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The ARMALITE AND BALLOT BOX STRATEGY was a strategy pursued by the Irish republican movement in the 1980s and early 1990s in which elections in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
were contested by Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
, while the IRA continued to pursue an armed struggle against the British Army
British Army
, the Royal Ulster Constabulary
Royal Ulster Constabulary
, and loyalist paramilitary groups. This strategy was a matter of some controversy within republicanism; some IRA members and supporters who disagreed with the strategy left to form Republican Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
in 1986.

Armalite
Armalite
refers to the AR-15
AR-15
and AR-18 ArmaLite rifles . Both were originally manufactured by the Armalite
Armalite
corporation, later Colt. The IRA smuggled significant quantities of these rifles into Northern Ireland
Ireland
during the early 1970s and the "Armalite" became a symbol of republican armed struggle. Through the AR-18's mass use by the PIRA and volunteers' love of the weapon for its accuracy and compact nature, the rifle became known as the "Widowmaker". The AR-18

HISTORY

The strategy emerged after the 1981 Irish hunger strike as a response to the electoral success of Bobby Sands
Bobby Sands
in the April 1981 Fermanagh and South Tyrone by-election and pro-hunger strike campaigners in the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
local elections and Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
Dáil Éireann elections of the same year. It was first formulated by Sinn Féin organiser Danny Morrison at the party's Ard Fheis (Annual Conference) in 1981, when he said:

Who here really believes we can win the war through the ballot box? But will anyone here object if, with a ballot paper in this hand and an Armalite
Armalite
in the other, we take power in Ireland
Ireland
?

The strategy was a mixed success. Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
had a solid core of 9-13 percent of the vote in Northern Ireland, which gave the party some credibility on the international stage. However at home it highlighted the dominance at the time of the non-violent Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) in Northern nationalist politics, while Sinn Féin's vote in the Republic remained tiny once the emotion generated by the 1981 hunger strike subsided.

In the longer term it had two important political consequences, each of which fed in to the emergent Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
peace process . When the governments of the UK and the Ireland
Ireland
drafted the Anglo-Irish Agreement , this convinced many in Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
that it was possible to make political gains without violence. However, some would also argue that electoral setbacks suffered by Sinn Féin, such as the loss of 16 of the party's 59 council seats in 1989 and the defeat of Gerry Adams in the Belfast West constituency in 1992, pushed the emphasis of the Republican movement away from the Armalite
Armalite
and towards an election-focused strategy.

For some time after the IRA ceasefires of 1994 and 1997, opinion in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
remained divided on whether the armalite and ballot box strategy had ended. However, with the cessation of large-scale political violence, the complete decommissioning of weaponry by the IRA and a statement from the Army Council that 'the war is over', the majority of unionists have overcome their scepticism and now believe that the strategy has been abandoned.

The strategy has also been attributed as having inspired members of the Loyalist Ulster Defence Association
Ulster Defence Association
such as John McMichael to seek a similar route into electoral politics through vehicles such as the Ulster Loyalist Democratic Party (later Ulster Democratic Party (UDP)). However, parties directly linked to Loyalist paramilitaries had minimal success in elections in Northern Ireland, with the UDP's and Progressive Unionist Party 's (PUP) combined electoral share failing to exceed 1% before the May 1996 elections for the Northern Ireland
Ireland
Forum .

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ McAllister, I. (2004). "'The Armalite
Armalite
and the ballot box': Sinn Féin's electoral strategy in Northern Ireland". Electoral Studies. 23: 123–142. doi :10.1016/j.electstud.2003.10.002 . * ^ "Provisional IRA: War, ceasefire, endgame?". BBC. Retrieved March 13, 2014. * ^ J. Bowyer Bell (2000). The IRA, 1968-2000: Analysis of a Secret Army. Taylor & Francis. p. 183. * ^ English, Richard (2005). Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA. Oxford University Press. pp. 224–225. ISBN 978-0-19-517753-4 . Retrieved 19 May 2013. * ^ A Secret History of the IRA, 2nd Edition, Page 33, Ed Moloney, Penguin Books, 2002, 2007. * ^ McDonald, Henry; Cusack, Jim (2004). UDA: inside the heart of Loyalist terror. Penguin Ireland. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-84488-020-1 . Retrieved 19 May 2013. * ^ Dillon, Martin (14 October 2011). The Trigger Men: Assassins and Terror Bosses in the Ireland
Ireland
Conflict. Mainstream Publishing. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-1-78057-376-2 . Retrieved 19 May 2013. * ^ Norris, Pippa; Kern, Montague; Just, Marion (2013). Framing Terrorism: The News Media, the Government and the Public. Routledge. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-135-93822-2 . Retrieved 19 May 2013.

