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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Arles
Arles
(French pronunciation: ​[aʁl]; Provençal Arle [ˈaʀle] in both classical and Mistralian
Mistralian
norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence. A large part of the Camargue
Camargue
is located on the territory of the commune, making it the largest commune in Metropolitan France
France
in terms of territory (though Maripasoula, French Guiana, is much larger). The city has a long history, and was of considerable importance in the Roman province
Roman province
of Gallia Narbonensis. The Roman and Romanesque Monuments of Arles
Arles
were listed as UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites in 1981. The Dutch post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
lived in Arles from 1888 to 1889 and produced over 300 paintings and drawings during his time there. An international photography festival has been held in the city since 1970.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Ancient era 2.2 Roman aqueduct and mill 2.3 Middle Ages 2.4 Modern era 2.5 Jewish history

3 Climate 4 Population 5 Main sights 6 Archaeology 7 Sport 8 Culture

8.1 European Capital of Culture

9 Economy 10 Transport 11 Notable people 12 Twin towns — sister cities 13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Geography[edit] The river Rhône
Rhône
forks into two branches just upstream of Arles, forming the Camargue
Camargue
delta. Because the Camargue
Camargue
is for a large part administratively part of Arles, the commune as a whole is the largest commune in Metropolitan France
France
in terms of territory, although its population is only slightly more than 50,000. Its area is 758.93 km2 (293.02 sq mi), which is more than seven times the area of Paris. History[edit] Ancient era[edit]

Arles
Arles
Amphitheatre, a Roman arena

Passageway in the Amphitheatre

Church of St. Trophime
Church of St. Trophime
and its cloister

The Ligurians were in this area from about 800 BC. Later, Celtic influences have been discovered. The city became an important Phoenician trading port, before being taken by the Romans. The Romans took the town in 123 BC and expanded it into an important city, with a canal link to the Mediterranean Sea being constructed in 104 BC. However, it struggled to escape the shadow of Massalia (Marseilles) further along the coast. Its chance came when it sided with Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
against Pompey, providing military support. Massalia backed Pompey; when Caesar emerged victorious, Massalia was stripped of its possessions, which were transferred to Arelate as a reward. The town was formally established as a colony for veterans of the Roman legion
Roman legion
Legio VI Ferrata, which had its base there. Its full title as a colony was Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensium Sextanorum, "the ancestral Julian colony of Arles
Arles
of the soldiers of the Sixth." Arelate was a city of considerable importance in the province of Gallia Narbonensis. It covered an area of some 40 hectares (99 acres) and possessed a number of monuments, including an amphitheatre, triumphal arch, Roman circus, theatre, and a full circuit of walls. Ancient Arles
Arles
was closer to the sea than it is now and served as a major port. It also had (and still has) the southernmost bridge on the Rhône. Very unusually, the Roman bridge was not fixed but consisted of a pontoon-style bridge of boats, with towers and drawbridges at each end. The boats were secured in place by anchors and were tethered to twin towers built just upstream of the bridge. This unusual design was a way of coping with the river's frequent violent floods, which would have made short work of a conventional bridge. Nothing remains of the Roman bridge, which has been replaced by a more modern bridge near the same spot. The city reached a peak of influence during the 4th and 5th centuries, when Roman Emperors frequently used it as their headquarters during military campaigns. In 395, it became the seat of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls, governing the western part of the Western Empire: Gaul
Gaul
proper plus Hispania
Hispania
(Spain) and Armorica
Armorica
(Brittany). At that time, the city was perhaps home to 75,000–100,000 people.[1][2][3][4] It became a favorite city of Emperor Constantine I, who built baths there, substantial remains of which are still standing. His son, Constantine II, was born in Arles. Usurper Constantine III declared himself emperor in the West (407–411) and made Arles
Arles
his capital in 408. Arles
Arles
became renowned as a cultural and religious centre during the late Roman Empire. It was the birthplace of the sceptical philosopher Favorinus. It was also a key location for Roman Christianity and an important base for the Christianization
Christianization
of Gaul. The city's bishopric was held by a series of outstanding clerics, beginning with Saint Trophimus around 225 and continuing with Saint Honoratus, then Saint Hilarius in the first half of the 5th century. The political tension between the Catholic bishops of Arles
Arles
and the Visigothic kings is epitomized in the career of the Frankish St. Caesarius, bishop of Arles
Arles
503–542, who was suspected by the Arian Visigoth Alaric II
Alaric II
of conspiring with the Burgundians
Burgundians
to turn over the Arelate to Burgundy, and was exiled for a year to Bordeaux
Bordeaux
in Aquitaine. Political tensions were evident again in 512, when Arles
Arles
held out against Theodoric the Great and Caesarius was imprisoned and sent to Ravenna
Ravenna
to explain his actions before the Ostrogothic king.[5] The friction between the Arian Christianity of the Visigoths
Visigoths
and the Catholicism of the bishops sent out from Rome
Rome
established deep roots for religious heterodoxy, even heresy, in Occitan
Occitan
culture. At Treves in 385, Priscillian achieved the distinction of becoming the first Christian executed for heresy ( Manichaean
Manichaean
in his case, see also Cathars, Camisards). Despite this tension and the city's decline in the face of barbarian invasions, Arles
Arles
remained a great religious centre and host of church councils (see Council of Arles), the rival of Vienne, for hundreds of years. Roman aqueduct and mill[edit]

