The ARMENIAN HIGHLANDS (Armenian : Հայկական
լեռնաշխարհ, translit. Haykakan leṙnašxarh; also known as
the ARMENIAN UPLAND, ARMENIAN PLATEAU, ARMENIAN TABLELAND, or simply
ARMENIA) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus
that together form the northern sector of the
Middle East . To its
west is the
Anatolian plateau which rises slowly from the lowland
coast of the
Aegean Sea and converges with the
Armenian Highlands to
the east of
Cappadocia . To its southeast is the
Iranian plateau ,
where the elevation drops rapidly by about 600 metres (2,000 ft) to
1,500 metres (5,000 ft) above sea level.
The Caucasus extends to the
northeast of the Armenian Highlands. To the southwest of the Armenian
Highlands is Upper Mesopotamia .
During Antiquity , it was known as ARMENIA MAJOR, a central region to
the history of
Armenians , and one of the four geo-political regions
Armenians , the other three being
Armenia Minor ,
Commagene . During the
Middle Ages , Turkmens settled in
large numbers in the Armenian Highlands.
The region was historically mainly inhabited by Armenians, and
Georgians and Assyrians . The Christian population of
the Western half of the region was exterminated during the Armenian
Genocide of 1915 and to a smaller scale the Assyrian
Today, the region is mainly inhabited by
Azerbaijanis , Turks , and
* 1 Geography
* 2 History
* 3 Flora and fauna
* 4 Notable peaks
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes
* 7 Further reading
Their total area is about 400,000 km2. Historically, the Armenian
Highlands have been the scene of great volcanic activity.
Geologically recent volcanism on the area has resulted in large
volcanic formations and a series of massifs and tectonic movement has
formed the three largest lakes in the Highland,
Lake Sevan , Lake Van
Lake Urmia . The
Armenian Highlands are rich in water resources.
Most of the
Armenian Highlands is in eastern
Turkey , and also
Iran , all of
Armenia , southern Georgia , and
Azerbaijan . Its northeastern parts are also known as Lesser
Caucasus , which is a center of Armenian culture .
Main articles: Prehistoric
Armenia , History of
Armenia , and History
From 4000 to 1000 BC, tools and trinkets of copper, bronze and iron
were commonly produced in this region and traded in neighboring lands
where those metals were less abundant. It is also traditionally
believed to be one of the possible locations of the
Garden of Eden .
Plateau has been called the "epicenter of the
Iron Age ",
since it appears to be the location of the first appearance of Iron
Age metallurgy in the late
2nd millennium BC
2nd millennium BC . In the Early Iron Age
, the Kingdom of Van controlled much of the region, until it was
overthrown by the
Orontid dynasty .
Gilgamesh , the land of
Aratta is placed in a geographic space
that could be describing the Armenian plateau.
Throughout Classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages, during various
Armenian Highlands was a heavily contested territory of
the Iranian Parthian Empire, Sassanid Persian Empire, Byzantine
Empire, and the Arab
Caliphate . From the early modern era and on,
the region came directly under Safavid Iranian rule. Heavily contested
for centuries between the Iranian Safavids and its vying archrival the
Ottoman Empire with numerous wars raging over the region, large parts
of the Highlands comprising Western
Armenia were finally conquered by
Ottoman Empire in the first half of the 17th century following the
Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39) and the outcoming
Treaty of Zuhab ,
Armenia , forming another major part of the Highlands,
stayed in Iranian hands up to the course of the 19th century , when it
was ceded to
Imperial Russia . During the later first half of the 19th
century, the Ottoman held parts of the
Armenian Highlands comprising
Armenia now formed the boundary of the Ottoman sphere of
influence and the Russian sphere of influence, the latter who had just
recently completed its conquest of the
Caucasus and Eastern
the expense of its suzerain, Qajar
Iran , in about 4 major wars
spanning more than two centuries.
Richard Hovannisian , the Armenian
Genocide was the
"physical elimination of the Armenian people and most of the evidence
of their ever having lived on the great highland called the Armenian
Plateau, to which the perpetrator side soon assigned the new name of
Eastern Anatolia". Since the Armenian
Genocide and dissolution of the
Ottoman Empire after
World War I
World War I , it has been the boundary region of
Iran and the
Soviet Union and, since the 1991 dissolution of
the Soviet Union,
Armenia , and parts of Georgia and
FLORA AND FAUNA
The apricot was known by the Romans as the prunus armenicus (the
Armenian plum) and was brought to
Europe from the Armenian plateau.
Mount Artos ,
Lake Van from
Syunik Province / Ordubad
* History of
* Geography of
* ^ A B C D Hewsen, Robert H. "The Geography of Armenia" in The
Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times Volume I: The Dynastic
Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Richard G.
Hovannisian (ed.) New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997, pp. 1-17
* ^ Adalian, Rouben Paul (2010). Historical dictionary of Armenia
(2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. pp. 336–8. ISBN 0810874504 .
* ^ Grierson, Otto Mørkholm ; edited by Philip; Westermark, Ulla
(1991). Early Hellenistic coinage : from the accession of Alexander to
the Peace of Apamea (336-188 B.C.) (Repr. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. p. 175. ISBN 0521395046 .
* ^ A B "Armenian Highland." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007.
* ^ Volcanoes, their structure and significance Thomas George
Bonney - 1912 - Page 243
* ^ Emerald Network Pilot Project in
Armenia Archived May 28, 2009,
Wayback Machine ., Council of
* ^ Der Völkermord an den Armeniern, Nikolaĭ Oganesovich
Oganesian - 2005- Page 6
* ^ Barbara A. West (2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and
Oceania. Infobase Publishing. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-8160-7109-8 .
Retrieved 20 September 2011.
* ^ Mesopotamian Trade. Noah's Flood: The Garden of Eden, W.
Willcocks, H. Rassam pp. 459-460
* ^ Lang, David M . Armenia: Cradle of Civilization. London: George
Allen & Unwin, 1970, pp. 50-51, 58-59.
* ^ A B Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, By Barbara
A. West, 2009, p. 47
* ^ "Conflict and Security in Central Asia and the Caucasus".
Retrieved 26 December 2014.
* ^ "Armenia: with Nagorno Karabagh". Retrieved 26 December 2014.
* ^ "Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan,
Chechnya, and Beyond ...". Retrieved 26 December 2014.
* ^ The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies - Page 3,
Richard G. Hovannisian - 2011
* Armenian Highlands
* Hewsen, Robert H. (2001). Armenia: A Historical Atlas. University
of Chicago Press . ISBN 0-226-33228-4 .
* Kingdom of
* Median kingdom
* Satrapy of
* Kingdom of
* Emirate of
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
* 1508–1828 Persian
Treaty of Turkmenchay
* First Republic of
Armenian national liberation movement
* Armenian Highlands
* Extreme points