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Arctica
Arctica
or Arctida[1] was an ancient continent which formed approximately 2.565 billion years ago in the Neoarchean era. It was made of Archaean cratons, including the Aldan and Anabar/Angara cratons in Siberia and the Slave, Wyoming, Superior, and North Atlantic cratons in North America.[2] Arctica
Arctica
was named by Rogers 1996 because the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean formed by the separation of the North American and Siberian cratons.[3] Russian geologists writing in English call the continent "Arctida" since it was given that name in 1987,[1] alternatively the Hyperborean craton,[4] in reference to the hyperboreans in Greek mythology. Nikolay Shatsky (Shatsky 1935) was the first to assume that the crust in the Arctic
Arctic
region was of continental origin.[5] Shatsky, however, was a "fixist" and, erroneously, explained the presence of Precambrian and Paleozoic metamorphic rocks on the New Siberian, Wrangel, and De long Islands with subduction. "Mobilists", on the other hand, also erroneously, proposed that North America
North America
had rifted from Eurasia
Eurasia
and that the Arctic
Arctic
basins had opened behind a retreating Alaska.[6]

Contents

1 Precambrian continent 2 Phanerozoic microcontinent 3 See also 4 References

4.1 Notes 4.2 Sources

Precambrian continent[edit] In his reconstruction of the supercontinent cycle, Rogers proposed that the continent Ur formed at about 3 Ga and formed East Gondwana
Gondwana
in the Middle Proterozoic by accretion to East Antarctica; Arctica
Arctica
formed around 2.5–2 Ga by the amalgamation of the Canadian and Siberian shields plus Greenland; and Atlantica
Atlantica
formed around 2 Ga by the amalgamation of the West African Craton
Craton
and eastern South America. Arctica
Arctica
then grew around 1.5 Ga by accretion of East Antarctica
East Antarctica
and Baltica
Baltica
to form the supercontinent Nena. Around 1 Ga Nena, Ur, and Atlantica
Atlantica
collided to form the supercontinent Rodinia.[7] Rogers & Santosh 2003 argued that most cratons that were around at 2.5 Ga most likely formed in a single region simply because they were located in a single region in Pangaea, which is the reason Rogers argued for the existence of Arctica. The core of Arctica
Arctica
was the Canadian Shield, which Williams et al. 1991 named Kenorland. They argued that this continent formed around 2.5 Ga then rifted before reassembling along the 1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson and Taltson-Thelon orogenies. These two orogenies are derived from continental crust (not oceanic crust) and were probably intracontinental, leaving Kenorland intact from 2.5 Ga to present. Correlations between orogenies in Canada and Siberia remain more controversial.[8] Laurentia
Laurentia
and Baltica
Baltica
were connected during the Late Palaeoproterzoic (1.7–1.74 Ga) and Siberia later joined them. Paleomagnetic reconstructions indicate that they formed a single supercontinent during the Mesoproterozoic (1.5–1.45 Ga) but paleomagnetic data and geological evidences also suggest a considerable spatial gap between Siberia and Laurentia
Laurentia
and Arctica
Arctica
is thought to be the missing link.[9] Phanerozoic microcontinent[edit] The current geological structure of the Arctic
Arctic
Region is the result of tectonic processes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic (250 Ma to present) when the Amerasian and Eurasian basins formed, but the presence of Precambrian metamorphic complexes discovered in the 1980s indicated a continent once existed between Laurentia, Baltica, and Siberia.[10] In the reconstruction of Metelkin, Vernikovsky & Matushkin 2015, Arctica
Arctica
originally formed as a continent during the Tonian 950 Ma and became part of the supercontinent Rodinia. It reformed during the Permian-Triassic 255 Ma and became part of Pangaea. During this period the configuration of Arctica
Arctica
changed and the continent moved from near the Equator to near the North Pole while keeping its position between three major cratons: Laurentia, Baltica, and Siberia.[1][11] An extended magmatic event, the High Arctic
Arctic
Large Igneous Province, broke Arctica
Arctica
in part 130–90 Ma, opened the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, and left radiating dyke swarms across the Arctic.[12] Fragments of this continent include the Kara Shelf, New Siberian Islands, northern Alaska, Chukotka Peninsula, Inuit Fold Belt in northern Greenland, and two Arctic
Arctic
underwater ridges, the Lomonosov and Alpha-Mendeleev Ridges. More recent reconstructions also include Barentsia (including Svalbard
Svalbard
and Timan-Pechora Plates).[10] Remains of the last continent are now located on the Kara Sea
Kara Sea
Shelf, New Siberian Islands and adjacent shelf, Alaska
Alaska
north of Brooks Ridge, Chukchi Peninsula
Chukchi Peninsula
in eastern-most Siberia, and fragments in northern Greenland
Greenland
and Northern Canada
Northern Canada
and in the submerged Lomonosov Ridge.[13] See also[edit]