Aqueduct of Arles
Arles
at Barbegal

The Barbegal aqueduct and mill
Barbegal aqueduct and mill
is a Roman watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, a few kilometres from Arles. The complex has been referred to as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world".[6] The remains of the mill streams and buildings which housed the overshot water wheels are still visible at the site, and it is by far the best-preserved of ancient mills. There are two aqueducts which join just north of the mill complex, and a sluice which enabled the operators to control the water supply to the complex. The mill consisted of 16 waterwheels in two separate rows built into a steep hillside. There are substantial masonry remains of the water channels and foundations of the individual mills, together with a staircase rising up the hill upon which the mills are built. The mills apparently operated from the end of the 1st century until about the end of the 3rd century.[7] The capacity of the mills has been estimated at 4.5 tons of flour per day, sufficient to supply enough bread for 6,000 of the 30-40,000 inhabitants of Arelate at that time.[8] A similar mill complex existed also on the Janiculum
Janiculum
in Rome. Examination of the mill leat still just visible on one side of the hill shows a substantial accretion of lime in the channel, tending to confirm its long working life. It is thought that the wheels were overshot water wheels with the outflow from the top driving the next one down and so on, to the base of the hill. Vertical water mills were well known to the Romans, being described by Vitruvius
Vitruvius
in his De Architectura
De Architectura
of 25 BC, and mentioned by Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
in his Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
of 77 AD. There are also later references to floating water mills from Byzantium
Byzantium
and to sawmills on the river Moselle
Moselle
by the poet Ausonius. The use of multiple stacked sequences of reverse overshot water-wheels was widespread in Roman mines. Middle Ages[edit]

Place de la République.

Cafe Terrace at Night
Cafe Terrace at Night
by Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
(September 1888), depicts the warmth of a café in Arles

