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The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Cilicia
(Middle Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Հայոց Թագաւորութիւն, Kilikio Hayoc’ T’agavorut’yun), also known as the Cilician Armenia
Armenia
(Armenian: Կիլիկյան Հայաստան, Kilikyan Hayastan), Lesser Armenia, or New Armenia,[1] was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of Armenia.[2] Located outside the Armenian Highland
Armenian Highland
and distinct from the Armenian Kingdom of antiquity, it was centered in the Cilicia region northwest of the Gulf of Alexandretta. The kingdom had its origins in the principality founded c. 1080 by the Rubenid
Rubenid
dynasty, an alleged offshoot of the larger Bagratid family, which at various times had held the thrones of Armenia
Armenia
and Georgia. Their capital was originally at Tarsus, and later became Sis.[3] Cilicia
Cilicia
was a strong ally of the European Crusaders, and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. It also served as a focus for Armenian nationalism
Armenian nationalism
and culture, since Armenia
Armenia
proper was under foreign occupation at the time. Cilicia's significance in Armenian history and statehood is also attested by the transfer of the seat of the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church, spiritual leader of the Armenian people, to the region. In 1198, with the crowning of Leo the Magnificent of the Rubenid
Rubenid
dynasty, Cilician Armenia
Armenia
became a kingdom.[4][5] In 1226, the crown was passed to rival Hethumids
Hethumids
through Leo's daughter Isabella's second husband, Hethum I. As the Mongols conquered vast regions of Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Middle East, Hethum and succeeding Hethumid
Hethumid
rulers sought to create an Armeno-Mongol alliance against common Muslim foes, most notably the Mamluks.[5] In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Crusader states
Crusader states
disintegrated and the Mongols became Islamized, leaving the Armenian Kingdom without any regional allies. After relentless attacks by the Mamluks
Mamluks
in Egypt in the fourteenth century, the Cilician Armenia
Armenia
of the Lusignan dynasty, mired in an internal religious conflict, finally fell in 1375.[6] Commercial and military interactions with Europeans brought new Western influences to the Cilician Armenian society. Many aspects of Western European life were adopted by the nobility including chivalry, fashions in clothing, and the use of French titles, names, and language. Moreover, the organization of the Cilician society shifted from its traditional system to become closer to Western feudalism.[7] The European Crusaders themselves borrowed know-how, such as elements of Armenian castle-building and church architecture.[8] Cilician Armenia
Armenia
thrived economically, with the port of Ayas serving as a center for East-West trade.[7]

Contents

1 Early Armenian migrations to Cilicia

1.1 Cilicia
Cilicia
under Tigranes the Great 1.2 Mass Armenian migration under the Byzantine Empire

2 The Rubenid
Rubenid
dynasty

2.1 Emergence of Cilician Armenia 2.2 First Crusade 2.3 Armenian-Byzantine and Armenian-Seljuk contentions 2.4 Principality becomes a kingdom

3 The Het'umid dynasty

3.1 Armeno-Mongol alliance
Armeno-Mongol alliance
and Mamluk
Mamluk
threat 3.2 Truce with Mamluks
Mamluks
(1281–1295) 3.3 Campaigns with Mongols (1299–1303)

4 Demise of Cilician Armenia

4.1 Decline and fall with the Lusignan dynasty 4.2 Dispersion of the Armenian population of Cilicia

5 Cilician Armenian society

5.1 Culture 5.2 Economy 5.3 Religion

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Early Armenian migrations to Cilicia[edit] Cilicia
Cilicia
under Tigranes the Great[edit] Armenian presence in Cilicia
Cilicia
dates back to the first century BC, when under Tigranes the Great, the Kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
expanded and conquered a vast region in the Levant. In 83 BC, the Greek aristocracy of Seleucid Syria, weakened by a bloody civil war, offered their allegiance to the ambitious Armenian king.[9] Tigranes then conquered Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and Cilicia, effectively ending the Seleucid Empire. The southern border of his domain reached as far as Ptolemais (modern Acre). Many of the inhabitants of conquered cities were sent to the new metropolis of Tigranakert (Latin: Tigranocerta). At its height, Tigranes' Armenian Empire extended from the Pontic Alps
Pontic Alps
to Mesopotamia, and from the Caspian to the Mediterranean. Tigranes invaded as far southeast as the Parthian capital of Ecbatana, located in modern-day western Iran. In 27 BC, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
conquered Cilicia
Cilicia
and transformed it into one of its eastern provinces.[10] Mass Armenian migration under the Byzantine Empire[edit] After the 395 AD partition of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
into halves, Cilicia became incorporated into the Eastern Roman Empire, also called the Byzantine Empire. In the sixth century AD, Armenian families relocated to Byzantine territories. Many served in the Byzantine army as soldiers or as generals, and rose to prominent imperial positions.[11]

Situation in the Armenian Highland
Armenian Highland
during the Seljuk Empire.

