The Armstrong Whitworth A.W.38 Whitley was one of three British
twin-engined, front line medium bomber types that were in service with
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force (RAF) at the outbreak of the Second World War.
Vickers Wellington and the Handley Page Hampden, the
Whitley was developed during the mid-1930s according to Air Ministry
Specification B.3/34, which it was subsequently selected to meet. In
1937, the Whitley formally entered into RAF squadron service; it was
the first of the three medium bombers to be introduced.
Following the outbreak of war in September 1939, the Whitley
participated in the first RAF bombing raid upon German territory and
remained an integral part of the early British bomber offensive. By
1943, it was being superseded as a bomber by the larger four-engined
"heavies" such as the Avro Lancaster. Its front line service
included maritime reconnaissance with
Coastal Command and the second
line roles of glider-tug, trainer and transport aircraft. The type was
also procured by
British Overseas Airways Corporation
British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) as a
civilian freighter aircraft. The aircraft was named after Whitley, a
suburb of Coventry, home of one of Armstrong Whitworth's plants.
1.2 Further development
3 Operational history
3.1 Military service
3.2 Civilian service
5.1 Military operators
5.2 Civil operators
7 Specifications (Whitley Mk V)
8 See also
10 External links
Scale comparison diagram of the trio of British twin-engined medium
bombers at the outbreak of the Second World War; the Whitley (pink),
Vickers Wellington (blue) and the
Handley Page Hampden
Handley Page Hampden (yellow)
In July 1934, the
Air Ministry issued Specification B.3/34, seeking a
heavy night bomber/troop transport to replace the Handley Page Heyford
biplane bomber. John Lloyd, the Chief Designer of Armstrong
Whitworth Aircraft, chose to respond to the specification with a
design designated as the AW.38, which later was given the name Whitley
after the location of Armstrong Whitworth's main factory. The design
of the AW.38 was in fact a development of the Armstrong Whitworth
AW.23 bomber-transport design that had lost to the
Bristol Bombay for
the earlier Specification C.26/31.
Lloyd selected the
Armstrong Siddeley Tiger
Armstrong Siddeley Tiger IX radial engine to power
the Whitley, which was capable of generating 795 horsepower. One of
the more innovative features of the Whitley's design was the adoption
of a three-bladed two-position variable-pitch propeller built by de
Havilland; the Whitley was the first aircraft to fly with such an
arrangement. As Lloyd was unfamiliar with the use of flaps on a
large heavy monoplane, they were initially omitted from the design. To
compensate, the mid-set wings were set at a high angle of incidence
(8.5°) to confer good take-off and landing performance. Although
flaps were included late in the design stage, the wing remained
unaltered; as a result, the Whitley flew with a pronounced nose-down
attitude when flown with the wings in the cruising position, resulting
in considerable drag.
The Whitley holds the distinction of having been the first aircraft to
serve with the RAF to utilise a semi-monocoque fuselage, which was
built using a slab-sided structure to ease production. This
replaced the traditional tubular construction method previously
employed by Armstrong Whitworth, instead constructing the airframe
from light-alloy rolled sections, pressings, and corrugated sheets.
According to aviation author Philip Moyes, the decision to adopt the
semi-monocoque fuselage design was a significant step forwards, and
the integrity of which was well-proven during subsequent RAF service,
having survived multiple instances of severe damage being
On June 1935, owing to the urgent need to replace biplane heavy
bombers then in service with the RAF, a verbal agreement was formed to
produce an initial 80 aircraft, 40 being of an early Whitley Mk I
standard and the other 40 being a more advanced Whitley Mk II
standard. Production was initially at three factories in Coventry;
fuselages and detailed components were fabricated at Whitley Abbey,
panel-beating and much of the detailed work occurred at the former
Coventry Ordnance Works facility, while wing fabrication and final
assembly took placed at Baginton Aerodrome. During 1935 and 1936,
various contracts were placed for the type; the Whitley was ordered
"off the drawing board" - prior to the first flights of any of the
On 17 March 1936, the first prototype Whitley Mk I, K4586, conducted
its maiden flight from Baginton Aerodrome, piloted by Armstrong
Whitworth Chief Test Pilot Alan Campbell-Orde. K4586 was powered by
a pair of 795 hp (593 kW) Tiger IX engines. The second
prototype, K4587, was furnished with a pair of more powerful
medium-supercharged Tiger XI engines. The prototypes differed
little from the initial production standard aircraft; a total of 34
production Whitley Mk I were completed.
