Arno is a river in the
Tuscany region of Italy. It is the most
important river of central
Italy after the Tiber.
1 Source and route
5 External links
Source and route
"Ponte Vecchio" (The old bridge)
High water marks of
Arno river floods on August 13, 1547 (left) and
November 3, 1844 (metal plate on the right). Photographed in Via delle
The river originates on
Mount Falterona in the
Casentino area of the
Apennines, and initially takes a southward curve. The river turns to
the west near
Arezzo passing through Florence,
Empoli and Pisa,
flowing into the
Tyrrhenian Sea at Marina di Pisa.
With a length of 241 kilometres (150 mi), it is the largest river
in the region. It has many tributaries: Sieve at 60 kilometres
(37 mi) long, Bisenzio at 49 kilometres (30 mi), and the
Era, Elsa, Pesa, and Pescia. The drainage basin amounts to more than
8,200 square kilometres (3,200 sq mi) and drains the waters
of the following subbasins:
The Casentino, in the province of Arezzo, formed by the upper course
of the river until its confluence with the Maestro della Chiana
The Val di Chiana, a plain drained in the 18th century, which until
then had been a marshy area tributary of the Tiber.
The upper Valdarno, a long valley bordered on the east by the
Pratomagno massif and on the west by the hills around Siena.
The Sieve's basin, which flows into the
Arno immediately before
The middle Valdarno, with the plain including Florence, Sesto
Fiorentino, Prato, and Pistoia.
The lower Valdarno, with the valley of important tributaries such as
the Pesa, Elsa, and Era and in which, after Pontedera, the
into the Ligurian Sea. The river has a very variable discharge,
ranging from about 6 cubic metres per second (210 cu ft/s)
to more than 2,000 cubic metres per second (71,000 cu ft/s).
The mouth of the river was once near
Pisa but is now several
It crosses Florence, where it passes below the
Ponte Vecchio and the
Santa Trinita bridge (built by
Bartolomeo Ammanati but inspired by
Michelangelo). The river flooded this city regularly in historical
times, most recently in 1966, with 4,500 cubic metres per second
(160,000 cu ft/s) after rainfall of 437.2 millimetres
(17.21 in) in Badia Agnano and 190 millimetres (7.5 in) in
Florence, in only 24 hours.
The flow rate of the
Arno is irregular. It is sometimes described as
having a torrentlike behaviour, because it can easily go from almost
dry to near flood in a few days. At the point where the
the Apennines, flow measurements can vary between 0.56 and 3,540 cubic
metres per second (20 and 125,014 cu ft/s). New dams built
Florence have greatly alleviated the problem in recent
The flood on November 4, 1966 collapsed the embankment in Florence,
killing at least 40 people and damaging or destroying millions of
works of art and rare books. New conservation techniques were inspired
by the disaster, but even decades later hundreds of works still await
From Latin Arnus (Pliny, Natural History 3.50). The philologist Hans
Krahe related this toponym on a paleo-European basis *Ar-n-, derived
Proto-Indo-European root *er-, "flow, move".
Arno in Florence
Arno in Pisa, near the Ponte della Fortezza (Fortress Bridge)
Banks of the Arno, seen from the
Ponte Vecchio (Old Bridge), Florence
Mouth of the
Arno in Marina di Pisa
Arno in Florence, 180 degree view: the
Uffizi Gallery is straight
across and the
Ponte Vecchio is to the left
Florence at night
Ponte Amerigo Vespucci
Ponte Amerigo Vespucci (Amerigo Vespucci Bridge)
^ Alison McLean (November 2006). "This Month in History". Smithsonian.
37 (8): 34.
^ Edelmiro Bascuas, Hidronimia y léxico de origen paleoeuropeo en
Galicia (page 41)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arno.
Basin Authority of the
Arno (in Italian)
BNF: cb124347955 (data)
Coordinates: 43°41′N 10°17′E / 43.683°N 10.283°E /