Cilicia
Cilicia
fell to Arab invasions in the seventh century and was entirely incorporated into the Rashidun Caliphate.[10] However, the Caliphate failed to gain a permanent foothold in Anatolia, as Cilicia
Cilicia
was reconquered in the year 965 by Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II
Nicephorus II
Phocas. The Caliphate's occupation of Cilicia
Cilicia
and of other areas in Asia Minor led many Armenians
Armenians
to seek refuge and protection further west in the Byzantine Empire, which created demographic imbalances in the region.[10] In order to better protect their eastern territories after their reconquest, the Byzantines resorted largely to a policy of mass transfer and relocation of native populations within the Empire's borders.[10] Nicephorus thus expelled the Muslims living in Cilicia, and encouraged Christians from Syria
Syria
and Armenia
Armenia
to settle in the region. Emperor Basil II
Basil II
(976–1025) tried to expand into Armenian Vaspurakan
Vaspurakan
in the east and Arab-held Syria
Syria
towards the south. As a result of the Byzantine military campaigns, the Armenians
Armenians
spread into Cappadocia, and eastward from Cilicia
Cilicia
into the mountainous areas of northern Syria
Syria
and Mesopotamia.[12] The formal annexation of Greater Armenia
Armenia
to the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in 1045 and its conquest by the Seljuk Turks 19 years later caused two new waves of Armenian migration to Cilicia.[12] The Armenians
Armenians
could not re-establish an independent state in their native highland after the fall of Bagratid Armenia
Bagratid Armenia
as it remained under foreign occupation. Following its conquest in 1045, and in the midst of Byzantine efforts to further repopulate the Empire's east, the Armenian immigration into Cilicia
Cilicia
intensified and turned into a major socio-political movement.[10] The Armenians
Armenians
came to serve the Byzantines as military officers or governors, and were given control of important cities on the Byzantine Empire's eastern frontier. The Seljuks also played a significant role in the Armenian population movement into Cilicia.[10] In 1064, the Seljuk Turks led by Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
made their advance towards Anatolia by capturing Ani
Ani
in Byzantine-held Armenia. Seven years later, they earned a decisive victory against Byzantium by defeating Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes' army at Manzikert, north of Lake Van. Alp Arslan's successor, Malik-Shah I, further expanded the Seljuk Empire and levied repressive taxes on the Armenian inhabitants. After Catholicos Gregory II the Martyrophile's assistant and representative, Parsegh of Cilicia's solicitation, the Armenians
Armenians
obtained a partial reprieve, but Malik's succeeding governors continued levying taxes.[10] This led the Armenians
Armenians
to seek refuge in Byzantium and in Cilicia. Some Armenian leaders set themselves up as sovereign lords, while others remained, at least in name, loyal to the Empire. The most successful of these early Armenian warlords was Philaretos Brachamios, a former Byzantine general who was alongside Romanus Diogenes at Manzikert. Between 1078 and 1085, Philaretus built a principality stretching from Malatia
Malatia
in the north to Antioch
Antioch
in the south, and from Cilicia
Cilicia
in the west to Edessa in the east. He invited many Armenian nobles to settle in his territory, and gave them land and castles.[13] But Philaretus's state began to crumble even before his death in 1090, and ultimately disintegrated into local lordships.[14] The Rubenid
Rubenid
dynasty[edit] Emergence of Cilician Armenia[edit]

The Barony of Cilician Armenia, 1080-1199

One of the princes who came after Philaretos' invitation was Ruben, who had close ties with the last Bagratid Armenian king, Gagik II. Ruben was alongside the Armenian ruler Gagik when he went to Constantinople
Constantinople
upon the Byzantine emperor's request. Instead of negotiating peace, however, the king was forced to cede his Armenian lands and live in exile. Gagik was later assassinated by Greeks.[15] In 1080, soon after this assassination, Ruben organized a band of Armenian troops and revolted against the Byzantine Empire.[16] He was joined by many other Armenian lords and nobles. Thus, in 1080, the foundations of the independent Armenian princedom of Cilicia, and the future kingdom, were laid under Ruben's leadership.[3] His descendants were called Rubenids.[11] After Ruben's death in 1095, the Rubenid principality, centered around their fortresses, was led by Ruben's son, Constantine I of Armenia; however, there were several other Armenian principalities both inside and beyond Cilicia, such as that of the Het'umids. This important Armenian dynasty was founded by the former Byzantine general Oshin, and was centered southwest of the Cilician Gates.[14] The Het'umids have always contended with the Rubenids
Rubenids
for power and influence over Cilicia. Various Armenian lords and former generals of Philaretos were also present in Marash, Malatia (Melitene), and Edessa, the latter two being located outside Cilicia.[14] First Crusade[edit]

Baldwin of Boulogne receiving the homage of the Armenians
Armenians
in Edessa.

During the reign of Constantine I, the First Crusade
First Crusade
took place. An army of Western European Christians marched through Anatolia and Cilicia
Cilicia
on their way to Jerusalem. The Armenians
Armenians
in Cilicia
Cilicia
gained powerful allies among the Frankish Crusaders, whose leader, Godfrey de Bouillon, was considered a savior for the Armenians. Constantine saw the Crusaders' arrival as a one-time opportunity to consolidate his rule of Cilicia
Cilicia
by eliminating the remaining Byzantine strongholds in the region.[16] With the Crusaders' help, they secured Cilicia
Cilicia
from the Byzantines and Turks, both by direct military actions in Cilicia and by establishing Crusader states
Crusader states
in Antioch, Edessa, and Tripoli.[17] The Armenians
Armenians
also helped the Crusaders; as described by Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII
in his Ecclesia Romana:

Among the good deeds which the Armenian people has done towards the church and the Christian world, it should especially be stressed that, in those times when the Christian princes and the warriors went to retake the Holy Land, no people or nation, with the same enthusiasm, joy and faith came to their aid as the Armenians
Armenians
did, who supplied the Crusaders with horses, provision and guidance. The Armenians
Armenians
assisted these warriors with their utter courage and loyalty during the Holy wars.

