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Arini Androglossini

The neotropical parrots or New World
New World
parrots comprise about 150 species in 32 genera found throughout South and Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean islands, and two species (one extinct) formerly inhabited North America. They are also present on a few Pacific islands such as the Galápagos.[1] Among them are some of the most familiar and iconic parrots, including the blue and gold macaw, sun conure, and yellow-headed amazon. The parrots of the New World
New World
have been known to Europeans since Columbus remarked upon them in his journal in 1492. Systematic descriptions of the birds were first available in German naturalist Georg Marcgraf's Historia Naturalis Brasiliae
Historia Naturalis Brasiliae
published in 1648, and English naturalist Mark Catesby's two-volume Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands published in London
London
in 1731 and 1743. Several species and one genus have become extinct in recent centuries. A second genus is extinct in the wild. Over a third of the extant species are classified as threatened by the IUCN. A few of these are in imminent danger of extinction with fewer than 500 individuals in the wild or in captivity: glaucous macaw, Spix's macaw, blue-throated macaw, Puerto Rican parrot, and indigo-winged parrot. The chief reasons for decline in parrot populations are habitat loss through deforestation by clear-cutting, burning, and flooding by construction of dams, capture for the pet trade, and introduction of non-native predators. The New World
New World
parrots are monophyletic, and have been geographically isolated for at least 30–55 million years by molecular dating methods. Though fairly few fossils of modern parrots are known, most of these are from tribe Arini of macaws and parakeets; the oldest are from 16 million years ago. They attest that modern genera were mostly distinct by the Pleistocene, a few million years ago. Neotropical parrots comprise at least two monophyletic clades, one of primarily long-tailed species such as the macaws, conures, and allies, and the other of primarily short-tailed parrots such as amazons and allies.[2] A new species, the bald parrot or orange-headed parrot, was discovered as recently as 2002. Taxonomy[edit] Neotropical parrots belong to the subfamily Arinae[3] which along with the African or Old World parrots comprise the family Psittacidae, one of three families of true parrots. The taxonomy of the neotropical parrots is not yet fully resolved, but the following subdivision is supported by solid studies.[4][5][6][7][8][9]

Tribe Arini

Cyanoliseus – burrowing parrot Enicognathus
Enicognathus
(two species) Rhynchopsitta – thick-billed parrots (two species) Pyrrhura
Pyrrhura
(around two dozen species, one possibly recently extinct) Anodorhynchus
Anodorhynchus
– blue macaws (two living species, one probably recently extinct) Leptosittaca – golden-plumed parakeet Ognorhynchus – yellow-eared parrot Diopsittaca – red-shouldered macaw Guaruba – golden parakeet Conuropsis – Carolina parakeet
Carolina parakeet
(extinct) Cyanopsitta – Spix's macaw
Spix's macaw
(critically endangered) Orthopsittaca – red-bellied macaw Ara – true macaws (eight living species, and at least one recently extinct) Primolius
Primolius
– some of the smaller macaws (three species, previously called Propyrrhura) Aratinga
Aratinga
– small long-tailed parakeets (nearly 25 living species, at least one recently extinct) Nandayus – also called black-hooded parakeet or nanday parakeet

Tribe Androglossini

Pionopsitta – pileated parrot Triclaria – blue-bellied parrot Pyrilia
Pyrilia
(7 species; all previously included in Pionopsitta). Pionus
Pionus
(8 species) Graydidascalus – short-tailed parrot Alipiopsitta – yellow-faced parrot (previously in Amazona, Salvatoria) Amazona – amazon parrots (about 30 living species – one subspecies recently extinct)

Schodde, et al.[10] recognize a division of the remaining genera into several distinct clades, indicating possible previously undefined tribes:

clade – proposed tribe Forpini

Forpus
Forpus
(seven species)

clade – proposed tribe Amoropsittacini

Nannopsittaca
Nannopsittaca
(two species) Psilopsiagon
Psilopsiagon
(two species, formerly in Bolborhynchus) Bolborhynchus
Bolborhynchus
(two species) Touit
Touit
(eight species)

clade including Arini

Pionites – caiques (four species) Deroptyus – red-fan parrot

clade including Androglossini

Hapalopsittaca
Hapalopsittaca
(four species) Brotogeris
Brotogeris
(eight species) Myiopsitta
Myiopsitta
(one or two species)

See also[edit]

Conure List of parrots List of macaws List of amazon parrots List of Aratinga
Aratinga
parakeets

References[edit]