In 735, after raiding the Lower Rhône, Andalusian Saracens led by Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri moved into the stronghold summoned by Count Maurontus, who feared Charles Martel's expansionist ambitions, though this may have been an excuse to further Moorish expansion beyond Iberia. The next year, Charles campaigned south to Septimania and Provence, attacking and capturing Arles
Arles
after destroying Avignon. In 739. Charles definitely drove Maurontus to exile, and brought Provence
Provence
to heel. In 855, it was made the capital of a Frankish Kingdom of Arles, which included Burgundy and part of Provence, but was frequently terrorised by Saracen
Saracen
and Viking
Viking
raiders. In 888, Rudolph, Count of Auxerre
Auxerre
(now in north-western Burgundy), founded the kingdom of Transjuran Burgundy (literally, beyond the Jura mountains), which included western Switzerland as far as the river Reuss, Valais, Geneva, Chablais and Bugey. In 933, Hugh of Arles ("Hugues de Provence") gave his kingdom up to Rudolph II, who merged the two kingdoms into a new Kingdom of Arles. In 1032, King Rudolph III died, and the kingdom was inherited by Emperor Conrad II the Salic. Though his successors counted themselves kings of Arles, few went to be crowned in the cathedral. Most of the kingdom's territory was progressively incorporated into France. During these troubled times, the amphitheatre was converted into a fortress, with watchtowers built at each of the four quadrants and a minuscule walled town being constructed within. The population was by now only a fraction of what it had been in Roman times, with much of old Arles lying in ruins. The town regained political and economic prominence in the 12th century, with the Holy Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Frederick Barbarossa
Frederick Barbarossa
traveling there in 1178 for his coronation. In the 12th century, it became a free city governed by an elected podestat (chief magistrate; literally "power"), who appointed the consuls and other magistrates. It retained this status until the French Revolution
French Revolution
of 1789. Arles
Arles
joined the countship of Provence
Provence
in 1239, but, once more, its prominence was eclipsed by Marseilles. In 1378, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV ceded the remnants of the Kingdom of Arles
Kingdom of Arles
to the Dauphin of France
France
(later King Charles VI of France) and the kingdom ceased to exist even on paper. Modern era[edit] Arles
Arles
remained economically important for many years as a major port on the Rhône. In the 19th century, the arrival of the railway diminished river trade, leading to the town becoming something of a backwater. This made it an attractive destination for the painter Vincent van Gogh, who arrived there on 21 February 1888. He was fascinated by the Provençal landscapes, producing over 300 paintings and drawings during his time in Arles. Many of his most famous paintings were completed there, including The Night Cafe, the Yellow Room, Starry Night Over the Rhone, and L'Arlésienne. Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
visited van Gogh in Arles. However, van Gogh's mental health deteriorated and he became alarmingly eccentric, culminating in the well-known ear-severing incident in December 1888 which resulted in two stays in the Old Hospital of Arles. The concerned Arlesians circulated a petition the following February demanding that van Gogh be confined. In May 1889, he took the hint and left Arles
Arles
for the Saint-Paul asylum at nearby Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. Jewish history[edit] Main article: History of the Jews in Arles Arles
Arles
had an important and prominent Jewish community between the Roman era and the end of the 15th century. A local legend describes the first Jews in Arles
Arles
as exiles from Judaea
Judaea
after Jerusalem
Jerusalem
fell to the Romans. Nevertheless, the first documented evidence of Jews in Arles
Arles
is not before the fifth century, when a distinguished community already existed in the town. Arles
Arles
was an important Jewish crossroads, as a port city and close to Spain
Spain
and the rest of Europe alike. It served a major role in the work of the Hachmei Provence
Provence
group of famous Jewish scholars, translators and philosophers, who were most important to Judaism throughout the Middle Ages. At the eighth century, jurisdiction over the Jews of Arles
Arles
were passed to the local Archbishop, making the Jewish taxes to the clergy somewhat of a shield for the community from mob attacks, most frequent during the Crusades. The community lived relatively peacefully until the last decade of the 15th century, when they were expelled out of the city never to return. Several Jews did live in the city in the centuries after, though no community was found ever after. Nowadays, Jewish archaeological findings and texts from Arles
Arles
can be found in the local museum.[9] Climate[edit] Arles
Arles
has a Mediterranean climate with a mean annual temperature of 14.6 °C (1948 - 1999). The summers are warm and moderately dry, with seasonal averages between 22 °C and 24 °C, and mild winters with a mean temperature of about 7 °C. The city is constantly, but especially in the winter months, subject to the influence of the mistral, a cold wind which can cause sudden and severe frosts. Rainfall (636 mm per year) is fairly evenly distributed from September to May, with the summer drought being less marked than in other Mediterranean areas.[10]

Climate data for Arles
Arles
(1981–2010 averages, extremes 1963–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 20.4 (68.7) 22.5 (72.5) 25.7 (78.3) 29.3 (84.7) 33.0 (91.4) 36.9 (98.4) 37.7 (99.9) 38.7 (101.7) 33.8 (92.8) 31.5 (88.7) 25.0 (77) 19.6 (67.3) 38.7 (101.7)

Average high °C (°F) 11.0 (51.8) 12.3 (54.1) 15.7 (60.3) 18.3 (64.9) 22.4 (72.3) 26.5 (79.7) 29.6 (85.3) 29.2 (84.6) 25.1 (77.2) 20.5 (68.9) 14.7 (58.5) 11.4 (52.5) 19.8 (67.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6.7 (44.1) 7.7 (45.9) 10.7 (51.3) 13.3 (55.9) 17.2 (63) 21.0 (69.8) 23.6 (74.5) 23.3 (73.9) 19.7 (67.5) 15.9 (60.6) 10.7 (51.3) 7.5 (45.5) 14.8 (58.6)

