The Info List - Arend Lijphart

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Arend d'Angremond Lijphart (born 17 August 1936, Apeldoorn, Netherlands) is a political scientist specializing in comparative politics, elections and voting systems, democratic institutions, and ethnicity and politics. He received his PhD in Political Science at Yale University
Yale University
in 1963, after studying at Principia College
Principia College
from 1955 to 1958. He is currently Research Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of California, San Diego. Dutch by birth, he has spent most of his working life in the United States and is an American citizen. He has since regained his Dutch citizenship and is now a dual citizen of both the Netherlands
and the United States.


1 Major works 2 Honours 3 Publications

3.1 Books 3.2 Journal articles

4 Further reading 5 References 6 External links

Major works[edit] Lijphart is the leading authority on consociationalism, or the ways in which segmented societies manage to sustain democracy through power-sharing. Lijphart developed this concept in his first major work, The Politics of Accommodation, a study of the Dutch political system, and further developed his arguments in Democracy
in Plural Societies. His later work has focused on the broader contrasts between majoritarian and "consensus" democracies. While Lijphart advocated consociationalism primarily for societies deeply divided along ethnic, religious, ideological, or other cleavages, he sees consensus democracy as appropriate for any society with a consensual political culture.[1] In contrast to majoritarian democracies, consensus democracies have multiparty systems, parliamentarism with oversized (and therefore inclusive) cabinet coalitions, proportional electoral systems, corporatist (hierarchical) interest group structures, federal structures, bicameralism, rigid constitutions protected by judicial review, and independent central banks. These institutions ensure, firstly, that only a broad supermajority can control policy and, secondly, that once a coalition takes power, its ability to infringe on minority rights is limited. In Patterns of Democracy
(1999, 2nd ed., 2012), Lijphart classifies thirty-six democracies using these attributes. He finds consensus democracies to be "kinder, gentler" states, having lower incarceration rates, less use of the death penalty, better care for the environment, more foreign aid work, and more welfare spending – qualities he feels "should appeal to all democrats".[2] He also finds that consensus democracies have a less abrasive political culture, more functional business-like proceedings, and a results-oriented ethic. The 2012 edition included data up to 2010 and found proportional representation (PR) was vastly superior for the "quality of democracy", being statistically significantly better for 19 of 19 indicators. On the issue of “effective government” 16 out of 17 indicators pointed to PR as superior, with 9 out of 17 statistically significant. These results held up when controlling for the level of development and population size. Lijphart has also made influential contributions to methodological debates within comparative politics, most notably through his 1971 article ' Comparative politics and the comparative method', published in the American Political Science Review.[3] Honours[edit] In 1989, Lijphart was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and from 1995 to 1996 served as President of the American Political Science Association.[4] In 1993 he became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands
Academy of Arts and Sciences.[5] He was awarded the prestigious Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science in 1997.[6] Publications[edit] Books[edit]

The Trauma of Decolonization: The Dutch & West New Guinea. New Haven: Yale University
Yale University
Press, 1966. The Politics of Accommodation. Pluralism and Democracy
in the Netherlands, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968. Democracy
in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven: Yale University
Yale University
Press, 1977. ISBN 0-300-02494-0. Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian & Consensus Government in Twenty-one Countries. New Haven: Yale University
Yale University
Press, 1984. ISBN 0-300-03182-3. Power-Sharing in South Africa. Berkeley: Institute of International Studies, University of California, 1985. ISBN 0-87725-524-5. Grofman, Bernard, and Lijphart, Arend (eds.). Electoral Laws & Their Political Consequences. New York: Agathon Press, 1986. ISBN 0-87586-074-5. Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945–1990. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-19-828054-8. Lijphart, Arend, and Waisman, Carlos H. (eds.). Institutional Design in New Democracies. Boulder: Westview, 1996. ISBN 0-8133-2109-3. Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms & Performance in Thirty-six Countries. New Haven: Yale University
Yale University
Press, 1999. ISBN 0-300-07893-5 Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms & Performance in Thirty-six Countries, Second Edition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780300172027 Grofman, Bernard and Lijphart, Arend (eds.). The Evolution of Electoral & Party Systems in the Nordic Countries. New York: Agathon Press. ISBN 0-87586-138-5.

