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An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty
(AONB) is an area of countryside in England, Wales
Wales
or Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
which has been designated for conservation due to its significant landscape value. Areas are designated in recognition of their national importance, by the relevant public body: Natural England, Natural Resources Wales, or the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Environment Agency. In place of AONB, Scotland uses the similar national scenic area designation. Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty enjoy levels of protection from development similar to those of UK national parks, but unlike with national parks the responsible bodies do not have their own planning powers. They also differ from national parks in their more limited opportunities for extensive outdoor recreation.[1]

Contents

1 Overview

1.1 Origins 1.2 Statistical overview 1.3 Legal status and organization 1.4 Threats

2 List of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty

2.1 England 2.2 Wales 2.3 Northern Ireland

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Overview[edit] The primary purpose of the AONB designation is to conserve and enhance the natural beauty of the landscape, with two secondary aims: meeting the need for quiet enjoyment of the countryside and having regard for the interests of those who live and work there. To achieve these aims, AONBs rely on planning controls and practical countryside management. As they have the same landscape quality, AONBs may be compared to the national parks of England
England
and Wales. National parks are well known to many inhabitants of the UK; by contrast, there is evidence to indicate many residents in AONBs may be unaware of the status. However, the National Association of AONBs is working to increase awareness of AONBs in local communities,[2] and in 2014 successfully negotiated to have the boundaries of AONBs in England
England
shown on Google Maps.[3] Origins[edit] The idea for what would eventually become the AONB designation was first put forward by John Dower in his 1945 Report to the Government on National Parks in England
England
and Wales. Dower suggested there was need for protection of certain naturally beautiful landscapes which were unsuitable as national parks due to their small size and lack of wildness. Dower's recommendation for the designation of these "other amenity areas" was eventually embodied in the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 as the AONB designation.[4] Statistical overview[edit]

View from the Gower peninsula, the first AONB to be designated.

There are 46 AONBs in Britain (33 wholly in England, four wholly in Wales, one which straddles the English/Welsh border and eight in Northern Ireland). The first AONB was designated in 1956 in the Gower Peninsula, South Wales. The most recently confirmed is the Tamar Valley AONB in 1995,[5] although the existing Clwydian Range
Clwydian Range
AONB was extended in 2012 to form the Clwydian Range
Clwydian Range
and Dee Valley AONB, and the Strangford Lough
Strangford Lough
and Lecale Coast AONBs were merged and redesignated as a single AONB in 2010.[6] AONBs vary greatly in terms of size, type and use of land, and whether they are partly or wholly open to the public. The smallest AONB is the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
(1976), 16 km2 (6.2 sq mi), and the largest is the Cotswolds[7] (1966, extended 1990[8]), 2,038 km2 (787 sq mi). The AONBs of England
England
and Wales
Wales
together cover around 18% of the countryside in the two countries. The AONBs of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
together cover about 70% of Northern Ireland's coastline.[4] Legal status and organization[edit] AONBs in England
England
and Wales
Wales
were originally created under the same legislation as the national parks, the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949. Unlike AONBs, national parks have special legal powers to prevent unsympathetic development. AONBs in general remain the responsibility of their local authorities by means of special committees which include members appointed by the Minister and by parishes, and only very limited statutory duties were imposed on local authorities within an AONB by the original 1949 Act. However, further regulation and protection of AONBs in England
England
and Wales
Wales
was added by the Countryside and Rights of Way (CRoW) Act 2000, under which new designations are now made,[9][10] and the Government has recently in the National Planning Policy Framework (March 2012) stated that AONBs and national parks have equal status when it comes to planning decisions on landscape issues. Two of the AONBs (the Cotswolds
Cotswolds
and the Chilterns), which extend into a large number of local authority areas, have their own statutory bodies, known as Conservation Boards. All English and Welsh AONBs have a dedicated AONB officer and other staff. As required by the CRoW Act, each AONB has a management plan that sets out the characteristics and special qualities of the landscape and how they will be conserved and enhanced. The AONBs are collectively represented by the National Association for AONBs, an independent organization acting on behalf of AONBs and their partners. AONBs in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
was designated originally under the Amenity Lands (NI) Act 1965; subsequently under the Nature Conservation and Amenity Lands (NI) Order 1985.[11] Threats[edit]

Falmer stadium under construction in 2010 in the former Sussex Downs AONB

There are growing concerns among environmental and countryside groups that AONB status is increasingly under threat from development. The Campaign to Protect Rural England
England
said in July 2006 that many AONBs were under greater threat than ever before.[12] Three particular sites were cited: the Dorset AONB
Dorset AONB
threatened by a road plan, the threat of a football stadium in the Sussex Downs AONB, and, larger than any other, a £1 billion plan by Imperial College
Imperial College
to build thousands of houses and offices on hundreds of acres of AONB land on the Kent Downs at Wye.[13] In September 2007 government approval was finally given for the development of a new football ground for Brighton and Hove Albion within the boundaries of the Sussex Downs AONB, after a fierce fight by conservationists. The subsequent development, known as Falmer Stadium, was officially opened in July 2011. The Weymouth Relief Road in Dorset was constructed between 2008 and 2011, after environmental groups lost a High Court challenge to prevent its construction.[14] Writing in 2006, Professor Adrian Phillips listed threats facing AONBs. He wrote that the apparent big threats were uncertainty over future support for land management, increasing development pressures, the impacts of globalization, and climate change. More subtle threats include creeping sub-urbanization and "Horsiculture".[4] List of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty[edit] England[edit]

