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ARIDOAMERICA denotes an ecological region spanning northwestern Mexico
Mexico
and the Southwest United States , defined by the presence of the culturally significant staple foodstuff _ Phaseolus acutifolius _. Its dry, arid climate and geography stand in contrast to the verdant Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
of present-day central Mexico
Mexico
into Central America
Central America
to the south and east, and the higher, milder "island" of Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
to the north. Aridoamerica
Aridoamerica
overlaps with both.

Because of the relatively hard conditions, the pre-Columbian people in this region developed distinct cultures and subsistence farming patterns. The region has only 120 mm (4.7 in) to 160 mm (6.3 in) of annual precipitation. The sparse rainfall feeds seasonal creeks and waterholes.

The term was introduced by Gary Paul Nabhan in 1985, building on prior work by anthropologists A.L. Kroeber and Paul Kirchhoff to identify a "true cultural entity" for the desert region.

CONTENTS

* 1 Subsistence * 2 Geography * 3 Aridoamerica
Aridoamerica
cultures * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References

SUBSISTENCE

The Chichimeca , an umbrella term for several tribes used by the Nahua people , were hunter-gatherers in Aridoamerica
Aridoamerica
grasslands. They gathered magueys , yucca flowers , mesquite beans, chia seeds , and cacti , including the paddles of fruits of nopal cactus. The century plant (_ Agave americana _) is a particularly important resource in the region.

Despite dry conditions, Aridoamerica
Aridoamerica
boasts the greatest diversity of wild and domesticated tepary beans (_ Phaseolus acutifolius _) and is a possible site of their domestication. Maize
Maize
cultivation reached Aridoamerica
Aridoamerica
by about 2100 BCE. Archaeologists disagree whether the plant was introduced by Uto-Aztecan migrants from Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
or spread either northward or southward from other groups by cultural borrowing.

In Baja California
Baja California
, fishing and hunting provided food, as did harvesting acorns, nopal, pine nuts , and other native plants.

Historically, people of Aridoamerica
Aridoamerica
coppiced willows, that is, tree trunks were cut to a stump to encourage the growth of slender shoots. These willow shoots were woven tightly to produce waterproof, cooking baskets. Fire-heated rocks were plunged into a gruel in the baskets to cook.

GEOGRAPHY

The current Mexican states that lie in Aridoamerica
Aridoamerica
are:

* Aguascalientes * Baja California
Baja California
* Baja California
Baja California
Sur * Coahuila
Coahuila
* Chihuahua * Durango
Durango
* Nuevo León
Nuevo León
* San Luis Potosí * Sonora
Sonora
* Tamaulipas * Zacatecas

The northern parts of:

* Hidalgo * Guanajuato * Querétaro * Jalisco
Jalisco
* Sinaloa
Sinaloa

ARIDOAMERICA CULTURES

Distribution of tribes called Chichimeca , ca. 1550

* Acaxee * Caxcane * Cochimí , Baja California
Baja California
* Cocopá (Cocopah ), Baja California
Baja California
* Guachichil * Guachimontone * Guamare * Guaycura , Baja California
Baja California
* Huarijio * Huichol * Kiliwa , Baja California
Baja California
* Kumiai (Kumeyaay ), Baja California
Baja California
* Mayo * Mogollon culture , ca. 200–1500 CE, also Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Monqui * Opata * Otomi * Pai Pai , Baja California
Baja California
* Pame * Pericúe ( Pericú ), Baja California
Baja California
* Pima Bajo * Seri * Tarahumara * Tecuexe * Tepecano * Tepehuán * Teuchitlan tradition * Western Mexico
Mexico
shaft tomb tradition * Yaqui
Yaqui
* Zacateco

SEE ALSO

* Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
* Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas
Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas
* Great Mural Rock Art, Baja California
Baja California

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Pratt and Nabhan 419 * ^ Cordell and Fowler 85 * ^ _A_ _B_ Bye and Linares 273 * ^ Nabhan, G.B. (October 1985). "Native crop diversity in Aridoamerica: Conservation of regional gene pools". _Economic Botany_. Retrieved 3 July 2017. * ^ Bye and Linares 256 * ^ _A_ _B_ Herr, Sara A. "The Latest Research on the Earliest Farmers." _Archaeology Southwest_ Vol. 23, No. 1, Winter 2009, p.1 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Schmal, John P. "Indigenous Baja". _History of Mexico_. Houston Institute for Culture. Retrieved 16 November 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ "Mexico: Map". Ethnologue. Retrieved 16 November 2015.