To show their appreciation to their Armenian allies, the Crusaders honored Constantine with the titles of Comes
Comes
and Baron. The friendly relationship between the Armenians
Armenians
and Crusaders was cemented with intermarriages frequently occurring between them. For instance, Joscelin I, Count of Edessa
Joscelin I, Count of Edessa
married the daughter of Constantine, and Baldwin, brother of Godfrey, married Constantine's niece, daughter of his brother T'oros.[16] The Armenians
Armenians
and Crusaders were part allies, part rivals for the two centuries to come. Often at the invitation of Armenian barons and kings the Crusaders maintained for varying periods castles in and along the borders of the Kingdom, including Bagras, Trapessac, T‛il Hamtun, Harunia, Selefkia, Amouda, and Sarvandikar.[3] Armenian-Byzantine and Armenian-Seljuk contentions[edit] The son of Constantine was T'oros I, who succeeded him in around 1100. During his rule, he faced both Byzantines and Seljuks, and expanded the Rubenid
Rubenid
domain. He transferred the Cilician capital from Tarsus to Sis after having eliminated the small Byzantine garrison stationed there.[18] In 1112, he took the castle of Cyzistra in order to avenge the death of the last Bagratid Armenian king, Gagik II. The assassins of the latter, three Byzantine brothers who governed the castle, were thus brutally killed.[16][17] Eventually, there emerged a type of centralized government in the area with the rise of the Rubenid princes. During the twelfth century, they were the closest thing to a ruling dynasty, and wrestled with the Byzantines for power over the region. Prince Levon I, T'oros' brother and successor, started his reign in 1129. He integrated the Cilician coastal cities to the Armenian principality, thus consolidating Armenian commercial leadership in the region. During this period, there was continued hostility between Cilician Armenia
Armenia
and the Seljuk Turks, as well as occasional bickering between Armenians
Armenians
and the Principality of Antioch
Antioch
over forts located near southern Amanus.[16] In this context, in 1137, the Byzantines under Emperor John II, who still considered Cilicia
Cilicia
to be a Byzantine province, conquered most of the towns and cities located on the Cilician plains.[16][17] They captured and imprisoned Levon in Constantinople
Constantinople
with several other family members, including his sons Ruben and T'oros. Levon died in prison three years later.[17] Ruben was blinded and killed while in prison, but Levon's second son and successor, T'oros II, escaped in 1141 and returned to Cilicia
Cilicia
to lead the struggle with the Byzantines.[16] Initially, he was successful in repelling Byzantine invasions; but, in 1158, he paid homage to Emperor Manuel I through a short-lived treaty.[19] Around 1151, during T'oros' rule, the head of the Armenian Church transferred his see to Hromkla.[12] Ruben II, Mleh, and Ruben III, succeeded T'oros in 1169, 1170, and 1175, respectively. Principality becomes a kingdom[edit]

Little Armenia
Armenia
and its surrounding states in 1200.

The Principality of Cilicia
Cilicia
de-facto became a kingdom much earlier than Levon II came in power. Levon II was accepted as the first king due to Byzantium not accepting previous de-facto kings as real kings and not dukes. Prince Levon II, one of Levon I's grandsons and brother of Ruben III, acceded the throne in 1187. He fought the rulers of Konya, Aleppo, and Damascus, and added new lands to Cilicia, doubling its Mediterranean coast.[20] At the time, Saladin
Saladin
of Egypt
Egypt
defeated the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which led to the Third Crusade. Prince Levon II profited from the situation by improving relations with the Europeans. Cilician Armenia's prominence in the region is attested by letters sent in 1189 by Pope Clement III
Clement III
to Levon and to Catholicos Gregory IV, in which he asks Armenian military and financial assistance to the crusaders.[5] Thanks to the support given to Levon by the Holy Roman Emperors (Frederick Barbarossa, and his son, Henry VI), he elevated the princedom's status to a kingdom. On January 6, 1199, the day Armenians celebrate Christmas, Prince Levon II was crowned with great solemnity in the cathedral of Tarsus, in the presence of the Syrian Jacobite patriarch, the Greek metropolitan of Tarsus, and numerous church dignitaries and military leaders. While he was crowned by the catholicos, Gregory VI Abirad, Levon received a banner with the insignia of a lion from Archbishop Conrad of Mainz in the name of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor.[5][21] By securing his crown, he became the first King of Armenian Cilicia
Cilicia
as King Levon I.[20] He became known as Levon the Magnificent, due to his numerous contributions to Cilician Armenian statehood in the political, military, and economic spheres.[3] Levon's growing power made him a particularly important ally for the neighbouring crusader state of Antioch, which resulted in intermarriage with noble families there, but his dynastic policies revealed ambition towards the overlordship of Antioch
Antioch
which the Latins ultimately could not countenance. They resulted in the Antiochene Wars of Succession between Levon's grand-nephew Raymond Roupen and Bohemond IV of Antioch-Tripoli.[22] The Rubenids
Rubenids
consolidated their power by controlling strategic roads with fortifications that extended from the Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
into the plain and along the borders, including the baronial and royal castles at Sis, Anavarza, Vahka, Vaner/Kovara, Sarvandikar, Kuklak, T‛il Hamtun, Hadjin, and Gaban (modern Geben).[3] In 1219, after a failed attempt by Raymond-Roupen
Raymond-Roupen
to claim the throne, Levon's daughter Zabel was proclaimed the new ruler of Cilician Armenia
Armenia
and placed under the regency of Adam of Baghras. Baghras was assassinated and the regency passed to Constantine of Baberon from the Het'umid dynasty, a very influential Armenian family.[6] In order to fend off the Seljuk threat, Constantine sought an alliance with Bohemond IV of Antioch, and the marriage of Bohemond's son Philip to Queen Zabel sealed this; however, Philip was too "Latin" for the Armenians' taste, as he refused to abide by the precepts of the Armenian Church.[6] In 1224, Philip was imprisoned in Sis for stealing the crown jewels of Armenia, and after several months of confinement, he was poisoned and killed. Zabel decided to embrace a monastic life in the city of Seleucia, but she was later forced to marry Constantine's son Het'um in 1226.[6] Het'um became co-ruler as King Het'um I. The Het'umid dynasty[edit] By the 11th century the Het‘umids had settled into western Cilicia, primarily in the highlands of the Taurus Mountains. Their two great dynastic castles were Lampron
Lampron
and Papeŕōn/Baberon, which commanded strategic roads to the Cilician Gates
Cilician Gates
and to Tarsus.[3] The apparent unification in marriage of the two main dynasties of Cilicia, Rubenid
Rubenid
and Het'umid, ended a century of dynastic and territorial rivalry, while bringing the Het'umids to the forefront of political dominance in Cilician Armenia.[6] Although the accession of Het'um I in 1226 marked the beginning of Cilician Armenia's united dynastic kingdom, the Armenians
Armenians
were confronted by many challenges from abroad. In order to enact revenge for his son's death, Bohemond sought an alliance with Seljuk sultan Kayqubad I, who captured regions west of Seleucia. Het'um also struck coins with his figure on one side, and with the name of the sultan on the other.[6] Armeno-Mongol alliance
Armeno-Mongol alliance
and Mamluk
Mamluk
threat[edit] See also: Armeno-Mongol relations

Fortress of Korikos in Cilician Armenia
Armenia
built ca. the thirteenth century.