After the first 34 aircraft had been completed, the engines were
replaced with the more reliable two-speed-supercharged Tiger VIIIs.
K7243, the 27th production Whitley, is believed to have served as a
prototype following modifications. The resulting aircraft was
designated as the Whitley Mk II. A total of 46 production aircraft
were completed to the Whitley Mk II standard. One Whitley Mk II,
K7243, was used as a test bed for the 1,200 hp 21-cylinder radial
Armstrong Siddeley Deerhound
Armstrong Siddeley Deerhound engine; on 6 January 1939, K7243 made its
first flight with the Deerhound. Another Whitley Mk I, K7208,
was modified to operate with a higher (33,500 lb) gross weight.
K7211, the 29th production Whitley, served as the prototype for a
further advanced variant of the aircraft, the Whitley Mk III. The
Whitley Mk III featured numerous improvements, such as the replacement
of the manually operated nose turret with a powered Nash &
Thompson turret and a powered retractable twin-gun ventral "dustbin"
turret. The ventral turret was hydraulically-powered but proved to be
hard to operate and added considerable drag, thus the Whitley Mk III
was the only variant to feature this ventral turret arrangement.
Other changes included increased dihedreal of the outer wing panels,
superior navigational provisions, and the installation of new bomb
racks. A total of 80 Whitley Mk III aircraft were manufactured.
While the Tiger VIII engine used in the Whitley Mks II and III was
more reliable than those used in early aircraft, the Whitley was
Rolls-Royce Merlin engines in 1938, giving rise to the
Whitley Mk IV. Three Whitley Mk I aircraft, K7208, K7209, and
K7211, were initially re-engined to serve as prototypes. The new
engines are accredited with producing greatly improved
performance. Other changes made included the replacement of the
manually operated tail and retractable ventral turrets with a Nash
& Thompson powered turret equipped with four .303 in
(7.7 mm) Browning machine guns, the increasing of fuel tankage
capacity, including two additional fuel tanks in the wing. A total
of 40 Whitley Mk IV and Whitley Mk IVA, a sub-variant featuring more
powerful models of the Merlin engine, were completed.
The decision was made to introduce a series of other minor
improvements to produce the Whitley Mk V. These included the
modification of the tail fins and rudders, the fitting of leading edge
de-icers, further fuel capacity increases, a smaller D/F loop in a
streamlined fairing being adopted, and the extension of the rear
fuselage by 15 in (381 mm) to improve the rear-gunner's
field of fire. The Whitley Mk V was by far the most numerous
version of the aircraft, with 1,466 built until production ended in
The Whitley Mk VII was the final variant to be built. Unlike the other
variants, it was developed for service with
RAF Coastal Command
RAF Coastal Command and
was thus furnished for maritime reconnaissance rather than as a
general purpose bomber. A single Whitley Mk V, P3949 acted as a
prototype for this variant. A total of 146 Whitley Mk VIIs would be
produced, additional Whitley Mk V aircraft would be converted to the
standard as well. It had a sixth crew member to operate the new
ASV Mk 2 radar system along with an increased fuel capacity for long
endurance anti-shipping missions. Some Whitley Mk VII were later
converted as trainer aircraft, featuring additional seating and
instrumentation for flight engineers.
Early marks of the Whitley featured bomb bay doors, fitted on both the
fuselage and wing bays, that were held shut by bungee cords; during
bombing operations, these were opened by the weight of the bombs as
they fell on them and closed again by the bungee cord. The short
and unpredictable delay for the doors to open led to highly inaccurate
bombing. The Mk.III introduced hydraulically actuated doors which
greatly improved bombing accuracy. To aim bombs, the bomb aimer opened
a hatch in the nose of the aircraft, which extended the bomb sight out
of the fuselage but the Mk IV replaced this hatch with a slightly
extended transparent plexiglas panel, improving crew comfort.