* v * t * e

Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army

GENERAL

* Anti-Treaty IRA * Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
* Republican News * An Phoblacht * The Green Book * The Troubles (Timeline ) * Haughey arms crisis * Officials-Provisionals split * Provisional IRA campaign * Arms importation * Disappeared * Mountjoy Prison helicopter escape * Blanket protest
Blanket protest
* Dirty protest * HM Prison Maze * Anti H-Block * 1981 Irish hunger strike * Maze Prison escape * Armalite
Armalite
and ballot box strategy * Smithwick Tribunal * Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
peace process * North American arrests * Barrack buster * Good Friday Agreement

ORGANISATION

* IRA Army Council * Internal Security Unit * Active Service Unit (ASU) * Provisional IRA Belfast Brigade * Provisional IRA Derry Brigade * Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade
Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade
* Provisional IRA East Tyrone Brigade
Provisional IRA East Tyrone Brigade
* Provisional IRA Balcombe Street Gang ASU

ATTACKS

Insurgency , 1969–1977

* Battle of St Matthew\'s * 1970 RUC booby-trap bombing * Scottish soldiers\' killings * Balmoral showroom bombing * Abercorn bombing * Donegall St bombing * Battle at Springmartin * Bloody Friday * Claudy bombing
Claudy bombing
* Coleraine bombings * M62 coach bombing
M62 coach bombing
* Guildford pub bombings
Guildford pub bombings
* Brook\'s Club Bomb Attack * British Airways bombing attempt * Birmingham pub bombings * Bayardo Bar attack
Bayardo Bar attack
* Caterham Arms pub bombing * London Hilton bombing * Green Park Tube Station Bombing * Scott\'s (restaurant) bombing * Walton\'s Restaurant bombing * Drummuckavall ambush * Balcombe Street siege * Kingsmill massacre

Long War , 1977–1988

* 1978 Lisnamuck shoot-out * Jonesboro Gazelle downing * La Mon restaurant bombing
La Mon restaurant bombing
* Crossmaglen_Ambush_1978 * Warrenpoint ambush
Warrenpoint ambush
* Dunmurry train explosion * Lough Foyle attacks * Hyde Park and Regent\'s Park bombings * Harrods bombing * Woolwich barracks * Brighton hotel bombing
Brighton hotel bombing
* Ballygawley Land Mine Attack * Newry mortar attack * Ballygawley attack * JHQ Rheindahlen bombing (Germany)

Peace Process , 1988–1998

* Corporals killings * Lisburn van bombing * 1988 Netherlands Attacks * Inglis Barracks * Ballygawley bus bombing * Jonesborough ambush * Deal barracks bombing * Derryard attack * Derrygorry Gazelle downing * RFA Fort Victoria bombing * Proxy bombings * Downing St mortar attack * Mullacreevie ambush * Glenanne barracks bombing * Teebane bombing
Teebane bombing
* Cloghoge attack * 1992 Manchester bombing * South Armagh sniper campaign * Warrington bomb attacks * Cullaville occupation * Bishopsgate bombing * Battle of Newry Road
Battle of Newry Road
* Shankill Road bombing * Crossmaglen Lynx downing * Drumcree conflict
Drumcree conflict
* Docklands bombing * 1996 Manchester bombing
1996 Manchester bombing
* Osnabrück mortar attack
Osnabrück mortar attack
* Thiepval barracks bombing * Coalisland attack * July 1997 riots

CHIEFS OF STAFF

* Seán Mac Stíofáin (1969–72) * Joe Cahill (1972–73) * Seamus Twomey (1973) * Éamonn O\'Doherty (1973–74) * Seamus Twomey (1974–77) * Gerry Adams
Gerry Adams
(1977–78) * Martin McGuinness (1978–82) * Ivor Bell (1982–83) * Kevin McKenna (1983–97) * Thomas "Slab" Murphy (1997–2005)

Personalities (Volunteers)