Journal articles[edit]

Lijphart, Arend; Schmidt, Manfred G. (February 1997). "Dimensions of democracies". European Journal of Political Research. Wiley. 31 (1–2): 193–204. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6765.1997.tb00774.x.  Lijphart, Arend (June 1998). "Consensus and consensus democracy: cultural, structural, functional, and rational-choice explanations". Scandinavian Political Studies. Wiley. 21 (2): 99–108. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9477.1998.tb00007.x.  Lecture given by the Winner of the Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science, Uppsala, October 4, 1997 Full text. Lijphart, Arend (December 1999). "Power–sharing and group autonomy in the 1990s and the 21st century" (PDF). Constitutional Design 2000. Kellogg Institute for International Studies, University of Notre Dame.  Lijphart, Arend (September 2000). "The future of democracy: reasons for pessimism, but also some optimism". Scandinavian Political Studies, special section: The Future of Democracy
(pp. 245–283). Wiley. 23 (3): 265–273. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.00038.  Full text. Lijphart, Arend (January 2002). "Negotiation democracy versus consensus democracy: parallel conclusions and recommendations". European Journal of Political Research. Wiley. 41 (1): 107–113. doi:10.1111/1475-6765.00005.  Lijphart, Arend (April 2004). "Constitutional design for divided societies". Journal of Democracy. Project MUSE. 15 (2): 96–109. doi:10.1353/jod.2004.0029.  Pdf. Vatter, Adrian (March 2009). "Lijphart expanded: three dimensions of democracy in advanced OECD countries?". European Political Science Review. Cambridge Journals. 1 (1): 125–154. doi:10.1017/S1755773909000071. 

Further reading[edit]

Summaries of Lijphart's major works Lijphart, Arend (2000). Democracy
in the twenty-first century: can we be optimistic? (Uhlenbeck Lecture 18) (PDF). Wassenaar, Netherlands: Netherlands
Institute for Advanced Study. ISBN 9789071093340. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2008.  Staff writer (May 26, 2008). " Arend Lijphart on sharing power in Africa and the future of democracy (interview)". Theory Talk. Peer Schouten. 8.  Rylee, Ryan (8 March 2012). "Arend Lijphart: patterns of democracy: government forms and performance in thirty-six countries (interview)". New Books Network. Yale University
Yale University
Press. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013.  Podcast.


^ Lijphart, Arend (1999). Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07893-5.  ^ Lijphart, Arend (1999). Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 293. ISBN 0-300-07893-5.  ^ Lijphart, Arend (1971). " Comparative politics and the comparative method". American Political Science Review. The American Political Science Review, Vol. 65, No. 3. 65 (3): 682–693. doi:10.2307/1955513. JSTOR 1955513.  ^ "Arend Lijphart". Department of Political Science, University of California at San Diego. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2008.  ^ "Arend Lijphart". Royal Netherlands
Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 15 August 2015.  ^ "Johan Skytte Prize winners". Skytte Foundation, Uppsala University. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 23 August 2008. 

External links[edit]

Arend Lijphart at UCSD

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Presidents of the American Political Science Association


Frank Johnson Goodnow
Frank Johnson Goodnow
(1903-05) Albert Shaw (1905-06) Frederick N. Judson (1906-07) James Bryce (1907-08) Abbott Lawrence Lowell
Abbott Lawrence Lowell
(1908-09) Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(1909-10) Simeon Eben Baldwin
Simeon Eben Baldwin
(1910-11) Albert Bushnell Hart
Albert Bushnell Hart
(1911-12) Westel W. Willoughby (1912-13) John Bassett Moore
John Bassett Moore
(1913-14) Ernst Freund (1914-15) Jesse Macy (1915-16) Munroe Smith (1916-18) Henry Jones Ford
Henry Jones Ford
(1918-19) Paul Samuel Reinsch
Paul Samuel Reinsch
(1919-20) Leo Stanton Rowe
Leo Stanton Rowe
(1920-21) William Archibald Dunning (1921-22) Harry Augustus Garfield
Harry Augustus Garfield
(1922-23) James Wilford Garner (1923-24) Charles Edward Merriam
Charles Edward Merriam


Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
(1925-26) William B. Munro (1926-27) Jesse S. Reeves (1927-28) John A. Fairlie (1928-29) Benjamin F. Shambaugh (1929-30) Edward Samuel Corwin
Edward Samuel Corwin
(1930-31) William F. Willoughby (1931-32) Isidor Loeb (1932-33) Walter J. Shepard (1933-34) Francis W. Coker (1934-35) Arthur N. Holcombe (1935-36) Thomas Reed Powell (1936-37) Clarence Addison Dykstra (1937-38) Charles Grove Haines (1938-39) Robert C. Brooks (1939-40) Frederic A. Ogg (1940-41) William Anderson (1941-42) Robert E. Cushman (1942-43) Leonard D. White (1943-44) John Gaus (1944-45) Walter F. Dodd
Walter F. Dodd
(1945-46) Arthur MacMahon (1946-47) Henry R. Spencer (1947-48) Quincy Wright (1948-49) James K. Pollock (1949-50)


Peter H. Odegard (1950-51) Luther Gulick (1951-52) E. Pendleton Herring (1952-53) Ralph Bunche
Ralph Bunche
(1953-54) Charles McKinley (1954-55) Harold Lasswell
Harold Lasswell
(1955-56) Elmer Eric Schattschneider (1956-57) V. O. Key Jr. (1957-58) R. Taylor Cole (1958-59) Carl B. Swisher (1959-60) Emmette Redford (1960-61) Charles S. Hyneman (1961-62) Carl Joachim Friedrich (1962-63) C. Herman Pritchett (1963-64) David Truman (1964-65) Gabriel Almond
Gabriel Almond
(1965-66) Robert A. Dahl
Robert A. Dahl
(1966-67) Merle Fainsod (1967-68) David Easton
David Easton
(1968-69) Karl Deutsch (1969-70) Robert E. Lane (1970-71) Heinz Eulau (1971-72) Robert E. Ward (1972-73) Avery Leiserson (1973-74) J. Austin Ranney (1974-75)


James MacGregor Burns (1975-76) Samuel Beer (1976-77) John C. Wahlke (1977-78) Leon D. Epstein (1978-79) Warren Miller (1979-80) Charles E. Lindblom (1980-81) Seymour Martin Lipset
Seymour Martin Lipset
(1981-82) William H. Riker (1982-83) Philip Converse (1983-84) Richard Fenno (1984-85) Aaron Wildavsky (1985-86) Samuel P. Huntington
Samuel P. Huntington
(1986-87) Kenneth Waltz
Kenneth Waltz
(1987-88) Lucian Pye (1988-89) Judith N. Shklar (1989-90) Theodore J. Lowi
Theodore J. Lowi
(1990-91) James Q. Wilson (1991-92) Lucius J. Barker (1992-93) Charles O. Jones (1993-94) Sidney Verba (1994-95) Arend Lijphart (1995-96) Elinor Ostrom
Elinor Ostrom
(1996-97) M. Kent Jennings (1997-98) Matthew Holden (1998-99) Robert Keohane
Robert Keohane


Robert Jervis
Robert Jervis
(2000-01) Robert D. Putnam
Robert D. Putnam
(2001-02) Theda Skocpol
Theda Skocpol
(2002-03) Susanne Hoeber Rudolph (2003-04) Margaret Levi (2004-05) Ira Katznelson (2005-06) Robert Axelrod (2006-07) Dianne Pinderhughes (2007-08) Peter J. Katzenstein (2008-09) Henry Brady (2009-10) Carole Pateman
Carole Pateman
(2010-11) G. Bingham Powell (2011-12) Jane Mansbridge
Jane Mansbridge
(2012-13) John Aldrich (2013-14) Rodney E. Hero (2014-15) Jennifer Hochschild (2015-16) David A. Lake (2016-)

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Recipients of the Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science

1995 Robert A. Dahl 1996 Juan José Linz 1997 Arend Lijphart 1998 Alexander L. George 1999 Elinor Ostrom 2000 Fritz W. Scharpf 2001 Brian Barry 2002 Sidney Verba 2003 Hanna Pitkin 2004 Jean Blondel 2005 Robert Keohane 2006 Robert D. Putnam 2007 Theda Skocpol 2008 Rein Taagepera 2009 Philippe C. Schmitter 2010 Adam Przeworski 2011 Ronald Inglehart
Ronald Inglehart
/ Pippa Norris 2012 Carole Pateman 2013 Robert Axelrod 2014 David Collier 2015 Francis Fukuyama 2016 Jon Elster 2017 Amartya Sen

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 84666485 LCCN: n50050158 ISNI: 0000 0001 0920 6994 GND: 122454499 SELIBR: 256405 SUDOC: 028576500 BNF: cb120384541 (data) NDL: 00447688