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The Chamber of Deputies ( es, Cámara de Diputados de la Nación) is the
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power or oth ...
of the
Argentine National Congress
Argentine National Congress
( es, Congreso de la Nación). It is made up of 257 national deputies who are elected in multi-member constituencies corresponding with the territories of the 23 provinces of Argentina (plus the
Federal Capital
Federal Capital
) by party list proportional representation. Elections to the Chamber are held every two years, so that half of its members are up in each election, making it a rare example of
staggered elections Staggered elections are elections where only some of the places in an elected body are up for election at the same time. For example, United States Senate of the United States, Senators have a six-year term, but they are not all elected at the same ...
used in a lower house. The
Constitution of Argentina The Constitution of the Argentine Nation ( es, Constitución de la Nación Argentina) is the basic governing document of Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located most ...
lays out certain attributions that are unique to the Chamber of Deputies. The Chamber holds exclusive rights to levy taxes; to draft troops; and to accuse the President, cabinet ministers, and members of the
Supreme Court The supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of ...
before the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
. Additionally, the Chamber of Deputies receives for consideration bills presented by popular initiative. The Chamber of Deputies is presided over by the President of the Chamber ( es, Presidente de la Cámara), who is deputized by three Vice Presidents.


Current composition

It has 257 seats and one-half of the members are elected every two years to serve four-year terms by the people of each district (23 provinces and the
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires
) using proportional representation, D'Hondt formula with a 3% of the district registered voters threshold, and the following distribution:


By province


By political groups

''All data from official website.''


Requirements

In order for an Argentine citizen to be elected to congress, they have to fulfill certain requirements: He or she has to be at least twenty five years old with at least four years of active citizenship and it has to be naturalized in the province that is being elected to or at least have two years of immediate residency in said province, according to art. 48 of the Argentine Constitution.


History

The Chamber of Deputies was provided for in the
Constitution of Argentina The Constitution of the Argentine Nation ( es, Constitución de la Nación Argentina) is the basic governing document of Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located most ...
, ratified on May 1, 1853. Eligibility requisites are that members be at least twenty-five years old, and have been a resident of the province they represent for at least two years; as congressional seats are elected at-large, members nominally represent their province, rather than a district. Otherwise patterned after
Article One of the United States Constitution Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the Federal government of the United States, federal government, the United States Congress. Under Article One, Congress is a bicameral legislature consisting of t ...
per legal scholar
Juan Bautista Alberdi
Juan Bautista Alberdi
's treatise, ''Bases de la Constitución Argentina'', the chamber was originally apportioned in one seat per 33,000 inhabitants. The constitution made no provision for a national
census A census is the procedure of systematically enumerating, and acquiring and recording information about the members of a given Statistical population, population. This term is used mostly in connection with Population and housing censuses by country ...
, however, and because the Argentine population doubled every twenty years from 1870 to 1930 as a result of Immigration in Argentina, immigration (disproportionately benefiting Buenos Aires and the Pampas area provinces), censuses were conducted generationally, rather than every decade, until 1947.Indec: Historia de los censos


Apportionment controversy

The distribution of the Chamber of Deputies is regulated since 1982 by Law 22.847, also called ''Ley Bignone'', enacted by the last Argentine dictator, General Reynaldo Bignone, ahead of the 1983 Argentine general election, 1983 general elections. This law established that, initially, each province shall have one deputy per 161,000 inhabitants, with standard rounding; after this is calculated, each province is granted three more deputies. If a province has fewer than five deputies, the number of deputies for that province is increased to reach that minimum. Controversially, apportionment remains based on the 1980 population census, and has not been modified since 1983; national censuses since then have been conducted in 1991, 2001, and 2010. The minimum of five seat per province allots the smaller ones a disproportionately large representation, as well. Accordingly, this distribution does not reflect Argentina's current population balance.


Presidents of the Chamber

The President of the Chamber is elected by the majority caucus. The officeholders for this post since 1983 have been:


Current authorities

Leadership positions include:


See also

*Argentine Senate *Politics of Argentina *List of legislatures by country


References


External links

* {{Authority control National lower houses, Argentina Government of Argentina, Chamber of Deputies National Congress of Argentina