During the rule of Zabel and Het'um, the Mongols under Genghis Khan and his successor Ögedei Khan
Ögedei Khan
rapidly expanded from Central Asia
Central Asia
and reached the Middle East, conquering Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Syria
Syria
in their advance towards Egypt.[6] On June 26, 1243, they secured a decisive victory at Köse Dağ against the Seljuk Turks.[23] The Mongol conquest was disastrous for Greater Armenia, but not Cilicia, as Het'um preemptively chose to cooperate with the Mongols. He sent his brother Smbat to the Mongol court of Karakorum
Karakorum
in 1247 to negotiate an alliance.[a][b][c] He returned in 1250 with an agreement guaranteeing the integrity of Cilicia, as well as the promise of Mongol aid to recapture forts seized by the Seljuks. In 1253, Het'um himself visited the new Mongol ruler Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan
at Karakorum. He was received with great honors and promised freedom from taxation of the Armenian churches and monasteries located in Mongol territory.[5] Both during his trip to the Mongol court and in his 1256 return to Cilicia, he passed through Greater Armenia. On his return voyage, he remained much longer, receiving visits from local princes, bishops, and abbots.[5] Het'um and his forces fought under the Mongol banner of Hulagu
Hulagu
in the conquest of Muslim Syria
Syria
and the capture of Aleppo
Aleppo
and Damascus
Damascus
from 1259 to 1260.[24] According to Arab historians, during Hulagu's conquest of Aleppo, Het'um and his forces were responsible for a massacre and arsons in the main mosque and in the neighboring quarters and souks.[23]

A Cilician Armenian knight. 14th century armoring.

Meanwhile, the Egyptian Mamluks
Mamluks
had been replacing their former Ayyubid masters in Egypt. The Mamluks
Mamluks
began as a cavalry corps established from Turkic and other slaves sold to the Egyptian sultan by Genghis Khan.[25] They took control of Egypt
Egypt
and Palestine in 1250 and 1253, respectively, and filled the vacuum caused by the Mongol destruction of the pre-existing Ayyubid and Abbasid governments.[23] Cilician Armenia
Armenia
also expanded and recovered lands crossed by important trade routes on the Cappadocian, Mesopotamian, and Syrian borders, including Marash
Marash
and Behesni, which further made the Armenian Kingdom a potential Mamluk
Mamluk
target.[23] Armenia
Armenia
also engaged in an economic battle with the Mamluks
Mamluks
for control of the spice trade.[26] The Mamluk
Mamluk
leader Baibars
Baibars
took the field in 1266 with the intention of wiping out the Crusader states
Crusader states
from the Middle East.[25] In the same year, he summoned Het'um I to change his allegiance from the Mongols to the Mamluks, and remit to the Mamluks
Mamluks
the territories and fortresses the Armenian king had acquired through his submission to the Mongols. After these threats, Het'um went to the Mongol court of the Il-Khan
Il-Khan
in Persia
Persia
to obtain military support, but in his absence, the Mamluks
Mamluks
invaded Cilician Armenia. Het'um's sons T'oros and Levon were left to defend the country. During the Disaster of Mari, the Mamluks
Mamluks
under Sultan Al-Mansur Ali
Al-Mansur Ali
and the commander Qalawun
Qalawun
defeated the Armenians, killing T'oros and capturing Levon along with tens of thousands of Armenian soldiers. Het'um ransomed Levon for a high price, giving the Mamluks
Mamluks
control of many fortresses and a large sum of money. The 1268 Cilicia
Cilicia
earthquake further devastated the country. In 1269, Het'um I abdicated in favour of his son Levon II, who paid large annual tributes to the Mamluks. Even with the tributes, the Mamluks
Mamluks
continued to attack Cilicia
Cilicia
every few years. In 1275, an army led by the emirs of the sultan invaded the country without pretext and faced Armenians
Armenians
who had no means of resistance. The city of Tarsus was taken, the royal palace and the church of Saint Sophia was burned, the state treasury was looted, 15,000 civilians were killed, and 10,000 were taken captive to Egypt. Almost the entire population of Ayas, Armenian, and Frankish perished.[25] Truce with Mamluks
Mamluks
(1281–1295)[edit]

Little Armenia, a Christian exclave in Anatolia, and its surrounding states in 1300.

In 1281, following the defeat of the Mongols and the Armenians
Armenians
under Möngke Temur by the Mamluks
Mamluks
at the Second Battle of Homs, a truce was forced on Armenia. Further, in 1285, following a powerful offensive push by Qalawun, the Armenians
Armenians
had to sign a ten-year truce under harsh terms. The Armenians
Armenians
were obligated to cede many fortresses to the Mamluks
Mamluks
and were prohibited to rebuild their defensive fortifications. Cilician Armenia
Armenia
was forced to trade with Egypt, thereby circumventing a trade embargo imposed by the pope. Moreover, the Mamluks
Mamluks
were to receive an annual tribute of one million dirhams from the Armenians.[27] The Mamluks, despite the above, continued to raid Cilician Armenia
Armenia
on numerous occasions. In 1292, it was invaded by Al-Ashraf Khalil, the Mamluk
Mamluk
sultan of Egypt, who had conquered the remnants of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Acre the year before. Hromkla was also sacked, forcing the Catholicossate
Catholicossate
to move to Sis. Het'um was forced to abandon Behesni, Marash, and Tel Hamdoun
Tel Hamdoun
to the Turks. In 1293, he abdicated in favor of his brother T'oros III, and entered the monastery of Mamistra. Campaigns with Mongols (1299–1303)[edit]

Ghazan ordering the King Of Armenia
Armenia
Het'um II to accompany Kutlushka on the 1303 attack on Damascus.[28]