* Billy McKee * Gerry Kelly
Gerry Kelly
* Dolours Price * Marian Price
Marian Price
* John Joe McGirl * Ruairí Ó Brádaigh
Ruairí Ó Brádaigh
* Dáithí Ó Conaill * George Harrison * Billy Reid * Michael Gaughan * Pat Doherty * Hugh Doherty * Séanna Breathnach * Proinsias MacAirt * John Kelly * Rose Dugdale
Rose Dugdale
* John Francis Green
John Francis Green
* Peter Cleary * Kevin Coen * Frank Stagg * Kieran Nugent * Francis Hughes * Brendan Hughes
Brendan Hughes
* Tommy McKearney * Raymond McCartney * Gerry McGeough * Gerard Casey * Thomas McMahon * Eamon Collins * Gerard Tuite * Patrick Magee * Bobby Sands
Bobby Sands
* Raymond McCreesh * Joe McDonnell * Martin Hurson * Kieran Doherty
Kieran Doherty
* Thomas McElwee * Michael McKevitt * Alex Maskey
Alex Maskey
* Fra McCann * Owen Carron
Owen Carron
* Paul Butler * Dessie Ellis
Dessie Ellis
* Angelo Fusco
Angelo Fusco
* Breandán Mac Cionnaith * Rita O\'Hare * Martin Meehan * Arthur Morgan * Danny Morrison * Antoine Mac Giolla Bhrighde * Kieran Fleming * William Fleming * Bernard Fox * Paddy Quinn * Laurence McKeown * Pat McGeown
Pat McGeown
* Matt Devlin * Pat Sheehan * Siobhán O\'Hanlon * Jackie McMullan * Patrick Joseph Kelly * Larry Marley * Jim Lynagh
Jim Lynagh
* Pádraig McKearney * Brendan McFarlane
Brendan McFarlane
* Charles Breslin * Sean O\'Callaghan * Séamus McElwaine * Gabriel Cleary * Daniel McCann * Seán Savage * Mairéad Farrell * Martin McCaughey * Dessie Grew * Fergal Caraher * Patricia Black * Malachy Carey * Martin McGartland * Joseph MacManus * Paul Magee * Pearse Jordan * Thomas Begley * Martin Doherty * Ed O\'Brien * Diarmuid O\'Neill * Carál Ní Chuilín
Carál Ní Chuilín
* Ian Milne
Ian Milne
* Conor Murphy * Martina Anderson * Jennifer McCann * Liam Campbell * Colin Duffy

Espionage border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Denis Donaldson * Freddie Scappaticci (allegedly " Stakeknife ") * Martin McGartland * Raymond Gilmour * Kevin Fulton * Joseph Fenton * Eamon Collins

ASSOCIATES

* Cumann na mBan
Cumann na mBan
* Fianna Éireann
Fianna Éireann
* South Armagh Republican Action Force * Direct Action Against Drugs * NORAID
NORAID
* Provisional Clan na Gael * Friends of Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
* Cairde na hÉireann * Troops Out Movement

DERIVATIVES

* Continuity Irish Republican Army
Continuity Irish Republican Army
* Real Irish Republican Army
Real Irish Republican Army

PROMINENT KILLINGS

* Michael Willetts * Jean McConville * Columba McVeigh * Billy Fox * Martin McBirney * Steven Tibble * Ross McWhirter * Sammy Smyth * Christopher Ewart-Biggs * Jeffery Stanford Agate * Robert Nairac
Robert Nairac
* Richard Sykes * Gerard Evans * Lord Mountbatten * Baroness Brabourne * Norman Stronge * James Stronge * Robert Bradford * Lenny Murphy
Lenny Murphy
* Kenneth Salvesen * Anthony Berry * Maurice Gibson * Robert Seymour * Heidi Hazell * Joseph Fenton * Nick Spanos * Stephen Melrose * Ian Gow * Donald Kaberry * Thomas Oliver * Sammy Ward * Tim Parry * Jonathan Ball * Ray Smallwoods
Ray Smallwoods
* Joe Bratty
Joe Bratty
* Raymond Elder * Martin Cahill * Jerry McCabe * Andrew Kearney * Eamon Collins * Matthew Burns * Robert McCartney (allegedly) * James Curran * Joseph Rafferty (allegedly) * P

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