A Browning machine gun being installed in a Whitley's turret, 1940
Armstrong Whitworth Whitley
Armstrong Whitworth Whitley was a twin-engined heavy bomber,
initially being powered by a pair of 795 h.p. Armstrong Siddeley Tiger
IX radial engines. More advanced models of the Tiger engine
equipped some of the later variants of the Whitley; starting with the
Whitley Mk IV variant, the Tigers were replaced by a pair of 1,030
Rolls-Royce Merlin IV V12 engines. According to Moyes, the
adoption of the Merlin engine gave the Whitley a considerable boost in
The Whitley had a crew of five: a pilot, co-pilot/navigator, a bomb
aimer, a wireless operator and a rear gunner. The pilot and second
pilot/navigator sat side by side in the cockpit, with the wireless
operator further back. The navigator rotated to use the chart table
behind him. The bomb aimer position was in the nose with a gun turret
located directly above. The fuselage aft of the wireless operator was
divided horizontally by the bomb bay; behind the bomb bay was the main
entrance and aft of that the rear turret. The offensive armaments
were stowed in two bomb bays housed within the fuselage, along with a
further 14 smaller cells in the wing. Bomb racks capable of holding
larger bombs were installed on the Whitley Mk III variant.
The early examples had a nose turret and rear turret, both being
manually operated and mounting one Vickers 0.303 machine gun. On the
Whitley Mk III this arrangement was substantially revised: a new
retractable ventral 'dustbin' position was installed mounting twin
.303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine guns and the nose turret
was also upgraded to a Nash & Thompson power-operated turret.
On the Whitley Mk IV, the tail and ventral turrets were replaced with
a Nash & Thompson power-operated turret mounting four Browning
machine guns; upon the adoption of this turret arrangement, the
Whitley became the most powerfully armed bomber in the world against
attacks from the rear.
Paratroopers inside the fuselage of a Whitley, August 1942
The fuselage comprised three sections, with the main frames being
riveted with the skin and the intermediate sections being riveted to
the inside flanges of the longitudinal stringers. Extensive use of
Alclad sheeting was made. Fuel was carried within total of three
tanks, a pair of 182 gallon tanks contained within each wing and one
15 gallon tank in the roof of the fuselage; two auxiliary fuel tanks
could be installed in the front fuselage bomb bay compartment. To
ease production, a deliberate effort was made to reduce component
count and standardise parts. The fuselage proved to be robust
enough to withstand severe damage.
The Whitley featured a large rectangular-shaped wing; its appearance
led to the aircraft receiving the nickname "the flying barn door".
Like the fuselage, the wings were formed from three sections, being
built up around a box spar with the leading and trailing edges being
fixed onto the spar at each rib point. The surfaces of the wings
were mainly composed of flush-riveted, smooth and unstressed metal
sheeting and the trailing edge and ailerons had a fabric covering.
The split trailing edge flaps were composed of duralumin and ran
between the ailerons and the fuselage, being set at a 15–20 degree
position for taking off and at a 60 degree position during landing.
The tailplanes employed a similar construction to that of the wings,
the fins being braced to the fuselage using metal struts the elevators
and rudders incorporated servo-balancing trim tabs.
Whitley Mk.V production, 1941
On 9 March 1937, the Whitley Mk I began entering squadron service with
No. 10 Squadron of the RAF, replacing their Handley Page Heyford
biplanes. In January 1938, the Whitley Mk II first entered
squadron service with No. 58 Squadron and in August 1938, the Whitley
Mk III first entered service with No. 51 Squadron. In May 1939,
the Whitley Mk IV first entered service with No. 10 Squadron and in
August 1939, the Whitley Mk IVA first entered service with No. 78
Squadron. By the outbreak of the Second World War, a total of
seven squadrons were operational, the majority of these flying Whitley
III or IV aircraft, while the Whitley V had only just been introduced
to service; a total of 196 Whitleys were on charge with the
At the start of the war, No. 4 Group, equipped with the Whitley, held
the distinction of being the only trained night bomber force in the
world. Alongside the
Handley Page Hampden
Handley Page Hampden and the Vickers
Wellington, the Whitley bore the brunt of the early fighting and saw
action during the first night of the war, when they dropped propaganda
leaflets over Germany. The propaganda flight made the Whitley the
first aircraft of
RAF Bomber Command
RAF Bomber Command to penetrate into Germany.
Further propaganda flights would travel as far as Berlin, Prague, and
Warsaw. On the night of 19/20 March 1940, in conjunction with
multiple Hampdens, the Whitley conducted the first bombing raid on
German soil, attacking the
Hörnum seaplane base on the Island of
Sylt. Following the
Hörnum raid, Whitleys routinely patrolled
the Frisian Islands, targeting shipping and seaplane activity.