List of supercontinents Penokean orogeny

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b c Vernikovsky & Dobretsov 2015, p. 206 ^ Rogers 1996, Fig. 4, p. 97 ^ Rogers 1996, p. 97 ^ E.g. Khain, Polyakova & Filatova 2009, Tectonic units and their history, p. 335 ^ Khain & Filatova 2009, p. 1076 ^ Zonenshain & Natapov 1987, Introduction, p. 829 ^ Rogers 1996, Abstract ^ Rogers & Santosh 2003, Arctica
Arctica
and Kenorland (~2500 Ma), pp. 360–361 ^ Tait & Pisarevsky 2009, p. 37 ^ a b Vernikovsky et al. 2014, Introduction, pp. 265–266 ^ Vernikovsky & Dobretsov 2015, Fig. 2, p. 208 ^ Ernst & Bleeker 2010, 90–130 Ma: northern Canada, initiation of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, p. 701, fig. 6b, p.705 ^ Metelkin, Vernikovsky & Matushkin 2015, Introduction, p. 114; Fig. 1, p. 115

Sources[edit]

Ernst, R.; Bleeker, W. (2010). "Large igneous provinces (LIPs), giant dyke swarms, and mantle plumes: significance for breakup events within Canada and adjacent regions from 2.5 Ga to the Present". Canadian Journal of Earth
Earth
Sciences. 47 (5): 695–739. Bibcode:2010CaJES..47..695E. doi:10.1139/E10-025. Retrieved March 2016.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) Khain, V. E.; Filatova, N. I. (2009). "From Hyperborea
Hyperborea
to Arctida: The Problem of the Precambrian Central Arctic
Arctic
Craton". Doklady Earth Sciences. 428 (1): 1076–1079. Bibcode:2009DokES.428.1076K. doi:10.1134/S1028334X09070071.  Khain, V. E.; Polyakova, I. D.; Filatova, N. I. (2009). "Tectonics and petroleum potential of the East Arctic
Arctic
province" (PDF). Russian Geology and Geophysics. 50 (4): 334–345. Bibcode:2009RuGG...50..334K. doi:10.1016/j.rgg.2009.03.006. Retrieved March 2016.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) Metelkin, D. V.; Vernikovsky, V. A.; Matushkin, N. Y. (2015). "Arctida between Rodinia
Rodinia
and Pangea" (PDF). Precambrian Research. 259: 114–129. Bibcode:2015PreR..259..114M. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2014.09.013. Retrieved March 2016.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) Rogers, J. J. W. (1996). "A history of continents in the past three billion years". Journal of Geology. 104: 91–107, Chicago. Bibcode:1996JG....104...91R. doi:10.1086/629803. JSTOR 30068065.  Rogers, J. J. W.; Santosh, M. (2003). "Supercontinents in Earth History" (PDF). Gondwana
Gondwana
Research. 6 (3): 357–368. Bibcode:2003GondR...6..357R. doi:10.1016/S1342-937X(05)70993-X. Retrieved March 2016.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) Sankaran, A. V. (2003). "The Supercontinent
Supercontinent
Medley: Recent Views" (PDF). Current Science. 85 (8): 1121–1123. Retrieved February 2016.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) Shatsky, N. S. (1935). "On the tectonics of the Arctic". Geology and Mineral Resources in the North of the USSR (in Russian). 1. pp. 149–165.  Tait, J. A.; Pisarevsky, S. A. (2009). Siberia, Laurentia
Laurentia
and Baltica in Mesoproterozoic (PDF). 2nd International Conference on Precambrian Continental Growth and Tectonism. doi:10.13140/2.1.3432.3840. Retrieved March 2016.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) Vernikovsky, V. A.; Dobretsov, N. L. (2015). "Geodynamic evolution of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean and modern problems in geological studies of the Arctic
Arctic
region" (PDF). Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 85 (3): 206–212. doi:10.1134/S1019331615030193. Retrieved March 2016.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) Vernikovsky, V. A.; Metelkin, D. V.; Vernikovskaya, A. E.; Matushkin, N. Y.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Shipilov, E. V. (2014). "Early evolution stages of the arctic margins (Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic) and plate reconstructions" (PDF). Proceedings of the International Conference on Arctic
Arctic
Margins VI. Fairbanks, Alaska. Retrieved March 2016.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) Williams, H.; Hoffman, P. E.; Lewry, J. F.; Monger, J .W. H.; Rivers, T. (1991). "Anatomy of North America: thematic portrayals of the continent". Tectonophysics. 187 (1–3): 117–134. Bibcode:1991Tectp.187..117W. doi:10.1016/0040-1951(91)90416-P.  Zonenshain, L. P.; Natapov, L. M. (1987). "Tectonic History of the Arctic
Arctic
Region from the Ordivician Through the Cretaceous". In Herman, Yvonne. The Arctic
Arctic
Seas: Climatology, Oceanography, Geology, and Biology. Springer. ISBN 9781461306771. Retrieved March 2016.  Check date values in: access-date= (help)

v t e

Continents of the world

   

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

   

Afro-Eurasia

America

Eurasia

Oceania

   

Former supercontinents Gondwana Laurasia Pangaea Pannotia Rodinia Columbia Kenorland Nena Sclavia Ur Vaalbara

Historical continents Amazonia Arctica Asiamerica Atlantica Avalonia Baltica Cimmeria Congo craton Euramerica Kalaharia Kazakhstania Laurentia North China Siberia South China East Antarctica India

   

Submerged continents Kerguelen Plateau Zealandia

Possible future supercontinents Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima Amasia Novopangaea

Mythical and hypothesised continents Atlantis Kumari Kandam Lemuria Meropis Mu Hyperborea Terra Australis

See also Regions of the world Continental fragment

.