REFERENCES

* Robery A. Bye ; Edelmira Linares (2007). "9". In Carrasco, David. _Cave, City, and Eagle\'s Nest: An Interpretive Journey through the Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No. 2_. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico. pp. 255–280. ISBN 978-0-8263-4283-6 . Retrieved 16 November 2015. * Cordell, Linda S. and Don D. Fowler, eds. _Southwest Archaeology in the Twentieth Century._ Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-87480-825-4 . * Richard C. Pratt ; Gary Paul Nabhan (1988). Gepts, Paul, ed. _Genetic Resources of Phaseolus Beans: Their maintenance, domestication, evolution and utilization_. Springer. p. 419. ISBN 978-94-009-2786-5 . Retrieved 16 November 2015.

* v * t * e

_ Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
North America
North America

Periods _ Lithic Archaic Formative Classic Post-Classic

Archaeological cultures

* Adena * Alachua * Ancient Pueblo (Anasazi) * Baytown * Belle Glade * Buttermilk Creek Complex * Caborn-Welborn * Calf Creek * Caloosahatchee * Clovis * Coles Creek * Comondú * Deptford * Folsom * Fort Ancient * Fort Walton * Fremont * Glacial Kame * Glades * Hohokam
Hohokam

* Hopewell

* List of Hopewell sites

* La Jolla * Las Palmas * Leon-Jefferson

* Mississippian

* List of Mississippian sites

* Mogollon * Monongahela * Old Cordilleran * Oneota * Paleo- Arctic
Arctic
* Paleo-Indians * Patayan * Plano * Plaquemine * Poverty Point * Red Ocher * Santa Rosa-Swift Creek * St. Johns * Steed-Kisker * Tchefuncte * Tocobaga * Troyville

Archaeological sites

* Angel Mounds * Anzick Clovis burial
Anzick Clovis burial
* Bandelier National Monument * The Bluff Point Stoneworks * Cahokia
Cahokia
* Candelaria Cave * Casa Grande * Chaco Canyon * Coso Rock Art District * Crystal River Archaeological State Park
Crystal River Archaeological State Park
* Cuarenta Casas * Cueva de la Olla * Eaker * El Fin del Mundo * El Vallecito * Effigy Mounds National Monument * Etowah Indian Mounds * Eva * Folsom Site * Fort Ancient * Fort Center
Fort Center
* Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument * Glenwood * Grimes Point
Grimes Point
* Holly Bluff Site
Holly Bluff Site
* Hopewell Culture National Historical Park * Huápoca * Kimball Village
Kimball Village
* Kincaid Mounds * Kolomoki Mounds * L\'Anse aux Meadows * Marksville * Marmes Rockshelter * Meadowcroft Rockshelter
Meadowcroft Rockshelter
* Mesa Verde * Moaning Cavern
Moaning Cavern
* Moorehead Circle * Moundville * Mummy Cave * Nodena Site
Nodena Site
* Ocmulgee National Monument * Old Stone Fort * Paquime * Parkin Park * Pinson Mounds * Portsmouth Earthworks * Poverty Point * Pueblo Bonito * Recapture Canyon * Rock Eagle * Rock Hawk * Russell Cave National Monument * Salmon Ruins * Serpent Mound * Sierra de San Francisco * Spiro Mounds * SunWatch * Taos Pueblo
Taos Pueblo
* Toltec Mounds * Town Creek Indian Mound
Town Creek Indian Mound
* Turkey River Mounds * Upward Sun River site * West Oak Forest Earthlodge * Winterville * Wupatki National Monument

Human remains

* Anzick-1
Anzick-1
* Arlington Springs Man * Buhl Woman * Kennewick Man
Kennewick Man
* La Brea Woman
La Brea Woman
* Leanderthal Lady
Leanderthal Lady
* Minnesota Woman
Minnesota Woman
* Spirit Cave mummy