On the night of 11/12 June 1940, the Whitley carried out Operation
Haddock, the first RAF bombing raid on Italy, only a few hours after
Italy's declaration of war; the Whitleys bombed
Turin and Genoa,
reaching Northern Italy via a refuelling stop in the Channel
Islands. Many leading
World War II
World War II bomber pilots of the RAF
flew Whitleys at some point in their career, including Don Bennett,
James Brian Tait, and Leonard Cheshire.
A RAF Whitley Mk I K7208 in flight, circa 1938
Unlike the Hampden and Wellington, which had met Specification B.9/32
for a day bomber, the Whitley was always intended for night operations
alone and thus escaped the early heavy losses received during daylight
raids carried out upon German shipping. As the oldest of the three
bombers, the Whitley was effectively obsolete by the start of the war,
yet over 1,000 more aircraft were produced before a suitable
replacement was found. A particular problem with the twin-engine
aircraft was that it could not maintain altitude on one engine.
Whitleys flew a total of 8,996 operations with Bomber Command, dropped
9,845 tons (8,931 tonnes) of bombs, and 269 aircraft were
lost in action.
On the night of 29/30 April 1942 No. 58 Squadron flying Whitleys
Port of Ostend in Belgium. This was the last operational
mission by a Whitley equipped bomber squadron. In late 1942, the
Whitley was retired from service as a frontline aircraft for bomber
squadrons and was shifted to other roles. The type continued to
operate delivering supplies and agents in the
Special Duties squadrons
(138 and 161) until December 1942, as well as serving as a transport
for troops and freight, a carrier for paratroopers and a tow aircraft
for gliders. In 1940, the Whitley had been selected as the
standard paratroop transport; in this role, the ventral turret
aperture was commonly modified to be used for the egress of
No. 100 Group RAF
No. 100 Group RAF used Whitleys as an airborne
platform to carry airborne radar and electronic counter-measures. In
February 1942, Whitleys were used to carry the paratroopers who
participated in the
Bruneval raid, code named Operation Biting, in
which German radar technology was captured from a German base on the
coast of France.
Coastal Command Mk VII variants, were among the last
Whitleys remaining in front-line service, remaining in service until
early 1943. The first
U-boat kill attributed to the Whitley Mk VII
was the sinking of the German submarine U-751 on 17 July 1942,
which was achieved in combination with a Lancaster heavy
bomber. Having evaluated the Whitley in 1942, the Fleet Air
Arm operated a number of modified ex-RAF Mk VIIs from 1944 to 1946, to
train aircrew in Merlin engine management and fuel transfer
In April/May 1942, the
British Overseas Airways Corporation
British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC)
operated 15 Whitley Mk V aircraft which had been converted into
freighters. The conversion process involved the removal of all
armaments, the turret recesses were faired over, additional fuel tanks
were installed in the bomb bay, the interior of the fuselage was
adapted for freight stowage, and at least one aircraft was fitted with
an enlarged cargo door. The type was typically used for night
supply flights from
Gibraltar to Malta; the route took seven hours,
and would often require landing during Axis air attacks on the
island. Whitley freighters also flew the dangerous route between
Scotland and Stockholm, Sweden. The Whitley
consumed a proportionally large quantity of fuel to carry a relatively
small payload, and there were various other reasons making the type
less than ideal, so in August 1942 the type was replaced by the
Lockheed Hudson and the 14 survivors were returned to the RAF.
A Whitley prototype, circa 1936
Personnel loading 250lb bombs into a Whitley Mk V of No. 502 Squadron,
Following the two prototypes (K4586 and K4587), at the outbreak of the
war the RAF had 207 Whitleys in service ranging from Mk I to Mk IV
types, with improved versions following:
Powered by 795 hp (593 kW)
Armstrong Siddeley Tiger
Armstrong Siddeley Tiger IX
air-cooled radial engines: 34 built.
Powered by 920 hp (690 kW) two-speed supercharged Tiger VIII
engines: 46 built.
Powered by Tiger VIII engines, retractable "dustbin" ventral turret
fitted aft of the wing root armed with two .303 in (7.7 mm) machine
guns, hydraulically operated bomb bay doors and ability to carry
larger bombs: 80 built.
