OverviewArgentina is a multiethnic society, which means that it is home to people of many different ethnic backgrounds. Argentina is, along with other areas of new settlement like the , , , , or a melting pot of different peoples. In the mid-19th century a large wave of immigration started to arrive in Argentina due to new Constitutional policies that encouraged immigration, and issues in the countries the immigrants came from such as wars, poverty, hunger, famines, the pursuit of a better life, among other reasons. The main immigration sources were from Europe, the countries from the Near and the Middle East, Russia, and Japan. Eventually, Argentina became the country with the second-largest number of immigrants in the period, with 6.6 million, second only to the United States with 27 million.https://web.archive.org/web/20070610215422/http://www.cels.org.ar/Site_cels/publicaciones/informes_pdf/1998.Capitulo7.pdfhttps://web.archive.org/web/20110814202421/http://docentes.fe.unl.pt/~satpeg/PapersInova/Labor%20and%20Immigration%20in%20LA-2005.pdf Therefore, most Argentines are of European descent, and are either descendants of colonial-era settlers and/or of the 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe, with about 86% of the population being of ethnic European descent. The most common ethnic groups are Italian Argentine, Italian and Spanish Argentine, Spanish (including Galician people, Galicians and Basque people, Basques). It is estimated that up to 25 million Argentines, up to 60% of the total population, have Italian ancestry, wholly or in part. There are also some Germanic people, Germanic, Slavic peoples, Slavic, Irish and French populations. Smaller Jewish, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native, Arab peoples, Arab, Asian people, Asian, Romani people, Romani and Ethnic groups of Africa, African communities contribute to the melting pot. Recent decades immigration includes mainly Paraguayans, Bolivians and Peruvians, among other Latin Americans, Eastern Europeans, Africans and Asians.
DNA genetics studies* Homburguer et al., 2015, ''PLOS One Genetics'': 67% European, 28% Amerindian, 4% African and 1,4% Asian. * Avena et al., 2012, ''PLOS One Genetics'': 65% European, 31% Amerindian, and 4% African. ** Buenos Aires Province: 76% European and 24% others. ** South Zone (Chubut Province): 54% European and 46% others. ** Northeast Zone (Misiones, Corrientes, Chaco & Formosa provinces): 54% European and 46% others. ** Northwest Zone (Salta Province): 33% European and 67% others. * Oliveira, 2008, on Universidade de Brasília: 60% European, 31% Amerindian and 9% African. * National Geographic Society, National Geographic: 52% European, 27% Amerindian ancestry, 9% African and 9% others.
European ArgentinesArgentines of European descent constitute the majority of Argentina's population. Ethnic Europeans include the Argentine descendants of colonists from Spain during the colonial period prior to 1810,''Historical Dictionary of Argentina''. London: Scarecrow Press, 1978. pp. 239–40. and mainly of immigrants from Europe in the Great European immigration wave to Argentina, great immigratory wave from the mid 19th century to the mid 20th century. No recent Argentine census has included comprehensive questions on ethnicity, although numerous studies have determined that European Argentines have been a majority in the country since 1914. Some international sources claim the European component of the population to be at around 97% of 's population. The most numerous immigrant European communities are: Italian Argentine, Italians (62.5% of the population have some degree of Italian descent), Spanish Argentine, Spaniards (including Basque Argentine, Basques, Asturians and Galician Argentine, Galicians), German Argentine, Germans, Scandinavians (mainly Danish Argentine, Danes and Swedish Argentine, Swedes), Slavs (including Russians in Argentina, Russians, Ukrainian Argentine, Ukrainians, Polish Argentine, Poles, Czechs in Argentina, Czechs, Bulgarians in South America, Bulgarians, Slovene Argentine, Slovenes, Argentines of Serb descent, Serbs, Macedonian Argentine, Macedonians and Croats in Argentina, Croats), Finnish Argentine, Finns, the French Argentine, French (including francophone Basque Argentine, Basques), the Irish Argentine, Irish, Portuguese Argentine, Portuguese, the Dutch Argentine, Dutch among others in smaller number.
Arab ArgentinesArabs and Argentines with partial Arab ancestry exist. They represent about 3.2 million people, whose ancestry traces back to any of various waves of immigrants, largely of Levant, Levantine cultural and linguistic heritage and/or identity, originating mainly from what is now Syria and Lebanon; and from Cilicia and Palestine (region), Palestine in a lesser extent. Due to the fact that many Arab countries were under control of the Ottoman Empire by the time the large immigration wave took place, most Arabs entered the country with Turkey, Turkish passports, and so they are colloquially referred to as ''los turcos''. The majority of Arab-Argentines are Christians, albeit Argentina is the Latin American country with the largest Muslim population and the one that host the largest mosque. There is also a sizeable Syrian-Lebanese Jewish community in the country, mainly centred in Buenos Aires, Rosario and San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán.
Native ArgentinesContemporary Native cultures are represented in the country mainly by the Mapuche, Kolla people, Kolla, Wichí people, Wichí and Toba peoples. According to the provisional data of INDEC's Complementary Survey of Indigenous Peoples (ECPI) 2004 – 2005, 600,329 Natives (about 1.49% of the total population) reside in Argentina. The most numerous of these communities are the Mapuches, who live mostly in the south, the Kollas and Wichís, from the northwest, and the Toba (tribe), Tobas, who live mostly in the northeast. Some Mestizo population may identify with Native ethnicity.
