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ARIDOAMERICA denotes an ecological region spanning northwestern Mexico and the Southwest United States , defined by the presence of the culturally significant staple foodstuff Phaseolus acutifolius . Its dry, arid climate and geography stand in contrast to the verdant Mesoamerica of present-day central Mexico into Central America to the south and east, and the higher, milder "island" of Oasisamerica to the north. Aridoamerica overlaps with both.

Because of the relatively hard conditions, the pre-Columbian people in this region developed distinct cultures and subsistence farming patterns. The region has only 120 mm (4.7 in) to 160 mm (6.3 in) of annual precipitation. The sparse rainfall feeds seasonal creeks and waterholes.

The term was introduced by Gary Paul Nabhan in 1985, building on prior work by anthropologists A.L. Kroeber and Paul Kirchhoff to identify a "true cultural entity" for the desert region.

CONTENTS

* 1 Subsistence * 2 Geography * 3 Aridoamerica cultures * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References

SUBSISTENCE

The Chichimeca , an umbrella term for several tribes used by the Nahua people , were hunter-gatherers in Aridoamerica grasslands. They gathered magueys , yucca flowers , mesquite beans, chia seeds , and cacti , including the paddles of fruits of nopal cactus. The century plant ( Agave americana ) is a particularly important resource in the region.

Despite dry conditions, Aridoamerica boasts the greatest diversity of wild and domesticated tepary beans ( Phaseolus acutifolius ) and is a possible site of their domestication. Maize cultivation reached Aridoamerica by about 2100 BCE. Archaeologists disagree whether the plant was introduced by Uto-Aztecan migrants from Mesoamerica or spread either northward or southward from other groups by cultural borrowing.

In Baja California , fishing and hunting provided food, as did harvesting acorns, nopal, pine nuts , and other native plants.

Historically, people of Aridoamerica coppiced willows, that is, tree trunks were cut to a stump to encourage the growth of slender shoots. These willow shoots were woven tightly to produce waterproof, cooking baskets. Fire-heated rocks were plunged into a gruel in the baskets to cook.

GEOGRAPHY

The current Mexican states that lie in Aridoamerica are:

* Aguascalientes * Baja California * Baja California Sur * Coahuila * Chihuahua * Durango * Nuevo León * San Luis Potosí * Sonora * Tamaulipas * Zacatecas

The northern parts of:

* Hidalgo * Guanajuato * Querétaro * Jalisco * Sinaloa

ARIDOAMERICA CULTURES

Distribution of tribes called Chichimeca , ca. 1550

* Acaxee * Caxcane * Cochimí , Baja California * Cocopá (Cocopah ), Baja California * Guachichil * Guachimontone * Guamare * Guaycura , Baja California * Huarijio * Huichol * Kiliwa , Baja California * Kumiai (Kumeyaay ), Baja California * Mayo * Mogollon culture , ca. 200–1500 CE, also Oasisamerica * Monqui * Opata * Otomi * Pai Pai , Baja California * Pame * Pericúe ( Pericú ), Baja California * Pima Bajo * Seri * Tarahumara * Tecuexe * Tepecano * Tepehuán * Teuchitlan tradition * Western Mexico shaft tomb tradition * Yaqui * Zacateco

SEE ALSO

* Oasisamerica * Mesoamerica * Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas * Great Mural Rock Art, Baja California

NOTES

* ^ A B C Pratt and Nabhan 419 * ^ Cordell and Fowler 85 * ^ A B Bye and Linares 273 * ^ Nabhan, G.B. (October 1985). "Native crop diversity in Aridoamerica: Conservation of regional gene pools". Economic Botany. Retrieved 3 July 2017. * ^ Bye and Linares 256 * ^ A B Herr, Sara A. "The Latest Research on the Earliest Farmers." Archaeology Southwest Vol. 23, No. 1, Winter 2009, p.1 * ^ A B C D E F G H Schmal, John P. "Indigenous Baja". History of Mexico. Houston Institute for Culture. Retrieved 16 November 2015. * ^ A B C D E F G H I "Mexico: Map". Ethnologue. Retrieved 16 November 2015.