Average low °C (°F) 2.5 (36.5) 3.1 (37.6) 5.7 (42.3) 8.2 (46.8) 12.0 (53.6) 15.4 (59.7) 17.7 (63.9) 17.4 (63.3) 14.3 (57.7) 11.3 (52.3) 6.6 (43.9) 3.6 (38.5) 9.9 (49.8)

Record low °C (°F) −10.6 (12.9) −12.0 (10.4) −7.3 (18.9) −1.1 (30) 2.2 (36) 6.0 (42.8) 9.7 (49.5) 8.5 (47.3) 5.5 (41.9) 0.3 (32.5) −7.4 (18.7) −6.4 (20.5) −12.0 (10.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 57.6 (2.268) 40.7 (1.602) 35.1 (1.382) 54.4 (2.142) 45.2 (1.78) 27.1 (1.067) 9.4 (0.37) 25.6 (1.008) 81.7 (3.217) 86.0 (3.386) 65.4 (2.575) 52.0 (2.047) 580.2 (22.843)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.1 4.3 4.2 5.7 4.8 3.2 1.5 2.6 4.4 6.2 6.4 5.8 54.1

Source: Météo France[11]

Population[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1806 20,151 —    

1820 20,150 −0.0%

1831 20,236 +0.4%

1836 20,048 −0.9%

1841 20,460 +2.1%

1846 23,101 +12.9%

1851 23,208 +0.5%

1856 24,816 +6.9%

1861 25,543 +2.9%

1866 26,367 +3.2%

1872 24,695 −6.3%

1876 25,095 +1.6%

1881 23,480 −6.4%

1891 24,288 +3.4%

1896 24,567 +1.1%

1901 28,116 +14.4%

1906 31,010 +10.3%

1911 31,014 +0.0%

1921 29,146 −6.0%

1926 32,485 +11.5%

1946 35,017 +7.8%

1954 37,443 +6.9%

1962 41,932 +12.0%

1968 45,774 +9.2%

1975 50,059 +9.4%

1982 50,500 +0.9%

1990 52,058 +3.1%

1999 50,426 −3.1%

2008 52,729 +4.6%

2010 57,328 +8.7%

Main sights[edit]

Gallo-Roman theatre.

The Alyscamps.

Arles
Arles
has important Roman remnants, most of which have been listed as UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites since 1981 within the Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments group. They include:

The Gallo-Roman theatre The arena or amphitheatre The Alyscamps
Alyscamps
(Roman necropolis) The Thermae
Thermae
of Constantine The cryptoporticus Arles
Arles
Obelisk Barbegal aqueduct and mill