MISCELLANEOUS

* Aridoamerica * Black drink
Black drink
* Ceremonial pipe * Chunkey
Chunkey
* Clovis point
Clovis point
* Container Revolution * Eastern Agricultural Complex * Eden point * Effigy mound
Effigy mound
* Falcon dancer * Folsom point
Folsom point
* Green Corn Ceremony
Green Corn Ceremony
* Horned Serpent
Horned Serpent
* Kiva
Kiva
* Medicine wheel
Medicine wheel
* Metallurgy * Mi\'kmaq hieroglyphic writing * Mound Builders * N.A.G.P.R.A. * Norse colonization of North America * Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Piasa
Piasa
* Southeastern Ceremonial Complex
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex
* Stickball * Three Sisters agriculture * Thunderbird * Underwater panther
Underwater panther
* Water glyphs

Related Genetic history Portal
Portal
of Indigenous peoples of North America Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
era

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa
Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East
Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East
Middle East

* Maghreb
Maghreb

* Barbary Coast * Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains ( Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
) * Sahara
Sahara
* Western Sahara
Sahara
* Sahel
Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean
Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt * Middle Egypt
Middle Egypt
* Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
* Cataracts of the Nile * Bashmur

* Nubia
Nubia

* Lower Nubia
Nubia

* Nile Valley * Nile Delta * Darfur
Darfur
* Gulf of Aqaba * Sub-Saharan

EAST

* Aethiopia * Swahili coast * East African Rift * Great Rift Valley * Afar Triangle * Danakil Desert * Danakil Alps * Albertine Rift Valley * Gregory Rift Valley * Southern Rift Valley

* Rift Valley lakes
Rift Valley lakes

* African Great Lakes

* Mittelafrika

* Horn of Africa
Africa

* Ethiopian Highlands
Ethiopian Highlands
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Tadjoura

* Sudan (region) * Sudanian Savanna * East African montane forests * Sub-Saharan

CENTRAL

* Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Cape Lopez * Mayombe

* Igboland

* Mbaise

* Maputaland * Pool Malebo * Congo Basin * Chad Basin * Congolese rainforests * Ouaddaï highlands
Ouaddaï highlands
* Ennedi Plateau * Sub-Saharan

WEST

* Pepper Coast * Gold Coast * Slave Coast * Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
* Cape Palmas * Cape Mesurado * Negroland

* Guinea region

* Gulf of Guinea

* Sudanian Savanna * Niger Basin * Guinean Forests of West Africa
Africa
* Sudan (region) * Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Inner Niger Delta
Niger Delta
* Sub-Saharan

SOUTH

* Madagascar
Madagascar

* Central Highlands (Madagascar)
Central Highlands (Madagascar)
* Northern Highlands

* Rhodesia

* North * South

* Thembuland
Thembuland
* Succulent Karoo
Succulent Karoo
* Nama Karoo * Bushveld
Bushveld
* Highveld * Fynbos
Fynbos
* Cape Floristic Region
Cape Floristic Region
* Kalahari Desert * Okavango Delta * False Bay * Hydra Bay
Hydra Bay
* Sub-Saharan

* Anglophone Africa
Africa
* Francophone Africa
Africa
* Lusophone Africa
Africa
* Arabophone Africa
Africa
* Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
* Tropical Africa
Africa
* Islands

* v * t * e

Regions of North America
North America

CANADA

* Eastern Canada
Canada
* Western Canada
Canada
* Canadian Prairies * Northern Canada
Canada
* Atlantic Canada
Canada
* French Canada
Canada
* English Canada
Canada

* Acadia
Acadia

* Acadian Peninsula

* Quebec City–Windsor Corridor * Peace River Country * Cypress Hills * Palliser\'s Triangle * Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
* Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga * Newfoundland (island)
Newfoundland (island)
* Vancouver island * Gulf Islands * Strait of Georgia
Strait of Georgia
* Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
* Labrador Peninsula * Gaspé Peninsula