In the summer of 1299, Het'um I's grandson, King Het'um II, again facing threats of attack by the Mamluks, asked the Mongol khan of Persia, Ghâzân, for his support. In response, Ghâzân marched towards Syria
Syria
and invited the Franks of Cyprus
Cyprus
(the King of Cyprus, the Templars, the Hospitallers, and the Teutonic Knights), to join his attack on the Mamluks. The Mongols took the city of Aleppo, where they were joined by King Het'um. His forces included Templars and Hospitallers
Hospitallers
from the kingdom of Armenia, who participated in the rest of the offensive.[29] The combined force defeated the Mamluks
Mamluks
in the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, on December 23, 1299.[29] The bulk of the Mongol army was then obligated to retreat. In their absence, the Mamluks
Mamluks
regrouped, and regained the area in May 1300. In 1303, the Mongols tried to conquer Syria
Syria
once again in larger numbers (approximately 80,000) along with the Armenians, but they were defeated at Homs on March 30, 1303, and during the decisive Battle of Shaqhab, south of Damascus, on April 21, 1303.[30] It is considered to be the last major Mongol invasion of Syria.[31] When Ghazan died on May 10, 1304, all hope of reconquest of the Holy Land died in conjunction. Het'um II abdicated in favour of his sixteen-year-old nephew Levon III and became a Franciscan
Franciscan
monk; however, he emerged from his monastic cell to help Levon defend Cilicia
Cilicia
from a Mamluk
Mamluk
army, which was thus defeated near Baghras.[32] In 1307, both the current and former kings met with Bularghu, the Mongol representative in Cilicia, at his camp just outside Anazarba. Bularghu, a recent convert to Islam, murdered the entire Armenian party.[33] Oshin, brother of Het'um, immediately marched against Bularghu to retaliate and vanquished him, forcing him to leave Cilicia. Bulargu was executed by Oljeitu for his crime at the request of the Armenians.[34] Oshin was crowned new king of Cilician Armenia
Armenia
upon his return to Tarsus.[32] The Het'umids continued ruling an unstable Cilicia
Cilicia
until the assassination of Levon IV in 1341, at the hands of an angry mob. Levon IV formed an alliance with the Kingdom of Cyprus, then ruled by the Frankish Lusignan dynasty, but could not resist attacks from the Mamluks.[35] Demise of Cilician Armenia[edit]

Constantin III of Armenia
Armenia
on his throne with the Hospitallers. "Les chevaliers de Saint-Jean-de- Jerusalem
Jerusalem
rétablissant la religion en Arménie", 1844 painting by Henri Delaborde.

Flag of the Armenian Lusignan dynasty, upon which the modern Flag of Armenia
Armenia
is based.

Cilicia, particularly Kozan sanjak of Adana Vilayet, retained a substantial Armenian population until the Armenian genocide.

Decline and fall with the Lusignan dynasty[edit] There had always been close relations between the Armenians
Armenians
and the Lusignans, who, by the 12th century, were already established in the eastern Mediterranean island of Cyprus. Had it not been for their presence in Cyprus, the kingdom of Cilician Armenia
Armenia
may have, out of necessity, established itself on the island.[36] In 1342, Levon's cousin Guy de Lusignan, was anointed king as Constantine II, King of Armenia. Guy de Lusignan and his younger brother John were considered pro- Latin
Latin
and deeply committed to the supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church in the Levant. As kings, the Lusignans
Lusignans
attempted to impose Catholicism and the European ways. The Armenian nobles largely accepted this, but the peasantry opposed the changes, which eventually led to civil strife.[37] From 1343 to 1344, a time when the Armenian population and its feudal rulers refused to adapt to the new Lusignan leadership and its policy of Latinizing the Armenian Church, Cilicia
Cilicia
was again invaded by the Mamluks, who were intent on territorial expansion.[38] Frequent appeals for help and support were made by the Armenians
Armenians
to their co-religionists in Europe, and the kingdom was also involved in planning new crusades.[39] Amidst failed Armenian pleas for help from Europe, the falls of Sis to the Mamluks
Mamluks
in 1374 and the fortress of Gaban in 1375, where King Levon V, his daughter Marie, and her husband Shahan had taken refuge, put an end to the kingdom.[38] The final king, Levon V, was granted safe passage, and died in exile in Paris in 1393 after calling in vain for another crusade.[37] In 1396, Levon's title and privileges were transferred to James I, his cousin and king of Cyprus. The title of King of Armenia
Armenia
was thus united with the titles of King of Cyprus
Cyprus
and King of Jerusalem.[40] After the loss of Cyprus
Cyprus
in 1489 the Levantine branch of the Lusignans continued in Constantinople
Constantinople
and from the 19th century in Saint-Petersburg. The last reigning Prince in Constantinople
Constantinople
was Christodule de Lusignan who was a direct descendant of kings Janus, Jacques I and Hugo IV. After his arrival in Russia in 1827, his son Louis de Lusignan was recognised as "Royal Prince of Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia” by the Russian Emperor Nicholas I. This line of descent was defended in the French civil tribunals in the 1880s by Prince Michel de Lusignan, son of Louis and grandson of Chistodule, who resided in St.Petersbourg. As head of the royal house, Prince Michel was also recognized as the Grand Master of the Royal Order of the Sword of Cyprus
Cyprus
(L'Ordre Royal de L'Épée de Chypre). The current reigning prince of this line is Prince Constantine de Lusignan.[41] The title has also been claimed indirectly by the House of Savoy by claiming the title King of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and a number of other thrones.[citation needed] Dispersion of the Armenian population of Cilicia[edit] Although the Mamluks
Mamluks
had taken over Cilicia, they were unable to hold it. Turkic tribes settled there, leading to the conquest of Cilicia led by Timur. As a result, 30,000 wealthy Armenians
Armenians
left Cilicia
Cilicia
and settled in Cyprus, still ruled by the Lusignan dynasty
Lusignan dynasty
until 1489.[37] Many merchant families also fled westward and founded or joined with existing diaspora communities in France, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain.[7] Only the humbler Armenians
Armenians
remained in Cilicia. They nevertheless maintained their foothold in the region throughout Turkish rule. In the 16th century, Cilicia
Cilicia
fell under Ottoman dominion and officially became known as the Adana Vilayet
Adana Vilayet
in the 17th century. Cilicia
Cilicia
was one of the most important regions for the Ottoman Armenians, because it managed to preserve Armenian character well throughout the years.[7][42] In 1909, Cilician Armenians
Armenians
were massacred in Adana.[42] Descendants of the remaining Cilician Armenians
Armenians
have been dispersed in the Armenian diaspora, and the Holy See of Cilicia
Cilicia
is based in Antelias, Lebanon. The lion, emblem of the Cilician Armenian state, remains a symbol of Armenian statehood to this day, featured on the Coat of arms of Armenia. Cilician Armenian society[edit] Culture[edit]

An illuminated manuscript of John the Apostle
John the Apostle
by Toros Roslin completed in 1268.