The Church of St. Trophime
Church of St. Trophime
(Saint Trophimus), formerly a cathedral, is a major work of Romanesque architecture, and the representation of the Last Judgment
Last Judgment
on its portal is considered one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture, as are the columns in the adjacent cloister. The town also has a museum of ancient history, the Musée de l'Arles et de la Provence
Provence
antiques, with one of the best collections of Roman sarcophagi to be found anywhere outside Rome
Rome
itself. Other museums include the Musée Réattu
Musée Réattu
and the Museon Arlaten. The courtyard of the Old Arles
Arles
hospital, now named "Espace Van Gogh," is a center for Vincent van Gogh's works, several of which are masterpieces.[12] The garden, framed on all four sides by buildings of the complex, is approached through arcades on the first floor. A circulation gallery is located on the first and second floors.[13] Archaeology[edit] Main article: Arles
Arles
portrait bust In September–October 2007, divers led by Luc Long from the French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research, headed by Michel L'Hour, discovered a life-sized marble bust of an apparently important Roman person in the Rhône
Rhône
near Arles, together with smaller statues of Marsyas
Marsyas
in Hellenistic style and of the god Neptune from the third century AD. The larger bust was tentatively dated to 46 BC. Since the bust displayed several characteristics of an ageing person with wrinkles, deep naso-labial creases and hollows in his face, and since the archaeologists believed that Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
had founded the colony Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelate Sextanorum in 46 BC, the scientists came to the preliminary conclusion that the bust depicted a life-portrait of the Roman dictator: France's Minister of Culture Christine Albanel reported on May 13, 2008, that the bust would be the oldest representation of Caesar known today.[14] The story was picked up by all larger media outlets.[15][16] The realism of the portrait was said to place it in the tradition of late Republican portrait and genre sculptures. The archaeologists further claimed that a bust of Julius Caesar might have been thrown away or discreetly disposed of, because Caesar's portraits could have been viewed as politically dangerous possessions after the dictator's assassination. Historians and archaeologists not affiliated with the French administration, among them Paul Zanker, the renowned archaeologist and expert on Caesar and Augustus, were quick to question whether the bust is a portrait of Caesar.[17][18][19] Many noted the lack of resemblances to Caesar's likenesses issued on coins during the last years of the dictator's life, and to the Tusculum
Tusculum
bust of Caesar,[20] which depicts Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in his lifetime, either as a so-called zeitgesicht or as a direct portrait. After a further stylistic assessment, Zanker dated the Arles-bust to the Augustan period. Elkins argued for the third century AD as the terminus post quem for the deposition of the statues, refuting the claim that the bust was thrown away due to feared repercussions from Caesar's assassination in 44 BC.[21] The main argument by the French archaeologists that Caesar had founded the colony in 46 BC proved to be incorrect, as the colony was founded by Caesar's former quaestor Tiberius Claudius Nero on the dictator's orders in his absence.[22] Mary Beard has accused the persons involved in the find of having willfully invented their claims for publicity reasons. The French ministry of culture has not yet responded to the criticism and negative reviews. Sport[edit] AC Arles-Avignon
AC Arles-Avignon
is a professional French football team. They currently play in Championnat de France
France
Amateur, the fourth division in French football. They play at the Parc des Sports, which has a capacity of just over 17,000. Culture[edit] A well known photography festival, Rencontres d'Arles, takes place in Arles
Arles
every year, and the French national school of photography is located there. The major French publishing house Actes Sud is also situated in Arles. Bull fights are conducted in the amphitheatre, including Provençal-style bullfights (courses camarguaises) in which the bull is not killed, but rather a team of athletic men attempt to remove a tassle from the bull's horn without getting injured. Every Easter and on the first weekend of September, during the feria, Arles
Arles
also holds Spanish-style corridas (in which the bulls are killed) with an encierro (bull-running in the streets) preceding each fight. The film Ronin was partially filmed in Arles. European Capital of Culture[edit] Arles
Arles
played a major role in Marseille- Provence
Provence
2013, the year-long series of cultural events held in the region after it was designated the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
for 2013. The city hosted a segment of the opening ceremony with a pyrotechnical performance by Groupe F on the banks of the Rhône. It also unveiled the new wing of the Musée Départemental Arles
Arles
Antique as part of Marseille- Provence
Provence
2013. Economy[edit] Arles's open-air street market is a major market in the region. It occurs on Saturday and Wednesday mornings. Transport[edit] The Gare d'Arles
Gare d'Arles
railway station offers connections to Avignon, Nîmes, Marseille, Paris, Bordeaux
Bordeaux
and several regional destinations. Notable people[edit]

Vincent van Gogh, lived here from February 1888 until May 1889. The Provençal poet Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
(1830–1914) was born near Arles Jeanne Calment
Jeanne Calment
(1875–1997), the oldest human being whose age is documented, was born, lived and died, at the age of 122 years and 164 days, in Arles Anne-Marie David, singer (Eurovision winner in 1973) Christian Lacroix, fashion designer Lucien Clergue, photographer Djibril Cissé, footballer Antoine de Seguiran, 18th-century encyclopédiste Genesius of Arles, a notary martyred under Maximianus in 303 or 308 Blessed Jean Marie du Lau, last Archbishop of Arles, killed by the revolutionary mob in Paris
Paris
on September 2, 1792 Juan Bautista (real name Jean-Baptiste Jalabert), matador Maja Hoffmann, art patron Mehdi Savalli, matador The medieval writer Antoine de la Sale
Antoine de la Sale
was probably born in Arles around 1386 Home of the Gipsy Kings, a music group from Arles Gaël Givet, footballer Lloyd Palun, footballer Fanny Valette, actress Luc Hoffmann, ornithologist, conservationist and philanthropist. Saint Caesarius of Arles, bishop who lived from the late 5th to the mid 6th century, known for prophecy and writings that would later be used by theologians such as St. Thomas Aquinas Samuel ibn Tibbon, famous Jewish translator and scholar during the Middle Ages. Kalonymus ben Kalonymus, famous Jewish scholar and philosopher, Arles born, active during the Middle Ages. Jenny Berthelius (born 1923), Swedish crime novelist and children's writer, lives in Arles[23]