AONB Established km2 sq mi

Arnside and Silverdale 1972 75 29

Blackdown Hills 1991 370 143

Cannock Chase 1958 68 26

Chichester Harbour 1970 37 14

Chiltern Hills 1965 833 322

Cornwall 1959 958 370

Cotswolds 1966 2038 787

Cranborne Chase
Cranborne Chase
and the West Wiltshire Downs 1981 983 380

Dedham Vale 1970 90 35

Dorset 1959 1129 436

East Devon 1963 103 268

Forest of Bowland 1964 803 312

High Weald 1983 1460 564

Howardian Hills 1987 204 79

Isle of Wight 1963 189 73

Isles of Scilly 1975 16 6

Kent Downs 1968 878 339

Lincolnshire Wolds 1973 560 216

Malvern Hills 1959 12 5

Mendip Hills 1972 200 77

Nidderdale 1994 603 233

Norfolk Coast 1968 453 175

North Devon Coast 1959 171 66

North Pennines 1988 1983 766

Northumberland Coast 1958 138 53

North Wessex Downs 1972 1730 668

Quantock Hills 1956 98 38

Shropshire Hills 1958 802 310

Solway Coast 1964 115 44

South Devon 1960 337 130

Suffolk Coast and Heaths 1970 403 155

Surrey Hills 1958 422 163

Tamar Valley 1995 190 75

Wye Valley
Wye Valley
(partly in Wales) 1971 326 126

Wales[edit]

Anglesey Clwydian Range
Clwydian Range
and Dee Valley Gower Peninsula Llŷn Peninsula Wye Valley
Wye Valley
(partly in England)

Northern Ireland[edit]

Antrim Coast and Glens Binevenagh Causeway Coast Lagan Valley Mourne Mountains Ring of Gullion Sperrins Strangford and Lecale[6]

See also[edit]

Conservation in the United Kingdom European Landscape Convention Landscape-scale conservation National parks of England
England
and Wales National parks of Northern Ireland

References[edit]

^ "Areas of outstanding natural beauty (AONBs): designation and management - GOV.UK". www.naturalengland.org.uk. Retrieved 16 February 2018.  ^ "NAAONB". Retrieved 16 February 2018.  ^ "Suffolk Coast & Heaths AONB" (PDF). Retrieved 16 February 2018.  ^ a b c "NAAONB". Retrieved 16 February 2018.  ^ "Tamar Valley - What is the Tamar Valley AONB?". www.tamarvalley.org.uk. Retrieved 16 February 2018.  ^ a b " Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Environment Agency". Retrieved 16 February 2018.  ^ Cotswolds
Cotswolds
AONB Archived 14 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Cotswolds
Cotswolds
AONB" (PDF). Retrieved 16 February 2018.  ^ Staffordshire Moorlands District Council Archived 11 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "High Weald AONB". Retrieved 16 February 2018.  ^ Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Environment Agency Archived 2 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "CPRE : News releases : Outstandingly beautiful, still seriously threatened". 26 September 2006. Retrieved 16 February 2018.  ^ "save-wye.org". save-wye.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.  ^ "Relief road opens after 60 years". 17 March 2011. Retrieved 16 February 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk. 

External links[edit] AONB Family website

http://www.landscapesforlife.org.uk

v t e

Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in England

East of England

Chilterns Dedham Vale Norfolk Coast Suffolk Coast and Heaths

East Midlands

Lincolnshire Wolds

North East

Northumberland Coast North Pennines

North West

Arnside and Silverdale Forest of Bowland North Pennines Solway Coast

South East

Chichester Harbour Chilterns Cranborne Chase
Cranborne Chase
and West Wiltshire Downs High Weald Isle of Wight Kent Downs North Wessex Downs Surrey Hills

Former: East Hampshire1 South Hampshire Coast2 Sussex Downs1

South West

Blackdown Hills Cranborne Chase
Cranborne Chase
and West Wiltshire Downs Cornwall Cotswolds Dorset East Devon Isles of Scilly Mendip Hills North Devon Coast North Wessex Downs Quantock Hills South Devon Tamar Valley Wye Valley3

West Midlands

Cannock Chase Cotswolds Malvern Hills Shropshire Hills Wye Valley3

Yorkshire and Humber

Forest of Bowland Howardian Hills Nidderdale

1 Now part of South Downs National Park • 2 Now part of New Forest National Park • 3 Partly in Wales

v t e

Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in Wales

Anglesey Clwydian Range
Clwydian Range
and Dee Valley Gower Llŷn Wye Valley1

1 Partly in England

v t e

Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in Northern Ireland

Antrim Coast and Glens Causeway Coast Lagan Valley Mourne Binevenagh Ring of Gullion Sperrin Strangford and Lecale Erne Lakeland† Fermanagh Caveland†

Areas marke

.