^ Forshaw,, J. (1989). Parrots of the world, third ed. Melbourne, Australia: Landsdowne Editions,.  ^ *Miyaki, C. Y.; Matioli, S. R.; Burke, T.; Wajntal, A. (1998). " Parrot
Parrot
evolution and paleogeographical events: Mitochondrial DNA evidence" (PDF). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 15 (5): 544–551. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025954.  ^ http://jboyd.net/Taxo/List12.html#psittaciformes ^ Joseph, Leo; Toon, Alicia; Schirtzinger, Erin E.; Wright, Timothy F.; Schodde, Richard (2012). "A revised nomenclature and classification for family-group taxa of parrots (Psittaciformes)". Zootaxa. 3205: 26–40.  ^ Manuel Schweizer; Ole Seehausen & Stefan T. Hertwig (2011). "Macroevolutionary patterns in the diversification of parrots: effects of climate change, geological events and key innovations". Journal of Biogeography. 38: 2176–2194. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02555.x.  ^ Leo Joseph; Alicia Toon; Erin E. Schirtzinger; Timothy F. Wright (2011). "Molecular systematics of two enigmatic genera Psittacella and Pezoporus illuminate the ecological radiation of Australo-Papuan parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 59 (3): 675–684. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.03.017. PMID 21453777.  ^ Wright, T.F.; Schirtzinger, E. E.; Matsumoto, T.; Eberhard, J. R.; Graves, G. R.; Sanchez, J. J.; Capelli, S.; Muller, H.; Scharpegge, J.; Chambers, G. K.; Fleischer, R. C. (2008). "A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous". Mol Biol Evol. 25 (10): 2141–2156. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160. PMC 2727385 . PMID 18653733.  ^ Schweizer, M.; Seehausen, O.; Güntert, M.; Hertwig, S. T. (2009). "The evolutionary diversification of parrots supports a taxon pulse model with multiple trans-oceanic dispersal events and local radiations". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 54 (3): 984–94. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.021. PMID 19699808.  ^ de Kloet, RS; de Kloet SR (2005). "The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36 (3): 706–721. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.03.013. PMID 16099384.  ^ Schodde, et.al, Richard (2013). "Correspondence: Higher classification of New World
New World
parrots (Psittaciformes; Arinae), with diagnoses of tribes" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3691 (5): 591–596. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3691.5.5. 

Ribas, C.; Gaban-Lima, R.; Miyaki, C.; Cracraft, J. (2005). "Historical biogeography and diversification within the Neotropical parrot genus Pionopsitta (Aves: Psittacidae)". Journal of Biogeography. 32: 1409–1427. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2005.01289.x.  Split Gypopsitta from Pionopsitta South American Classification Committee.

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Amazon parrots (genus: Amazona)

Species

Cuban amazon
Cuban amazon
(or rose-throated amazon) Yellow-billed amazon (or Jamaican amazon) Hispaniolan amazon Puerto Rican amazon Yucatan amazon (or yellow-lored amazon) White-fronted amazon Black-billed amazon Tucuman amazon Red-spectacled amazon Red-crowned amazon Lilac-crowned amazon Red-lored amazon
Red-lored amazon
(supporting page: lilacine amazon) Blue-cheeked amazon Red-browed amazon Red-tailed amazon Festive amazon Yellow-shouldered amazon Turquoise-fronted amazon (or blue-fronted amazon) Yellow-crowned amazon (supporting page: Panama amazon) Yellow-naped amazon Yellow-headed amazon Kawall's amazon Orange-winged amazon Scaly-naped amazon Northern mealy amazon Southern mealy amazon Vinaceous-breasted amazon (or vinaceous amazon) St. Lucia amazon Red-necked amazon St. Vincent amazon Imperial amazon

Hypothetical extinct species

Guadeloupe amazon Martinique amazon

Neotropical parrots (tribe: Arini) List of amazon parrots

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Macaws

Genus

Species
Species
(extinctions: † indicates a species confirmed to be extinct, ₴ indicates evidence only from sub-fossils)

Anodorhynchus

Glaucous macaw Hyacinth macaw Lear's macaw

Cyanopsitta

Spix's macaw

Ara

Blue-and-yellow macaw
Blue-and-yellow macaw
(or blue-and-gold macaw) Blue-throated macaw Military macaw Great green macaw
Great green macaw
(or Buffon's macaw) Scarlet macaw Red-and-green macaw
Red-and-green macaw
(or green-winged macaw) Red-fronted macaw Chestnut-fronted macaw
Chestnut-fronted macaw
(or severe macaw) Cuban macaw
Cuban macaw
Saint Croix macaw
Saint Croix macaw
† ₴ Lesser Antillean macaw
Lesser Antillean macaw
† ₴

Orthopsittaca

Red-bellied macaw

Primolius

Blue-headed macaw Blue-winged macaw
Blue-winged macaw
(or Illiger's macaw) Golden-collared macaw
Golden-collared macaw
(or yellow-collared macaw)

Diopsittaca

Red-shouldered macaw
Red-shouldered macaw
(Hahn's macaw or noble macaw)

Hypothetical extinct macaws

Martinique macaw Red-headed macaw Jamaican red macaw Dominican green-and-yellow macaw

Neotropical parrots (tribe: Arini) List of macaws Mini-macaws

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