Powered by 1,030 hp (770 kW)
Rolls-Royce Merlin IV inline
liquid-cooled engines, increased fuel capacity, extended bomb-aimer's
transparency, produced from 1938: 33 built.
Powered by 1,145 hp (854 kW) Merlin X engines: seven
The main wartime production version based on the Mk IV, modified fins,
leading edge de-icing, manually operated tail and retractable ventral
turrets replaced with a Nash & Thompson powered turret equipped
with four .303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine guns, tail
fuselage extended by 15 in (381 mm) to improve the field of
fire. First flew in December 1938, production ceased in June 1943:
Proposed Pratt & Whitney- or Merlin XX-powered version: none
Designed for service with
Coastal Command and carried a sixth crew
member, capable of longer-range flights (2,300 mi/3,700 km
compared to the early version's 1,250 mi/2,011 km) having
additional fuel tanks fitted in the bomb bay and fuselage, equipped
with Air to Surface Vessel (ASV) radar for anti-shipping patrols with
an additional four 'stickleback' dorsal radar masts and other
antennae: 146 built.
The damaged port-side fuselage of Whitley Mk V P5005 'DY-N', of No.
102 Squadron, after returning from a bombing raid to the Ruhr on the
night of 12/13 November 1940. It was hit by German anti-aircraft fire
Propaganda leaflets being loaded onto a Whitley, circa 1940
Women's Auxiliary Air Force
Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) personnel cleaning and painting a
Whitley Mk V of No. 51 Squadron, circa 1942
Royal Air Force
No. 7 Squadron RAF
No. 7 Squadron RAF between March 1938 and May 1939.
No. 10 Squadron RAF
No. 10 Squadron RAF between March 1937 and December 1941.
No. 51 Squadron RAF
No. 51 Squadron RAF between February 1938 and October 1942.
No. 53 Squadron RAF
No. 53 Squadron RAF between February 1943 and May 1943.
No. 58 Squadron RAF
No. 58 Squadron RAF between October 1937 and January 1943.
No. 76 Squadron RAF
No. 76 Squadron RAF between September 1939 and April 1940.
No. 77 Squadron RAF
No. 77 Squadron RAF between November 1938 and October 1942.
No. 78 Squadron RAF between July 1937 and March 1942.
No. 97 Squadron RAF
No. 97 Squadron RAF between February 1939 and May 1940.
No. 102 Squadron RAF
No. 102 Squadron RAF between October 1938 and February 1942.
No. 103 Squadron RAF between October 1940 and June 1942.
No. 109 Squadron RAF operated only one aircraft (P5047).
No. 115 Squadron RAF
No. 115 Squadron RAF during 1938
No. 138 Squadron RAF
No. 138 Squadron RAF between August 1941 and October 1942.
No. 161 Squadron RAF
No. 161 Squadron RAF between February 1942 and December 1942.
No. 166 Squadron RAF between July 1938 and April 1940.
No. 295 Squadron RAF
No. 295 Squadron RAF between August 1942 and November 1943.
No. 296 Squadron RAF
No. 296 Squadron RAF between June 1943 and March 1943.
No. 297 Squadron RAF
No. 297 Squadron RAF between February 1942 and February 1944.
No. 298 Squadron RAF
No. 298 Squadron RAF between August 1942 and October 1942.
No. 299 Squadron RAF
No. 299 Squadron RAF between November 1943 and January 1944.
No. 502 Squadron RAF
No. 502 Squadron RAF between October 1940 and February 1943.
No. 612 Squadron RAF
No. 612 Squadron RAF between November 1940 and June 1943.
No. 619 Squadron RAF
No. 619 Squadron RAF between April 1943 and January 1944.
No. 1419 Flight RAF
No. 1473 Flight RAF
No. 1478 Flight RAF
No. 1481 Flight RAF
No. 1484 Flight RAF
No. 1485 Flight RAF
No. 1486 Flight RAF
No. 1 (Coastal) Operational Training Unit RAF
No. 10 Operational Training Unit RAF
No. 81 Operational Training Unit RAF
No. 19 Operational Training Unit RAF
No. 24 Operational Training Unit RAF
No. 29 Operational Training Unit RAF
No. 58 Operational Training Unit RAF
No. 81 Operational Training Unit RAF
No. 83 Operational Training Unit RAF
Parachute Training School
Parachute Section, 13 Maintenance Unit
Fleet Air Arm
734 Naval Air Squadron operated Whitleys between February 1944 and
British Overseas Airways Corporation
British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC)
Whitley Squadron War Memorial, Coventry, 2010
No complete aircraft of the 1,814 Whitleys produced remains. The
Whitley Project is rebuilding an example from salvaged remains and a
fuselage section is displayed at the
Midland Air Museum
Midland Air Museum (MAM), whose
site is adjacent to the airfield from where the Whitley's maiden
flight took place.