* Avalon Peninsula

* Bay de Verde Peninsula
Bay de Verde Peninsula

* Brodeur Peninsula * Melville Peninsula
Melville Peninsula
* Bruce Peninsula * Banks Peninsula (Nunavut)
Banks Peninsula (Nunavut)
* Cook Peninsula * Gulf of Boothia * Georgian Bay
Georgian Bay
* Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
* James Bay * Greenland
Greenland

UNITED STATES

* Eastern

* Appalachia * East Coast * Great Lakes

* Northeastern

* Mid-Atlantic * New England
New England

* Western

* Alaska Peninsula * Mountain States * Northwestern * Pacific * Pacific Northwest * Rocky Mountains * West Coast

* Central

* Great Plains * Midwestern

* Southern

* Deep South * Gulf * Southeastern * South Central * Southwestern * Upland South

* Belt regions

* Bible Belt
Bible Belt
* Black Belt * Corn Belt * Cotton Belt * Frost Belt
Frost Belt
* Rice Belt * Rust Belt
Rust Belt
* Sun Belt * Snow Belt

MEXICO

* Northern Mexico
Mexico
* Baja California
Baja California
Peninsula

* Gulf of California

* Colorado River Delta
Colorado River Delta

* Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Soconusco * Tierra Caliente * La Mixteca * La Huasteca * Bajío * Valley of Mexico
Mexico
* Mezquital Valley
Mezquital Valley
* Sierra Madre de Oaxaca * Yucatán Peninsula * Basin and Range Province

CENTRAL

* Western Caribbean Zone * Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama

* Gulf of Panama

* Pearl Islands

* Azuero Peninsula * Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast

CARIBBEAN

* West Indies
West Indies

* Antilles
Antilles

* Greater Antilles
Antilles

* Lesser Antilles
Antilles

* Leeward * Leeward Antilles
Antilles
* Windward

* Lucayan Archipelago * Southern Caribbean
Caribbean

* Aridoamerica * Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
* Oasisamerica
Oasisamerica
* Northern * Middle * Anglo

* Latin

* French * Hispanic

* American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of South America
South America

NORTH

* Caribbean
Caribbean
South America
South America
* West Indies
West Indies
* Los Llanos * The Guianas * Gulf of Paria * Paria Peninsula * Paraguaná Peninsula * Orinoco Delta

SOUTH

* Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
* Patagonia
Patagonia
* Pampas
Pampas
* Pantanal * Gran Chaco * Chiquitano dry forests * Valdes Peninsula
Valdes Peninsula

WEST

* Andes
Andes
* Altiplano
Altiplano
* Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert

EAST

* Amazon basin
Amazon basin
* Caatinga
Caatinga
* Cerrado

* Latin * Hispanic * American Cordillera * Ring of Fire * LAC

* v * t * e

Regions of Asia
Asia

CENTRAL

* Greater Middle East
Greater Middle East

* Aral Sea
Aral Sea

* Aralkum Desert * Caspian Sea * Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee

* Transoxiana

* Turan
Turan

* Greater Khorasan * Ariana
Ariana
* Khwarezm * Sistan * Kazakhstania

* Eurasian Steppe

* Asian Steppe * Kazakh Steppe
Kazakh Steppe
* Pontic–Caspian steppe

* Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* Wild Fields
Wild Fields

* Yedisan * Muravsky Trail
Muravsky Trail

* Ural

* Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains

* Volga region * Idel-Ural * Kolyma * Transbaikal * Pryazovia * Bjarmaland * Kuban
Kuban
* Zalesye * Ingria
Ingria
* Novorossiya
Novorossiya
* Gornaya Shoriya * Tulgas * Iranian plateau * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Pamir Mountains * Tian Shan
Tian Shan
* Badakhshan
Badakhshan
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass * Mount Imeon * Mongolian Plateau * Western Regions

NORTH

* Inner Asia
Asia
* Northeast

* Far East
Far East

* Russian Far East
Far East
* Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

* Extreme North

* Siberia
Siberia

* Baikalia ( Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
) * Transbaikal * Khatanga Gulf
Khatanga Gulf
* Baraba Steppe

* Kamchatka Peninsula * Amur Basin * Yenisei Gulf
Yenisei Gulf
* Yenisei Basin * Beringia