Twin towns — sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Arles
Arles
is twinned with:

Pskov,  Russia Jerez de la Frontera
Jerez de la Frontera
and Cubelles,  Spain Fulda,  Germany York, Pennsylvania,  United States Vercelli,  Italy Sagné,  Mauritania Kalymnos,  Greece Wisbech,  United Kingdom Zhouzhuang, Kunshan, Jiangsu,  People's Republic of China Verviers,  Belgium

See also[edit]

Archbishopric of Arles Montmajour Abbey Trinquetaille Langlois Bridge Saint-Martin-de-Crau Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône
Bouches-du-Rhône
department

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Archdiocese of Aix". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.  INSEE

^ https://www.academia.edu/1166147/_The_Fall_and_Decline_of_the_Roman_Urban_Mind_ ^ Rick Steves' Provence
Provence
& the French Riviera, p. 78, at Google Books ^ Nelson's Dictionary of Christianity: The Authoritative Resource on the Christian World, p. 1173, at Google Books ^ Provence, p. 81, at Google Books ^ Wace, Dictionary) ^ Greene, Kevin (2000). "Technological Innovation and Economic Progress in the Ancient World: M.I. Finley Re-Considered". The Economic History Review. New Series. 53 (1): 29–59 [p. 39]. doi:10.1111/1468-0289.00151.  ^ "Ville d'Histoire et de Patrimoine". Patrimoine.ville-arles.fr. Archived from the original on 2013-12-06. Retrieved 2013-03-25.  ^ "La meunerie de Barbegal". Etab.ac-caen.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-25.  ^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1784-arles ^ The table contains the temperatures and precipitation of the city of Arles
Arles
for the period 1948-1999, extracted from the site Sophy.u-3mrs.fr. ^ " Arles
Arles
(13)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.  ^ Fisher, R, ed (2011). Fodor's France
France
2011. Toronto and New York: Fodor's Travel, division of Random House. p. 563 ISBN 978-1-4000-0473-7. ^ "Espace Van Gogh". Visiter, Places of Interest. Arles
Arles
Office de Tourisme. Retrieved 2011-04-29. ^ Original communiqué (May 13, 2008); second communiqué (May 20, 2008); report (May 20, 2008) ^ E.g."Divers find marble bust of Caesar that may date to 46 B.C." Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2008-05-14.  , CNN-Online et al. ^ Video (QuickTime) Archived May 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. on the archaeological find ( France
France
3) ^ Paul Zanker, "Der Echte war energischer, distanzierter, ironischer" Archived May 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Sueddeutsche Zeitung, May 25, 2008, on-line ^ Mary Beard, "The face of Julius Caesar? Come off it!", TLS, May 14, 2008, on-line Archived March 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Nathan T. Elkins, 'Oldest Bust' of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
found in France?, May 14, 2008, on-line ^ Cp. this image at the AERIA library ^ A different approach was presented by Mary Beard, in that members of a military Caesarian colony would not have discarded portraits of Caesar, whom they worshipped as god, although statues were in fact destroyed by the Anti-Caesarians in the city of Rome
Rome
after Caesar's assassination (Appian, BC III.1.9). ^ Konrat Ziegler & Walther Sontheimer (eds.), "Arelate", in Der Kleine Pauly: Lexikon der Antike, Vol. 1, col. 525, Munich 1979; in 46 BC, Caesar himself was campaigning in Africa, before later returning to Rome. ^ "Berthelius, Jenny - Nordic Women's Literature". nordicwomensliterature.net. Retrieved 30 November 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arles.