Specifications (Whitley Mk V)
Orthographic projection of the Merlin-powered Whitley Mk V with inset
profile of the Tiger-powered Mk III with retractable "dustbin" turret.
A preserved rear fuselage section at the Midland Air Museum, 2006
Data from The Whitley File
Length: 70 ft 6 in (21.49 m)
Wingspan: 84 ft (25.60 m)
Height: 15 ft (4.57 m)
Wing area: 1,137 ft² (106 m²)
Empty weight: 19,300 lb (8,768 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 33,500 lb (15,196 kg)
Powerplant: 2 ×
Rolls-Royce Merlin X liquid-cooled V12 engine, 1,145
hp (855 kW) each
Maximum speed: 200 kn (230 mph, 370 km/h) at 16,400 ft (5,000 m)
Range: 1,430 nmi (1,650 mi, 2,650 km)
Ferry range: 2,100 nmi (2,400 mi, 3,900 km)
Service ceiling: 26,000 ft (7,900 m)
Rate of climb: 800 ft/min (4.1 m/s)
Max. wing loading: 29.5 lb/ft² (143 kg/m²)
Minimum power/mass: 0.684 hp/lb (112 W/kg)
1 × .303 in (7.7 mm)
Vickers K machine gun
Vickers K machine gun in nose turret
4 × .303 in Browning machine guns in tail turret
Bombs: Up to 7,000 lb (3,175 kg) of bombs in the fuselage and 14
individual cells in the wings, typically including
12 × 250 lb (113 kg) and
2 × 500 lb (227 kg) bombs
Bombs as heavy as 2,000 lb (907 kg) could be carried
Video of Whitley Operations
Period footage of Whitley Construction and Operations, Featuring
Compilation of several Whitley Paratroop Drops
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Handley Page Hampden
Handley Page H.P.54 Harrow
List of aircraft of World War II
List of aircraft of the RAF
List of bomber aircraft
^ Moyes 1967, p. 16.
^ a b c d e f g h Crosby 2007, pp. 48–49.
^ a b c d e f g h i Moyes 1967, p. 3.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Moyes 1967, p. 4.
^ a b Gunston 1995, p. ?.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Moyes 1967, p. 5.
^ Swanborough 1997, p. 8..
^ Roberts 1986, p. 8.
^ Moyes 1967, pp. 10-11.
^ a b Moyes 1967, p. 10.
^ a b Moyes 1967, pp. 5-6.
^ a b c d e f g h i Moyes 1967, p. 6.
^ a b c d e f Moyes 1967, p. 7.
^ a b Moyes 1967, pp. 7, 10.
^ a b Flight 21 October 1937, p. 402.
^ Moyes 1967, pp. 4-5.
^ a b Moyes 1967, pp. 3-4.
^ a b Mondey 1994, p. 18.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Moyes 1967, p. 11.
^ Thetford 1957, p. 27.
^ a b Green and Swanborough
Air Enthusiast 1979, p. 22.
^ Moyes 1967, pp. 11-12.
^ a b Moyes 1967, p. 12.
^ Moyes 1967, pp. 12-13.
^ Moyes 1976, p. 327.
^ a b c Moyes 1967, p. 13.
^ a b Moyes 1967, pp. 13-14.
^ U-boat.net/ "U-206." uboat.net. Retrieved: 8 August 2010.
^ Uboat.net/ "U-751." uboat.net. Retrieved: 8 August 2010.
^ a b Jackson 1973, p. 325.
^ Roberts 1978, p. 62.
^ Roberts 1978, pp. 58–59.
^ Roberts 1986, p. 68.
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Aerial defence of the United Kingdom
United States Army Air Forces
United States Army Air Forces (USAAF)
Air operations during the Battle of Europe
Defence of the Reich
Death by Moonlight: Bomber Command
Into the Storm