Demographically, Cilician Armenia
Armenia
was heterogeneous with a population of Armenians
Armenians
who constituted the ruling class, and also Greeks, Jews, Muslims, and various Europeans.[43] The multi-ethnic population, as well as commercial and political links with Europeans, particularly France, brought important new influences on Armenian culture.[43] The Cilician nobility adopted many aspects of Western European life, including chivalry, fashion, and the use of French Christian names. The structure of Cilician society became more synonymous with Western feudalism than to the traditional nakharar system of Armenia.[7] In fact, during the Cilician period, Western titles such as baron and constable replaced their Armenian equivalents nakharar and sparapet.[7][43] European tradition was adopted for the knighting of Armenian nobles, while jousts and tournaments similar to those in Europe had become popular in Cilician Armenia. The extent of Western influence over Cilician Armenia
Armenia
is also reflected by the incorporation of two new letters (Ֆ ֆ = "f" and Օ օ = "o") and various Latin-based words into the Armenian language.[43] In other areas, there was more hostility to the new Western trends. Above all, most ordinary Armenians
Armenians
frowned on conversion to Roman Catholicism or Greek Orthodoxy. Cultural influence was not merely one-way, however; Cilician Armenians
Armenians
had an important impact on Crusaders returning to the West, most notably with their architectural traditions. Europeans incorporated elements of Armenian castle-building, learned from Armenian masons in the Crusader states, as well as some elements of church architecture.[8] Most Armenian castles made atypical usage of rocky heights, and featured curved walls and round towers, similar to those of the Hospitaller castles Krak des Chevaliers
Krak des Chevaliers
and Marqab.[44] The Cilician period also produced some important examples of Armenian art, notably the illuminated manuscripts of Toros Roslin, who was at work in Hromkla
Hromkla
in the thirteenth century.[7] Economy[edit]

Coin of the Cilician Armenian kingdom, ca. 1080–1375.

Cilician Armenia
Armenia
had become a prosperous state due to its strategic position on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean. It was located at the juncture of many trade routes linking Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean. The kingdom was thus important in the spice trade, as well as livestock, hides, wool, and cotton. In addition, important products such as timber, grain, wine, raisins, and raw silk were also exported from the country and finished cloth and metal products from the West were made available.[7] During the reign of King Levon, the economy of Cilician Armenia progressed greatly and became heavily integrated with Western Europe. He secured agreements with Pisa, Genoa, and Venice, as well as the French and the Catalans, and granted them certain privileges such as tax exemptions in return for their business. The three primary harbours of the Armenian Kingdom, which were vital to its economy and defense, were the fortified coastal sites at Ayas and Koŕikos, and the river emporium of Mopsuestia. The latter, situated on two strategic caravan routes, was the last fully navigable port to the Mediterranean on the Pyramus River and the location of warehouses licensed by the Armenians
Armenians
to the Genoese.[3] Important European merchant communities and colonies came into existence, with their own churches, courts of law, and trading houses.[45] As French became the secondary language of Cilician nobility, the secondary language for Cilician commerce had become Italian due to the three Italian city-states' extensive involvement in the Cilician economy.[7] Marco Polo, for example, set out on his journey to China from Ayas in 1271.[45] In the thirteenth century, under the rule of Toros, Cilician Armenia already struck its own coins. Gold and silver coins, called dram and tagvorin, were struck at the royal mints of Sis and Tarsus. Foreign coins such as the Italian ducat, florin, and zecchino, the Greek besant, the Arab dirham, and the French livre were also accepted by merchants.[7] Religion[edit] See also: Holy See of Cilicia
Cilicia
and Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
in Asia

The St. Gregory the Illuminator Armenian Cathedral at the Holy See of Cilicia
Cilicia
in Antelias, Lebanon.

The Catholicosate of the Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
followed its people in taking refuge outside the Armenian highlands, which had turned into a battleground of Byzantine and Seljuk contenders. Its seat was first transferred to Sebasteia in 1058 in Cappadocia, where had existed a significant Armenian population. Later, it moved to various locations in Cilicia; Tavbloor in 1062; Dzamendav in 1066; Dzovk in 1116; and Hromkla
Hromkla
in 1149. During King Levon I's rule, the Catholicos was located in distant Hromkla. He was assisted by fourteen bishops in administering the Armenian Church in the kingdom, a number which grew in later years. The archbishops' seats were located in Tarsus, Sis, Anazarba, Lambron, and Mamistra. There existed up to sixty monastic houses in Cilicia, although the exact locations of the majority of them remain unclear.[7] In 1198, the Catholicos of Sis, Grigor VI Apirat, proclaimed a union between the Armenian Church and the Roman Catholic Church; however, this had no notable effect, as the local clergy and populace was strongly opposed to such a union. The Western Church sent numerous missions to Cilician Armenia
Armenia
to help with rapprochement, but had limited results. The Franciscans
Franciscans
were put in charge of this activity. John of Monte Corvino himself arrived in Cilician Armenia
Armenia
in 1288.[46] Het'um II became a Franciscan
Franciscan
monk after his abdication. The Armenian historian Nerses Balients was a Franciscan
Franciscan
and an advocate of union with the Latin
Latin
Church. The papal claim of primacy did not contribute positively to the efforts for unity between the Churches.[47] Mkhitar Skewratsi, the Armenian delegate at the council in Acre in 1261, summed the Armenian frustration in these words:

Whence does the Church of Rome derive the power to pass judgment on the other Apostolic sees while she herself is not subject to their judgments? We ourselves [the Armenians] have indeed the authority to bring you [the Catholic Church] to trial, following the example of the Apostles, and you have no right to deny our competency.[47]

After the sacking of Hromkla
Hromkla
by the Mamluks
Mamluks
in 1293, the Catholicosate was transferred to Sis, the capital of the Cilician Kingdom. Again, in 1441, long after the fall of the kingdom, the Armenian Catholicos of Sis, Grigor IX Musabekiants, proclaimed the union of the Armenian and Latin
Latin
churches at the Council of Florence; this was countered by an Armenian schism under Kirakos I Virapetsi, who moved the See of the Catholicos to Echmiadzin, and marginalized Sis.[48] See also[edit]

Cilicia Rubenid
Rubenid
dynasty List of monarchs of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

Notes[edit]

a Claude Mutafian
Claude Mutafian
in Le Royaume Arménien de Cilicie, p. 55, describes "the Mongol alliance" entered into by the king of Armenia and the Franks of Antioch
Antioch
("the King of Armenia
Armenia
decided to engage into the Mongol alliance, an intelligence that the Latin
Latin
barons lacked, except for Antioch"), and "the Franco-Mongol collaboration." b Claude Lebedel in Les Croisades describes the alliance of the Franks of Antioch
Antioch
and Tripoli with the Mongols: (in 1260) "the Frank barons refused an alliance with the Mongols, except for the Armenians
Armenians
and the Prince of Antioch
Antioch
and Tripoli". c Amin Maalouf in The Crusades
Crusades
through Arab eyes is extensive and specific on the alliance (page numbers refer to the French edition): “The Armenians, in the person of their king Hetoum, sided with the Mongols, as well as Prince Bohemond, his son-in-law. The Franks of Acre however adopted a position of neutrality favourable to the muslims” (p. 261), “Bohemond of Antioch
Antioch
and Hethoum of Armenia, principal allies of the Mongols” (p. 265), “Hulagu (…) still had enough strength to prevent the punishment of his allies [Bohemond and Hethoum]” (p. 267).

References[edit]