REFERENCES

* Robery A. Bye ; Edelmira Linares (2007). "9". In Carrasco, David. Cave, City, and Eagle\'s Nest: An Interpretive Journey through the Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No. 2. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico. pp. 255–280. ISBN 978-0-8263-4283-6 . Retrieved 16 November 2015. * Cordell, Linda S. and Don D. Fowler, eds. Southwest Archaeology in the Twentieth Century. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-87480-825-4 . * Richard C. Pratt ; Gary Paul Nabhan (1988). Gepts, Paul, ed. Genetic Resources of Phaseolus Beans: Their maintenance, domestication, evolution and utilization. Springer. p. 419. ISBN 978-94-009-2786-5 . Retrieved 16 November 2015.

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Pre-Columbian North America

Periods Lithic Archaic Formative Classic Post-Classic

Archaeological cultures

* Adena * Alachua * Ancient Pueblo (Anasazi) * Baytown * Belle Glade * Buttermilk Creek Complex * Caborn-Welborn * Calf Creek * Caloosahatchee * Clovis * Coles Creek * Comondú * Deptford * Folsom * Fort Ancient * Fort Walton * Fremont * Glacial Kame * Glades * Hohokam

* Hopewell

* List of Hopewell sites

* La Jolla * Las Palmas * Leon-Jefferson

* Mississippian

* List of Mississippian sites

* Mogollon * Monongahela * Old Cordilleran * Oneota * Paleo- Arctic * Paleo-Indians * Patayan * Plano * Plaquemine * Poverty Point * Red Ocher * Santa Rosa-Swift Creek * St. Johns * Steed-Kisker * Tchefuncte * Tocobaga * Troyville

Archaeological sites

* Angel Mounds * Anzick Clovis burial * Bandelier National Monument * The Bluff Point Stoneworks * Cahokia * Candelaria Cave * Casa Grande * Chaco Canyon * Coso Rock Art District * Crystal River Archaeological State Park * Cuarenta Casas * Cueva de la Olla * Eaker * El Fin del Mundo * El Vallecito * Effigy Mounds National Monument * Etowah Indian Mounds * Eva * Folsom Site * Fort Ancient * Fort Center * Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument * Glenwood * Grimes Point * Holly Bluff Site * Hopewell Culture National Historical Park * Huápoca * Kimball Village * Kincaid Mounds * Kolomoki Mounds * L\'Anse aux Meadows * Marksville * Marmes Rockshelter * Meadowcroft Rockshelter * Mesa Verde * Moaning Cavern * Moorehead Circle * Moundville * Mummy Cave * Nodena Site * Ocmulgee National Monument * Old Stone Fort * Paquime * Parkin Park * Pinson Mounds * Portsmouth Earthworks * Poverty Point * Pueblo Bonito * Recapture Canyon * Rock Eagle * Rock Hawk * Russell Cave National Monument * Salmon Ruins * Serpent Mound * Sierra de San Francisco * Spiro Mounds * SunWatch * Taos Pueblo * Toltec Mounds * Town Creek Indian Mound * Turkey River Mounds * Upward Sun River site * West Oak Forest Earthlodge * Winterville * Wupatki National Monument

Human remains

* Anzick-1 * Arlington Springs Man * Buhl Woman * Kennewick Man * La Brea Woman * Leanderthal Lady * Minnesota Woman * Spirit Cave mummy

MISCELLANEOUS

* Aridoamerica * Black drink * Ceremonial pipe * Chunkey * Clovis point * Container Revolution * Eastern Agricultural Complex * Eden point * Effigy mound * Falcon dancer * Folsom point * Green Corn Ceremony * Horned Serpent * Kiva * Medicine wheel * Metallurgy * Mi\'kmaq hieroglyphic writing * Mound Builders * N.A.G.P.R.A. * Norse colonization of North America * Oasisamerica * Piasa * Southeastern Ceremonial Complex * Stickball * Three Sisters agriculture * Thunderbird * Underwater panther * Water glyphs