EAST

* Japanese archipelago

* Northeastern Japan Arc * Sakhalin Island Arc

* Korean Peninsula * Gobi Desert * Taklamakan Desert
Taklamakan Desert
* Greater Khingan * Mongolian Plateau * Inner Asia
Asia
* Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
* Outer Mongolia * China proper
China proper

* Manchuria
Manchuria

* Outer Manchuria
Manchuria
* Inner Manchuria
Manchuria
* Northeast China Plain * Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

* North China Plain * Liaodong Peninsula * Himalayas
Himalayas

* Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau

* Tibet
Tibet

* Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
* Northern Silk Road
Northern Silk Road
* Hexi Corridor
Hexi Corridor
* Nanzhong * Lingnan
Lingnan
* Liangguang * Jiangnan
Jiangnan
* Jianghuai * Guanzhong * Huizhou * Wu * Jiaozhou * Zhongyuan * Shaannan

* Ordos Loop

* Loess Plateau * Shaanbei

* Leizhou Peninsula
Leizhou Peninsula
* Gulf of Tonkin * Yangtze River Delta * Pearl River Delta * Yenisei Basin * Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass

WEST

* Greater Middle East
Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East
Middle East

* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Caspian Sea * Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Zagros Mountains

* Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf

* Pirate Coast * Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
* Greater and Lesser Tunbs

* Al-Faw Peninsula * Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Balochistan
Balochistan

* Arabian Peninsula

* Najd
Najd
* Hejaz
Hejaz
* Tihamah * Eastern Arabia

* South Arabia
South Arabia

* Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
* Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert

* Tigris–Euphrates

* Mesopotamia

* Upper Mesopotamia * Lower Mesopotamia * Sawad
Sawad
* Nineveh plains * Akkad (region)
Akkad (region)

* Canaan
Canaan
* Aram * Eber-Nari * Eastern Mediterranean
Eastern Mediterranean
* Mashriq
Mashriq

* Levant
Levant

* Southern Levant
Levant
* Transjordan * Jordan Rift Valley

* Levantine Sea * Golan Heights
Golan Heights
* Hula Valley * Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
* West Bank
West Bank
* Galilee
Galilee
* Gilead * Judea
Judea
* Samaria
Samaria
* Arabah
Arabah
* Anti-Lebanon Mountains * Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
* Arabian Desert
Arabian Desert
* Syrian Desert * Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
* Azerbaijan * Syria * Palestine * Iranian plateau * Armenian Highlands

* Caucasus
Caucasus

* Caucasus
Caucasus
mountains

* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus

* North Caucasus
Caucasus

* South Caucasus
Caucasus

* Kur-Araz Lowland * Lankaran Lowland
Lankaran Lowland
* Alborz * Absheron Peninsula

* Anatolia
Anatolia
* Cilicia
Cilicia
* Cappadocia * Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Greater India * Indian subcontinent * Himalayas
Himalayas
* Hindu Kush * Western Ghats
Western Ghats
* Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
* Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta
Ganges Delta
* Pashtunistan * Punjab * Balochistan
Balochistan
* Thar Desert * Indus Valley * Indus River
Indus River
Delta * Indus Valley Desert * Indo-Gangetic Plain * Eastern coastal plains * Western Coastal Plains * Meghalaya subtropical forests * Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests * Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows * Doab * Bagar region * Great Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch * Deccan Plateau * Coromandel Coast * Konkan
Konkan
* False Divi Point * Hindi Belt * Lakshadweep * Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Mannar * Trans-Karakoram Tract * Wakhan Corridor
Wakhan Corridor
* Wakhjir Pass * Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Maldive Islands * Alpide belt

SOUTHEAST

* Mainland

* Indochina
Indochina
* Malay Peninsula

* Maritime

* Peninsular Malaysia * Sunda Islands * Greater Sunda Islands * Lesser Sunda Islands

* Indonesian Archipelago * Timor
Timor

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* Philippine Archipelago

* Luzon
Luzon
* Visayas
Visayas
* Mindanao
Mindanao

* Leyte Gulf * Gulf of Thailand * East Indies
East Indies
* Nanyang * Alpide belt