^ "Landmarks in Armenian history". Internet Archive. Retrieved June 22, 2010.  "1080 A.D. Rhupen, cousin of the Bagratonian kings, sets up on Mount Taurus (overlooking the Mediterranean Sea) the kingdom of New Armenia
Armenia
which lasts 300 years." ^ Der Nersessian, Sirarpie. "The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia." in A History of the Crusades, vol. II. Kenneth M. Setton (ed.) Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1962, pp. 630–631. ^ a b c d e f g Edwards, Robert W. (1987). The Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia, Dumbarton Oaks Studies No.23. Washington D. C.: Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University. pp. vii–xxxi, 3–288. ISBN 0884021637.  ^ Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Պատմութիւն Հայոց [History of Armenia] (in Armenian). II. Athens: Հրատարակութիւն ազգային ուսումնակաան խորհուրդի [Council of National Education Publishing]. pp. 43–44.  ^ a b c d e f Der Nersessian. "The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia", pp. 645–653. ^ a b c d e f g Ghazarian, Jacob G. (2000). The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia
Cilicia
during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1393). Routledge. pp. 54–55. ISBN 0-7007-1418-9.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bournoutian, Ani
Ani
Atamian. "Cilician Armenia" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997, pp. 283–290. ISBN 1-4039-6421-1. ^ a b "Cilician Kingdom". Globe Weekly News. Archived from the original on 2010-11-23. Retrieved 2009-12-28.  ^ "King Tigran II – The Great". Hye Etch. Archived from the original on 21 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-17.  ^ a b c d e f g Ghazarian, Jacob G. (2000). The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia
Cilicia
during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1393). Routledge. pp. 39–42. ISBN 0-7007-1418-9.  ^ a b Dédéyan, Gérard (2008). "The Founding and the Coalescence of the Rubenian Principality, 1073–1129". In Hovannisian, Richard G.; Payaslian, Simon. Armenian Cilicia. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series 8. United States: Mazda Publishers. pp. 79–83. ISBN 1-56859-154-3.  ^ a b c Donal Stewart, Angus (2001). The Armenian Kingdom and the Mamluks: War and Diplomacy During the Reigns of Het'um II (1289–1307). Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-90-04-12292-5.  ^ Bozoyan, Azat A. (2008). "Armenian Political Revival in Cilicia". In Hovannisian, Richard G.; Payaslian, Simon. Armenian Cilicia. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series. United States: Mazda Publishers. p. 68. ISBN 1-56859-154-3.  ^ a b c Runciman, Steven (1951). A History of the Crusades, Vol. I: The First Crusade
First Crusade
and the Foundations of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 195–201. ISBN 0-521-35997-X.  ^ Kurkdjian, Vahan (1958). "Chapter XXV: Magnificence to be soon followed by Calamity". History of Armenia. United States of America: Armenian General Benevolent Union of America. p. 202.  ^ a b c d e f g Kurkdjian, Vahan (1958). "Chapter XXVII: The Barony of Cilician Armenia". History of Armenia. United States of America: Armenian General Benevolent Union of America. pp. 213–226.  ^ a b c d Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Պատմութիւն Հայոց (History of Armenia), Volume II (in Armenian). Athens: Հրատարակութիւն ազգային ուսումնակաան խորհուրդի (Council of National Education Publishing). pp. 33–36.  ^ Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades
Crusades
– Volume II.: The Kingdom of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Frankish East: 1100–1187.  ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. (2000). The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia
Cilicia
during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians
Armenians
with the Latins (1080–1393). Routledge. pp. 118–120. ISBN 0-7007-1418-9.  ^ a b Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Պատմութիւն Հայոց (History of Armenia), Volume II (in Armenian). Athens: Հրատարակութիւն ազգային ուսումնակաան խորհուրդի (Council of National Education Publishing). pp. 42–44.  ^ Nickerson Hardwicke, Mary. The Crusader States, 1192–1243.  ^ Natasha Hodgson, Conflict and Cohabitation Marriage and Diplomacy between Latins and Cilician Armenians
Armenians
c. 1150-1254’ in The Crusades and the Near East, ed. C Kostick (Routledge, 2010) ^ a b c d Donal Stewart, Angus (2001). The Armenian Kingdom and the Mamluks: War and Diplomacy During the Reigns of Het'um II (1289–1307). Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 43–46. ISBN 978-90-0412292-5.  ^ "The king of Armenia
Armenia
and the Prince of Antioch
Antioch
went to the military camp of the Tatars, and they all went off to take Damascus". Le Templier de Tyr. Quoted in Rene Grousset, Histoire des Croisade, III, p. 586. ^ a b c Kurkdjian, Vahan (1958). "Chapter XXX: The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia
Armenia
— Mongol Invasion". History of Armenia. United States of America: Armenian General Benevolent Union of America. pp. 246–248.  ^ Luscombe, David; W. Hazard, Harry (2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume IV: c. 1024-c. 1198. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 634. ISBN 0-521-41411-3.  ^ Luisetto, Frédéric (2007). Arméniens et autres Chrétiens d'Orient sous la domination mongole (in French). Geuthner. pp. 128–129. ISBN 978-2-7053-3791-9.  ^ Mutafian, Claude (2002). Le Royaume Arménien de Cilicie, XIIe-XIVe siècle. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series (in French). France: CNRS Editions. pp. 74–75. ISBN 2-271-05105-3.  ^ a b Demurger, Alain (2005). The Last Templar: The Tragedy of Jacques de Molay, Last Grand Master of the Temple. London: Profile Books. p. 93. ISBN 1-86197-529-5.  ^ Demurger, Alain (2005). The Last Templar: The Tragedy of Jacques de Molay, Last Grand Master of the Temple. London: Profile Books. p. 109. ISBN 1-86197-529-5.  ^ Nicolle, David (2001). The Crusades. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 80. ISBN 1-84176-179-6.  ^ a b Kurkdjian, Vahan (1958). "Chapter XXX: The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia
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— Mongol Invasion". History of Armenia. United States of America: Armenian General Benevolent Union of America. pp. 253–254.  ^ Angus, Stewart, "The assassination of King Het'um II". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 2005 pp. 45–61. ^ (in French) Recueil des Historiens des Croisades, Documents Armeniens I, p.664 ^ Mahé, Annie; Mahé, Jean-Pierre (2005). L'Arménie à l'épreuve des Siècles (in French). France: Découvertes Gallimard. p. 77. ISBN 2-07-031409-X.  ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. (2000). The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia
Cilicia
during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians
Armenians
with the Latins (1080–1393). Routledge. p. 150. ISBN 0-7007-1418-9.  ^ a b c Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Պատմութիւն Հայոց (History of Armenia), Volume II (in Armenian). Athens: Հրատարակութիւն ազգային ուսումնակաան խորհուրդի (Council of National Education Publishing). pp. 53–56.  ^ a b Ghazarian, Jacob G. (2000). The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians
Armenians
with the Latins (1080–1393). Routledge. pp. 159–161. ISBN 0-7007-1418-9.  ^ Housley, Norman (1992). The later Crusades, 1 274-1580: from Lyons to Alcazar. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-19-822136-3.  ^ Hadjilyra, Alexander-Michael (2009). The Armenians
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of Cyprus. New York: Kalaydjian Foundation. p. 12.  ^ Chanoine Pascal, Histoire de la Maison royale de Lusignan (Paris: Léon Vanier, 1896). Histoire Des Prices De Lusignan, Anciens Rois de Jerusalem, de la Petite Armenie et de Chypre (St. Petersbourg: Soikine, 1903) ^ a b Bryce, Viscount (2008). The Treatment of Armenians
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in the Ottoman Empire. Germany: Textor Verlag. pp. 465–467. ISBN 3-938402-15-6.  ^ a b c d Panossian, Razmik (2006). The Armenians: from kings and priests to merchants and commissars. London: Columbia University Press. pp. 63–66. ISBN 978-0-231-13926-7.  ^ Kennedy, Hugh N. (2006). Muslim military architecture in greater Syria: from the coming of Islam to the Ottoman Period. Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. p. 293. ISBN 978-90-04-14713-3.  ^ a b Abulafia, David (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge University Press. p. 440. ISBN 0-521-36289-X.  ^ Luisetto. Arméniens et autres Chrétiens, p. 98. ^ a b Parry, Ken (2010). The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing ltd. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-631-23423-4.  ^ Mahé, Annie; Mahé, Jean-Pierre (2005). L'Arménie à l'épreuve des Siècles. Découvertes Gallimard
Découvertes Gallimard
(in French). 464. France: Gallimard. pp. 71–72. ISBN 2-07-031409-X. 

Further reading[edit]

(in Armenian) Poghosyan, S.; Katvalyan, M.; Grigoryan, G. et al. «Կիլիկյան Հայաստան» (Cilician Armenia) Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. vol. v. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1979, pp. 406–428. Boase, T. S. R. (1978). The Cilician Kingdom of Armenia. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. ISBN 0-7073-0145-9. 

Ghazarian, Jacob G. (2000). The Armenian kingdom in Cilicia
Cilicia
during the Crusades. Routledge. p. 256. ISBN 0-7007-1418-9. 

Hovannisian, Richard G. and Simon Payaslian (eds.) Armenian Cilicia. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series: Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 7. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2008. Luisetto, Frédéric (2007). Arméniens et autres Chrétiens d'Orient sous la domination Mongole. Geuthner. p. 262. ISBN 978-2-7053-3791-9. 

Mahé, Jean-Pierre. L'Arménie à l'épreuve des siècles, coll. Découvertes Gallimard
Découvertes Gallimard
(n° 464), Paris: Gallimard, 2005, ISBN 978-2-07-031409-6

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia.

Cilician Armenian Coins "Kilikia" song with lyrics

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Empire Philaretos Brachamios Zaccaria family

Coordinates: 37°00′N 35°30′E / 37.0°N 35.5°E

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