Arles
Arles
travel guide from Wikivoyage Tourist office website Arles
Arles
City Guide (in English) Arles
Arles
heritage website (in French) Town council website (in French) The Complete Works of Van Gogh, Arles Photogallery of Arles Information and photos from ProvenceBeyond website Old Postcards of Arles

v t e

Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône
Bouches-du-Rhône
department

Aix-en-Provence Allauch Alleins Arles Aubagne Aureille Auriol Aurons La Barben Barbentane Les Baux-de-Provence Beaurecueil Belcodène Berre-l'Étang Bouc-Bel-Air La Bouilladisse Boulbon Cabannes Cabriès Cadolive Carnoux-en-Provence Carry-le-Rouet Cassis Ceyreste Charleval Châteauneuf-le-Rouge Châteauneuf-les-Martigues Châteaurenard La Ciotat Cornillon-Confoux Coudoux Cuges-les-Pins La Destrousse Éguilles Ensuès-la-Redonne Eygalières Eyguières Eyragues La Fare-les-Oliviers Fontvieille Fos-sur-Mer Fuveau Gardanne Gémenos Gignac-la-Nerthe Grans Graveson Gréasque Istres Jouques Lamanon Lambesc Lançon-Provence Maillane Mallemort Marignane Marseille Martigues Mas-Blanc-des-Alpilles Maussane-les-Alpilles Meyrargues Meyreuil Mimet Miramas Mollégès Mouriès Noves Orgon Paradou Pélissanne Les Pennes-Mirabeau La Penne-sur-Huveaune Peynier Peypin Peyrolles-en-Provence Plan-de-Cuques Plan-d'Orgon Port-de-Bouc Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône Puyloubier Le Puy-Sainte-Réparade Rognac Rognes Rognonas La Roque-d'Anthéron Roquefort-la-Bédoule Roquevaire Rousset Le Rove Saint-Andiol Saint-Antonin-sur-Bayon Saint-Cannat Saint-Chamas Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer Saint-Estève-Janson Saint-Étienne-du-Grès Saint-Marc-Jaumegarde Saint-Martin-de-Crau Saint-Mitre-les-Remparts Saint-Paul-lès-Durance Saint-Pierre-de-Mézoargues Saint-Rémy-de-Provence Saint-Savournin Saint-Victoret Salon-de-Provence Sausset-les-Pins Sénas Septèmes-les-Vallons Simiane-Collongue Tarascon Le Tholonet Trets Vauvenargues Velaux Venelles Ventabren Vernègues Verquières Vitrolles

v t e

World Heritage Sites in France

Île-de-France

Palace and Park of Versailles Fontainebleau Palace and Park Paris: Banks of the Seine Provins

Parisian basin

Amiens Cathedral Belfries of Belgium
Belgium
and France1 Bourges Cathedral Champagne hillsides, houses and cellars Chartres Cathedral Climats and terroirs of Burgundy Reims: Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Abbey of Saint-Remi, Palace of Tau Abbey of Fontenay Le Havre Vézelay Church and hill

Nord-Pas-de-Calais

Belfries of Belgium
Belgium
and France1 Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin

East

Great Saltworks of Salins-les-Bains
Salins-les-Bains
and Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans Nancy: Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d'Alliance Strasbourg: Grande Île, Neustadt Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3

West

Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
and its bay

South West

Episcopal city, Albi Port of the Moon, Bordeaux Prehistoric sites and decorated caves of the Vézère valley Pyrénées – Mont Perdu2 Saint-Émilion

Centre East

Chauvet Cave Lyon

Mediterranean

Roman and Romanesque monuments, Arles Carcassonne citadel Gulf of Porto: Calanches de Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble, Avignon
Avignon
Bridge Pont du Gard Orange: Roman Theatre and environs, Triumphal Arch

Multiple regions

The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier Canal du Midi Fortifications of Vauban Loire Valley
Loire Valley
between Sully-sur-Loire
Sully-sur-Loire
and Chalonnes-sur-Loire Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France

Overseas departments and territories

Lagoons of New Caledonia Pitons, cirques and remparts of Réunion Taputapuātea

1Shared locally with other region/s and with Belgium 2Shared with Spain 3Shared with Austria, Germany, Italy, Sloven

.