Mestizo ArgentinesWithin the population totals, there may be an imprecise amount of mixed Mestizo population. In one of the most comprehensive genetic studies involving the population of Argentina, 441 Argentines from across the North East, North West, Southern, and Central provinces (especially the urban conglomeration of Buenos Aires) of the country, it was observed that the sample population comprised on average of 65% European, followed by 31% Amerindian, and finally 4% of African ancestry; however, this study was unweighted and meant to be a representation of the diversity of Argentine DNA rather than a demonstration of the average ethnic composition of the country. It was also found there were great differences in the ancestry amongst Argentines as one traveled across the country. A study that attempted to find the average Argentine ancestry by Daniel Corach by weighing the population of various regions gave a significantly higher estimate of European ancestry at 78.5% of the average Argentine's autosomal DNA.
Afro-ArgentinesGenetic studies carried out in 2005 showed that the average level of African genetic contribution in the population of Buenos Aires is 2.2%, but that this component is concentrated in 10% of the population who display notably higher levels of African ancestry. Blacks, Mulattos (mixed Black and European ancestry) and Zambos (mixed Black and Native ancestry) in Argentina might be about 67,000 people; this figure includes 53,000 direct descendants from slaves, plus 12,000–15,000 Caboverdian Mulatto immigrants and their descendants, who arrived in the 1950s and 1960s. With constant wars in the 19th century, the spread of diseases like yellow fever, thousands of immigrants from Europe arriving to Argentine soil, and most black women intermarrying with them; noting that their populations were already low, the Afro-Argentine population faded into oblivion. A new wave of Black immigration started in the 1990s, from African countries (Cape Verde, Nigeria, Senegal, Angola, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Ghana, Sierra Leone, etc.). In recent years Africa Vive, an organization that helps to keep alive Afro-Argentine heritage, calculates that there are between 1 and 2 million Afro-descendants in Argentina.
Asian ArgentinesArgentines of Asian ancestry are defined as either born within , or born elsewhere and later to become a citizen or permanent residency, resident of Argentina. Asian Argentines settled in Argentina in large numbers during several waves of immigration in the 20th century. Primarily living in their own Barrios of Buenos Aires, neighbourhoods in Buenos Aires, many currently own their own businesses of varying sizes – largely textiles, grocery stores, and buffet-style restaurants. The small Asian Argentine population has generally kept a low profile, and is accepted by greater Argentine society. The first Argentines of Asian descent were a small group of Japanese immigrants, mainly from the Okinawa prefecture, which came in the period between the early and mid 20th century. In the 1960s, Korean people, Koreans began to arrive, and in the 1980s, Taiwanese people, Taiwanese immigrants. The 1990s brought the largest so far wave of Asian immigration to Argentina, from mainland Chinese immigrants, eventually becoming the 4th largest foreigner community in 2013, after Paraguayans, Bolivians, and Peruvians.
LanguagesAlthough Spanish is dominant, being the national language spoken by virtually all Argentines, the spoken languages of Argentina number at least 40. Languages spoken by at least 100,000 Argentines include Indigenous languages of the Americas, Amerindian languages such as Southern Quechua, Guaraní language, Guaraní and Mapudungun, and immigrant languages such as Standard German, German, Italian, or Levantine Arabic. Two native languages are extinct languages, extinct (Abipón language, Abipón and Chané language, Chané), while some others are endangered languages, endangered, spoken by elderly people whose descendants do not speak the languagesGordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International
ReligionA majority of the population of Argentina is Christians, Christian. According to CONICET survey on creeds, about 76.5% of Argentines are Catholicism in Argentina, Roman Catholic, 11.3% religiously indifferent, 9% Protestant (with 7.9% in Pentecostalism, Pentecostal denominations), 1.2% Jehovah's Witnesses, and 0.9% The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Mormons. Although Jews account for less than 1% of Argentina's population, Buenos Aires has the History of the Jews in Argentina, second largest population of Jews in the Americas, second only to New York City. Argentina also has the largest Muslim minority in Latin America (see Islam in Argentina).
EmigrationMost Argentines outside Argentina are people who have migrated from the middle and upper middle classes. According to official estimates there are 600,000 worldwide Argentine, according to estimates by the International Organization for Migration are about 806,369 since 2001. It is estimated that their descendants would be around 1,900,000. The first wave of emigration occurred during the military dictatorship between 1976 and 1983, with principally to Spain, USA, Mexico and Venezuela. During the 1990s, due to the abolition of visas between Argentina and the United States, thousands of Argentines emigrated to the North American country. The last major wave of emigration occurred during the 2001 crisis, mainly to Europe, especially Spain, although there was also an increase in emigration to neighboring countries, particularly Brazil, Chile and Paraguay.
EuropeThe rate of Argentine emigration to Europe (especially to Spain and Italy) peaked in the late 1970s and early 1980s and is noteworthy. Spain and Italy have the largest Argentine communities in Europe, however, there are also important communities in France, the United Kingdom and Germany.
AmericasThe most popular immigration destinations in the Americas are: the United States, Mexico and Canada, and to a lesser degree, South America (mostly to Uruguay and Brazil): Chile, Paraguay and Bolivia, while other communities settled in Venezuela, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Costa Rica.
Middle EastIsrael is home to the largest Argentine diaspora group in Asia.
OceaniaIn Oceania, Australia has the largest Argentine community, followed by New Zealand.
See also* List of Argentines * Ethnography of Argentina * Demographics of Argentina * Immigration to Argentina * History of Argentine nationality * Indigenous peoples in Argentina * Argentines in Uruguay *