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Ardhamagadhi Prakrit was a Middle Indo-Aryan language and a Dramatic Prakrit thought to have been spoken in modern-day Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and used in some early Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
. It was likely a Central Indo-Aryan language, related to Pali
Pali
and the later Sauraseni Prakrit.[3] It was originally thought to be a predecessor of the vernacular Magadhi Prakrit, hence the name (literally "half-Magadhi"). Pali
Pali
and Ardhamāgadhī[edit] Theravada
Theravada
Buddhist tradition has long held that Pali
Pali
was synonymous with Magadhi and there are many analogies between it and an older form of Magadhi called Ardhamāgadhī "Proto-Magadhi". Ardhamāgadhī was prominently used by Jain
Jain
scholars[4] and is preserved in the Jain Agamas. Both Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
and the tirthankara Mahavira
Mahavira
preached in Magadha. Ardhamāgadhī differs from later Magadhi Prakrit on similar points as Pāli. For example, Ardhamāgadhī preserves historical [l], unlike later Magadhi, where [l] changed into [r]. Additionally, in the noun inflection, Ardhamagadhi shows the ending [-o] instead of Magadhi Prakrit [-e] in many metrical places. Pali: Dhammapada
Dhammapada
103:

Yo sahassaṃ sahassena, saṅgāme mānuse jine; Ekañca jeyyamattānaṃ, sa ve saṅgāmajuttamo. Greater in battle than the man who would conquer a thousand-thousand men, is he who would conquer just one — himself.

Ardhamagadhi: Saman Suttam
Saman Suttam
125:

Jo sahassam sahassanam, samgame dujjae jine. Egam jinejja appanam, esa se paramo jao. One may conquer thousands and thousands of enemies in an invincible battle; but the supreme victory consists in conquest over one's self.

References[edit]

^ Saksena, Baburam (1971). Evolution of Awadhi (a Branch of Hindi). 9788120808553: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 7.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Harrison, Selig S. (2015). India: The Most Dangerous Decades. Princeton University Press. p. 26. ISBN 9781400877805.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (2003), "The historical context and development of Indo-Aryan", The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge language family series, London: Routledge, pp. 46–66, ISBN 0-7007-1130-9  ^ Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5. 

External links[edit]

An Illustrated Ardha-Magadh

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