Related Genetic history Portal of Indigenous peoples of North America Pre-Columbian era

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Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East

* Maghreb

* Barbary Coast * Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains ( Middle Atlas ) * Sahara * Western Sahara * Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt * Middle Egypt * Lower Egypt * Cataracts of the Nile * Bashmur

* Nubia

* Lower Nubia

* Nile Valley * Nile Delta * Darfur * Gulf of Aqaba * Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia * Swahili coast * East African Rift * Great Rift Valley * Afar Triangle * Danakil Desert * Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift Valley * Gregory Rift Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands * Gulf of Aden * Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region) * Sudanian Savanna * East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe

* Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland * Pool Malebo * Congo Basin * Chad Basin * Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands * Ennedi Plateau * Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast * Gold Coast * Slave Coast * Ivory Coast * Cape Palmas * Cape Mesurado * Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna * Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa * Sudan (region) * Niger Delta * Inner Niger Delta * Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar) * Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland * Succulent Karoo * Nama Karoo * Bushveld * Highveld * Fynbos * Cape Floristic Region * Kalahari Desert * Okavango Delta * False Bay * Hydra Bay * Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa * Francophone Africa * Lusophone Africa * Arabophone Africa * Sub-Saharan Africa * Tropical Africa * Islands

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Regions of North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada * Western Canada * Canadian Prairies * Northern Canada * Atlantic Canada * French Canada * English Canada

* Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor * Peace River Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield * Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island) * Vancouver island * Gulf Islands * Strait of Georgia * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Labrador Peninsula * Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula * Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) * Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay * Hudson Bay * James Bay * Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula * Mountain States * Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest * Rocky Mountains * West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains * Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South * Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt * Black Belt * Corn Belt * Cotton Belt * Frost Belt * Rice Belt * Rust Belt * Sun Belt * Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico * Baja California Peninsula

* Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico * Soconusco * Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca * La Huasteca * Bajío * Valley of Mexico * Mezquital Valley * Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula * Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies

* Antilles

* Greater Antilles

* Lesser Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles * Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago * Southern Caribbean

* Aridoamerica * Mesoamerica * Oasisamerica * Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

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Regions of South America

NORTH

* Caribbean South America * West Indies * Los Llanos * The Guianas * Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula * Paraguaná Peninsula * Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego * Patagonia * Pampas * Pantanal * Gran Chaco * Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes * Altiplano * Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin * Caatinga * Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

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Regions of Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea * Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana

* Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana * Khwarezm * Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields

* Yedisan * Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains

* Volga region * Idel-Ural * Kolyma * Transbaikal * Pryazovia * Bjarmaland * Kuban * Zalesye * Ingria * Novorossiya * Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau * Altai Mountains * Pamir Mountains * Tian Shan * Badakhshan * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia * Northeast

* Far East

* Russian Far East * Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North

* Siberia

* Baikalia ( Lake Baikal ) * Transbaikal * Khatanga Gulf * Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula * Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf * Yenisei Basin * Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc * Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula * Gobi Desert * Taklamakan Desert * Greater Khingan * Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia * Inner Mongolia * Outer Mongolia * China proper

* Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria * Inner Manchuria * Northeast China Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet

* Tarim Basin * Northern Silk Road * Hexi Corridor * Nanzhong * Lingnan * Liangguang * Jiangnan * Jianghuai * Guanzhong * Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan

* Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau * Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula * Gulf of Tonkin * Yangtze River Delta * Pearl River Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East

* Red Sea * Caspian Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz * Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Aden * Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula

* Najd * Hejaz * Tihamah * Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia

* Hadhramaut * Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia * Lower Mesopotamia * Sawad * Nineveh plains * Akkad (region)

* Canaan * Aram * Eber-Nari * Eastern Mediterranean * Mashriq

* Levant

* Southern Levant * Transjordan * Jordan Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights * Hula Valley * Gaza Strip * West Bank * Galilee * Gilead * Judea * Samaria * Arabah * Anti-Lebanon Mountains * Sinai Peninsula * Arabian Desert * Syrian Desert * Fertile Crescent * Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian plateau * Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus

* Caucasus mountains

* Greater Caucasus * Lesser Caucasus

* North Caucasus

* South Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland * Alborz * Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia * Cilicia * Cappadocia * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India * Indian subcontinent * Himalayas * Hindu Kush * Western Ghats * Eastern Ghats * Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta * Pashtunistan * Punjab * Balochistan * Thar Desert * Indus Valley * Indus River Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain * Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab * Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau * Coromandel Coast * Konkan * False Divi Point * Hindi Belt * Lakshadweep * Bay of Bengal * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar * Trans-Karakoram Tract * Wakhan Corridor * Wakhjir Pass * Andaman and Nicobar Islands * Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina * Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon * Visayas * Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand * East Indies * Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific * Tropical Asia * Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia * Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia * Baltoscandia * Sápmi * West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia * Iceland * Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor * Nemunas Delta * Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans * Aegean Islands * Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus * Greater Caucasus * Kabardia

* European Russia

* Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states * Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux * Low Countries * Northwest * British Isles * English Channel * Channel Islands * Cotentin Peninsula * Normandy * Brittany * Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Pyrenees * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula * Insular Italy * Tuscan Archipelago * Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea * Donbass * Sloboda Ukraine * Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * Uralic * European Plain * Eurasian Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe * Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain * Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia * Karelia * East Karelia

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Regions of Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand

* South Island

* North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia * New Caledonia * Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia * Capital Country * Eastern Australia * Lake Eyre basin * Murray–Darling basin * Northern Australia * Nullarbor Plain * Outback

* Southern Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia * Great Victoria Desert * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula * Fleurieu Peninsula * Yorke Peninsula * Eyre Peninsula * Mornington Peninsula * Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago * Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji * New Caledonia * Papua New Guinea * Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia * Palau

* Guam * Kiribati * Marshall Islands * Nauru * Northern Mariana Islands * Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island * Hawaiian Islands * Cook Islands

* French Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands * Society Islands * Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands * Mangareva Islands * Samoa * Tokelau * Tonga * Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

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Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic Peninsula * East Antarctica * West Antarctica * Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic Alaska * British Arctic Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago * Finnmark * Greenland * Northern Canada * Northwest Territories * Nunavik * Nunavut * Russian Arctic * Sakha * Sápmi * Yukon * North American Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth 's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf * Barents Sea * Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea * East Siberian Sea * Greenland Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea * Prince Gustav Adolf Sea * Pechora Sea * Queen Victoria Sea * Wandel Sea * White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea * Aegean Sea * Alboran Sea * Archipelago Sea * Argentine Sea * Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea * Baltic Sea * Bay of Biscay * Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy * Black Sea * Bothnian Sea * Caribbean Sea * Celtic Sea * English Channel * Foxe Basin * Greenland Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine * Gulf of Mexico * Gulf of Saint Lawrence * Gulf of Sidra * Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay * Ionian Sea * Irish Sea * Irminger Sea * James Bay * Labrador Sea * Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea * Ligurian Sea * Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea * Myrtoan Sea * North Sea * Norwegian Sea * Sargasso Sea * Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov * Sea of Crete * Sea of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea * Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea * Arabian Sea * Bali Sea * Bay of Bengal * Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight * Gulf of Aden * Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman * Gulf of Suez * Java Sea * Laccadive Sea * Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf * Red Sea * Timor Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea * Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea * Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea * Chilean Sea * Coral Sea * East China Sea * Gulf of Alaska * Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California * Gulf of Carpentaria * Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand * Gulf of Tonkin * Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea * Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan * Sea of Okhotsk * Seto Inland Sea * Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea * Solomon Sea * South China Sea * Sulu Sea * Tasman Sea * Visayan Sea * Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea * Bellingshausen Sea * Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea * D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea * Lazarev Sea * Mawson Sea * Riiser-Larsen Sea * Ross Sea * Scotia Sea * Somov Sea * Weddell Sea

ENDORHEIC BASINS

* Aral Sea * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea * Sea of Galilee * Salton Sea

* BOOK *

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