An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop
fighting. It is not necessarily the end of a war, since it may
constitute only a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to
negotiate a lasting peace. It is derived from the
Latin arma, meaning
"arms" (as in weapons) and -stitium, meaning "a stopping".
United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council often imposes, or tries to impose,
cease-fire resolutions on parties in modern conflicts. Armistices are
always negotiated between the parties themselves and are thus
generally seen as more binding than non-mandatory UN cease-fire
resolutions in modern international law.
An armistice is a modus vivendi and is not the same as a peace treaty,
which may take months or even years to agree on. The 1953 Korean War
Armistice Agreement is a major example of an armistice which has not
been followed by a peace treaty.
Armistice is also different from a
truce or ceasefire, which refer to a temporary cessation of
hostilities for an agreed limited time or within a limited area. A
truce may be needed in order to negotiate an armistice.
International law regarding armistices
3 Armistices in early modern history
4 Armistices of the 20th century
6 External links
International law regarding armistices
Under international law an armistice is a legal agreement (often in a
document) which ends fighting between the "belligerent parties" of a
war or conflict. The Hague II (1899) Treaty, says "If [the
armistice's] duration is not fixed," the parties can resume fighting
(Article 36) as they choose, but with proper notifications. This is in
comparison to a "fixed duration" armistice, where the parties can
renew fighting only at the end of the particular fixed duration. When
the belligerent parties say (in effect), "this armistice completely
ends the fighting" without any end date for the armistice, then
duration of the armistice is fixed in the sense that no resumption of
the fighting is allowed at any time. For example, the Korean Armistice
Agreement calls for a "ceasefire and armistice" and has the "objective
of establishing an armistice which will ensure a complete cessation of
hostilities and of all acts of armed force in Korea until a final
peaceful settlement is achieved.
Armistice Day (which coincides with
Remembrance Day and Veterans Day,
public holidays) is commemorated every year on 11 November to mark the
Armistice of 11 November 1918
Armistice of 11 November 1918 signed between the
Allies of World
Germany at Compiègne, France, for the cessation of hostilities on
the Western Front of World
War I, which took effect at eleven o'clock
in the morning—the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the
eleventh month" of 1918.
Most countries changed the name of the holiday after World
War II, to
honor veterans of that and subsequent conflicts. Most member states of
the Commonwealth of Nations adopted the name Remembrance Day, while
the United States chose Veterans Day.
Armistices in early modern history
Armistice of Copenhagen of 1537 ended the Danish war known as the
Armistice of Stuhmsdorf
Armistice of Stuhmsdorf of 1635 between the Polish-Lithuanian
Commonwealth and Sweden
Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia of 1648 that ended the Thirty Years'
Eighty Years' War
Armistices of the 20th century
The announcing of the armistice on November 11, 1918, was the occasion
for large celebrations in the allied nations.
Delegates sign the Korean
Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, December 1917
Armistice of Salonika
Armistice of Salonika between Bulgaria and the Allies, September 1918
Armistice of Mudros
Armistice of Mudros between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies, October
Austrian-Italian Armistice of Villa Giusti
Austrian-Italian Armistice of Villa Giusti ended the war on the
Italian front in early November 1918
Germany (Compiègne), ended World
War I, November 11,
Armistice of Mudanya
Armistice of Mudanya between Turkey, Italy,
France and the UK and
later Greece, 1922
France (Second Compiègne), 1940
Armistice of Saint Jean d'Acre between British forces in the Middle
East and Vichy
France forces in Syria, 1941
Armistice with Italy, formal agreement of warring parties, the Allies
and Italy, to stop fighting that was signed on 3 September 1943 by
Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano.
Moscow Armistice, signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 19
September 1944 ending the Continuation War
1949 Armistice Agreements
1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and its neighbors Egypt,
Jordan, Lebanon and Syria
Armistice Agreement, July 1953
Geneva Agreements signed by
France and the Viet Minh on 20 July 1954
ending the First Indochina War
Armistice in Algeria, 1962, which attempted to end the Algerian War
^ "Armistice". Dictionary.com.
^ Hague Convention of 1899 specifically, Laws of War: Laws and Customs
War on Land (Hague II); July 29, 1899; Chapter V.
^ "The Armistice". The
War to End All Wars. FirstWorldWar.com. 1 May
2004. Archived from the original on 5 January 2007. Retrieved
^ "1949 Armistice". Middle East, Land of Conflict. CNN. Archived from
the original on 2007-05-03. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
Look up armistice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Armistice Terms, 11 November 1918". The
War to End All Wars.
FirstWorldWar.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2007.
The Expanded Cease-Fires Data Set Code Book