* Asia-Pacific * Tropical Asia
Asia
* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Regions of Europe
Europe

NORTH

* Nordic * Northwestern * Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* Scandinavian Peninsula * Fennoscandia * Baltoscandia
Baltoscandia
* Sápmi * West Nordic * Baltic * Gulf of Bothnia * Iceland
Iceland
* Faroe Islands

EAST

* Danubian countries * Prussia * Galicia

* Sambia Peninsula
Sambia Peninsula

* Amber Coast
Amber Coast

* Curonian Spit * Izyum Trail * Lithuania Minor * Nemunas Delta
Nemunas Delta
* Baltic

* Southeastern

* Balkans
Balkans
* Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
* Gulf of Chania * North Caucasus
Caucasus
* Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
* Kabardia

* European Russia

* Southern Russia

CENTRAL

* Alpine states * Alpide belt * Mitteleuropa * Visegrád Group

WEST

* Benelux
Benelux
* Low Countries
Low Countries
* Northwest * British Isles
British Isles
* English Channel * Channel Islands
Channel Islands
* Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
* Normandy
Normandy
* Brittany
Brittany
* Gulf of Lion

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Pyrenees
Pyrenees
* Alpide belt

SOUTH

* Italian Peninsula * Insular Italy * Tuscan Archipelago
Tuscan Archipelago
* Aegadian Islands

* Iberia

* Al-Andalus * Baetic System

* Gibraltar Arc * Southeastern * Mediterranean * Crimea
Crimea
* Donbass
Donbass
* Sloboda Ukraine * Alpide belt

* Germanic * Romance * Celtic * Slavic countries * Uralic * European Plain
European Plain
* Eurasian Steppe * Pontic–Caspian steppe * Wild Fields
Wild Fields

* Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin

* Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
* Little Hungarian Plain * Eastern Slovak Lowland

* Volhynia * Karelia
Karelia
* East Karelia
Karelia

* v * t * e

Regions of Oceania
Oceania

AUSTRALASIA

* Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria

* New Guinea
New Guinea

* Bonis Peninsula * Papuan Peninsula * Huon Peninsula * Huon Gulf * Bird\'s Head Peninsula * Gazelle Peninsula

* New Zealand
New Zealand

* South Island
South Island

* North Island

* Coromandel Peninsula

* Zealandia
Zealandia
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Solomon Islands (archipelago)
Solomon Islands (archipelago)

* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

* Kula Gulf

* Australia
Australia
* Capital Country * Eastern Australia
Australia
* Lake Eyre basin
Lake Eyre basin
* Murray–Darling basin * Northern Australia
Australia
* Nullarbor Plain
Nullarbor Plain
* Outback

* Southern Australia
Australia

* Maralinga

* Sunraysia * Great Victoria Desert
Great Victoria Desert
* Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
* Gulf St Vincent * Lefevre Peninsula
Lefevre Peninsula
* Fleurieu Peninsula * Yorke Peninsula
Yorke Peninsula
* Eyre Peninsula * Mornington Peninsula
Mornington Peninsula
* Bellarine Peninsula * Mount Henry Peninsula

MELANESIA

* Islands Region

* Bismarck Archipelago * Solomon Islands Archipelago

* Fiji
Fiji
* New Caledonia
New Caledonia
* Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
* Vanuatu
Vanuatu

MICRONESIA

* Caroline Islands

* Federated States of Micronesia
Micronesia
* Palau
Palau

* Guam
Guam
* Kiribati
Kiribati
* Marshall Islands * Nauru * Northern Mariana Islands * Wake Island

POLYNESIA

* Easter Island
Easter Island
* Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
* Cook Islands
Cook Islands

* French Polynesia
Polynesia

* Austral Islands * Gambier Islands * Marquesas Islands * Society Islands
Society Islands
* Tuamotu

* Kermadec Islands * Mangareva Islands * Samoa
Samoa
* Tokelau * Tonga
Tonga
* Tuvalu
Tuvalu

* Ring of Fire

* v * t * e

Polar regions

ANTARCTIC

* Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula * East Antarctica
East Antarctica
* West Antarctica
West Antarctica
* Eklund Islands * Ecozone * Extreme points * Islands

