" (The old bridge)

High water marks of Arno
Arno
river floods on August 13, 1547 (left) and November 3, 1844 (metal plate on the right). Photographed in Via delle Casine.

The river originates on Mount Falterona
Mount Falterona
in the Casentino
Casentino
area of the Apennines, and initially takes a southward curve. The river turns to the west near Arezzo
Arezzo
passing through Florence, Empoli
Empoli
and Pisa, flowing into the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
at Marina di Pisa. With a length of 241 kilometres (150 mi), it is the largest river in the region. It has many tributaries: Sieve at 60 kilometres (37 mi) long, Bisenzio at 49 kilometres (30 mi), and the Era, Elsa, Pesa, and Pescia. The drainage basin amounts to more than 8,200 square kilometres (3,200 sq mi) and drains the waters of the following subbasins:

The Casentino, in the province of Arezzo, formed by the upper course of the river until its confluence with the Maestro della Chiana channel. The Val di Chiana, a plain drained in the 18th century, which until then had been a marshy area tributary of the Tiber. The upper Valdarno, a long valley bordered on the east by the Pratomagno
Pratomagno
massif and on the west by the hills around Siena. The Sieve's basin, which flows into the Arno
Arno
immediately before Florence. The middle Valdarno, with the plain including Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Prato, and Pistoia. The lower Valdarno, with the valley of important tributaries such as the Pesa, Elsa, and Era and in which, after Pontedera, the Arno
Arno
flows into the Ligurian Sea. The river has a very variable discharge, ranging from about 6 cubic metres per second (210 cu ft/s) to more than 2,000 cubic metres per second (71,000 cu ft/s). The mouth of the river was once near Pisa
Pisa
but is now several kilometres westwards.

It crosses Florence, where it passes below the Ponte Vecchio
Ponte Vecchio
and the Santa Trinita bridge (built by Bartolomeo Ammanati
Bartolomeo Ammanati
but inspired by Michelangelo). The river flooded this city regularly in historical times, most recently in 1966, with 4,500 cubic metres per second (160,000 cu ft/s) after rainfall of 437.2 millimetres (17.21 in) in Badia Agnano and 190 millimetres (7.5 in) in Florence, in only 24 hours. The flow rate of the Arno
Arno
is irregular. It is sometimes described as having a torrentlike behaviour, because it can easily go from almost dry to near flood in a few days. At the point where the Arno
Arno
leaves the Apennines, flow measurements can vary between 0.56 and 3,540 cubic metres per second (20 and 125,014 cu ft/s). New dams built upstream of Florence
Florence
have greatly alleviated the problem in recent years. The flood on November 4, 1966 collapsed the embankment in Florence, killing at least 40 people and damaging or destroying millions of works of art and rare books. New conservation techniques were inspired by the disaster, but even decades later hundreds of works still await restoration.[1] Etymology[edit] From Latin Arnus (Pliny, Natural History 3.50). The philologist Hans Krahe related this toponym on a paleo-European basis *Ar-n-, derived from the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
root *er-, "flow, move".[2] Gallery[edit]

The Arno
Arno
in Florence

The Arno
Arno
in Pisa, near the Ponte della Fortezza (Fortress Bridge)

Banks of the Arno, seen from the Ponte Vecchio
Ponte Vecchio
(Old Bridge), Florence

Mouth of the Arno
Arno
in Marina di Pisa

The Arno
Arno
in Florence, 180 degree view: the Uffizi
Uffizi
Gallery is straight across and the Ponte Vecchio
Ponte Vecchio
is to the left

The Arno
Arno
in Florence
Florence
at night

The Ponte Amerigo Vespucci
Ponte Amerigo Vespucci
(Amerigo Vespucci Bridge)

References[edit]

^ Alison McLean (November 2006). "This Month in History". Smithsonian. 37 (8): 34.  ^ Edelmiro Bascuas, Hidronimia y léxico de origen paleoeuropeo en Galicia (page 41)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arno.

Basin Authority of the Arno
Arno
(in Italian)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 241191038 GND: 4358748-3 BNF: cb124347955 (data)

Coordinates: 43°41′N 10°17′E / 43.683°N 10.283°E / 43

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