ARCTIC

* Arctic
Arctic
Alaska * British Arctic
Arctic
Territories * Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Canadian Arctic Archipelago
* Finnmark
Finnmark
* Greenland
Greenland
* Northern Canada
Canada
* Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
* Nunavik * Nunavut
Nunavut
* Russian Arctic
Arctic
* Sakha * Sápmi * Yukon
Yukon
* North American Arctic
Arctic

* v * t * e

Earth
Earth
's oceans and seas

ARCTIC OCEAN

* Amundsen Gulf * Barents Sea * Beaufort Sea * Chukchi Sea * East Siberian Sea * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Boothia * Kara Sea * Laptev Sea * Lincoln Sea
Lincoln Sea
* Prince Gustav Adolf Sea
Prince Gustav Adolf Sea
* Pechora Sea * Queen Victoria Sea * Wandel Sea * White Sea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

* Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
* Aegean Sea * Alboran Sea * Archipelago Sea * Argentine Sea * Baffin Bay * Balearic Sea
Balearic Sea
* Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
* Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
* Bay of Bothnia * Bay of Campeche * Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy
* Black Sea
Black Sea
* Bothnian Sea * Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea * Celtic Sea * English Channel * Foxe Basin * Greenland
Greenland
Sea * Gulf of Bothnia * Gulf of Finland * Gulf of Lion * Gulf of Guinea * Gulf of Maine * Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
* Gulf of Saint Lawrence * Gulf of Sidra * Gulf of Venezuela * Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
* Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
* Irish Sea * Irminger Sea
Irminger Sea
* James Bay * Labrador Sea
Labrador Sea
* Levantine Sea * Libyan Sea * Ligurian Sea * Marmara Sea * Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
* Myrtoan Sea * North Sea
North Sea
* Norwegian Sea
Norwegian Sea
* Sargasso Sea * Sea of Åland * Sea of Azov * Sea of Crete * Sea of the Hebrides * Thracian Sea * Tyrrhenian Sea * Wadden Sea
Wadden Sea

INDIAN OCEAN

* Andaman Sea * Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
* Bali Sea
Bali Sea
* Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
* Flores Sea * Great Australian Bight
Great Australian Bight
* Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
* Gulf of Aqaba * Gulf of Khambhat * Gulf of Kutch * Gulf of Oman
Gulf of Oman
* Gulf of Suez * Java Sea * Laccadive Sea * Mozambique Channel * Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
* Red Sea
Red Sea
* Timor
Timor
Sea

PACIFIC OCEAN

* Arafura Sea * Banda Sea * Bering Sea * Bismarck Sea * Bohai Sea * Bohol Sea * Camotes Sea * Celebes Sea * Ceram Sea
Ceram Sea
* Chilean Sea * Coral Sea
Coral Sea
* East China Sea * Gulf of Alaska * Gulf of Anadyr * Gulf of California * Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
* Gulf of Fonseca * Gulf of Panama * Gulf of Thailand * Gulf of Tonkin * Halmahera Sea * Koro Sea * Mar de Grau * Molucca Sea * Moro Gulf * Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
* Salish Sea * Savu Sea * Sea of Japan * Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
* Seto Inland Sea
Seto Inland Sea
* Shantar Sea * Sibuyan Sea * Solomon Sea * South China Sea
South China Sea
* Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea
* Tasman Sea
Tasman Sea
* Visayan Sea
Visayan Sea
* Yellow Sea

SOUTHERN OCEAN

* Amundsen Sea
Amundsen Sea
* Bellingshausen Sea * Cooperation Sea * Cosmonauts Sea * Davis Sea * D\'Urville Sea * King Haakon VII Sea * Lazarev Sea
Lazarev Sea
* Mawson Sea * Riiser-Larsen Sea * Ross Sea * Scotia Sea
Scotia Sea
* Somov Sea * Weddell Sea
Weddell Sea

ENDORHEIC BASINS

* Aral Sea
Aral Sea
* Caspian Sea * Dead Sea
Dead Sea
* Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
* Salton Sea

* BOOK * CATEGORY

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