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ARCTICA or ARCTIDA was an ancient continent which formed approximately 2.565 billion years ago in the Neoarchean era. It was made of Archaean cratons , including the Aldan and Anabar /Angara cratons in Siberia and the Slave , Wyoming , Superior , and North Atlantic cratons in North America. Arctica
Arctica
was named by Rogers 1996 because the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
formed by the separation of the North American and Siberian cratons. Russian geologists writing in English call the continent "Arctida" since it was given that name in 1987, alternatively the HYPERBOREAN CRATON, in reference to the hyperboreans in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
.

Nikolay Shatsky (Shatsky 1935 ) was the first to assume that the crust in the Arctic region was of continental origin. Shatsky, however, was a "fixist" and, erroneously, explained the presence of Precambrian and Paleozoic metamorphic rocks on the New Siberian, Wrangel, and De long Islands with subduction. "Mobilists", on the other hand, also erroneously, proposed that North America
North America
had rifted from Eurasia
Eurasia
and that the Arctic basins had opened behind a retreating Alaska.

CONTENTS

* 1 Precambrian continent * 2 Phanerozoic microcontinent * 3 See also

* 4 References

* 4.1 Notes * 4.2 Sources

PRECAMBRIAN CONTINENT

In his reconstruction of the supercontinent cycle , Rogers proposed that the continent Ur formed at about 3 Ga and formed East Gondwana the Middle Proterozoic by accretion to East Antarctica
East Antarctica
; Arctica formed around 2.5–2 Ga by the amalgamation of the Canadian and Siberian shields plus Greenland; and Atlantica
Atlantica
formed around 2 Ga by the amalgamation of the West African Craton
Craton
and eastern South America. Arctica
Arctica
then grew around 1.5 Ga by accretion of East Antarctica
East Antarctica
and Baltica
Baltica
to form the supercontinent Nena . Around 1 Ga Nena, Ur, and Atlantica
Atlantica
collided to form the supercontinent Rodinia
Rodinia
.

Rogers & Santosh 2003 argued that most cratons that were around at 2.5 Ga most likely formed in a single region simply because they were located in a single region in Pangaea, which is the reason Rogers argued for the existence of Artica. The core of Artica was the Canadian Shield, which Williams et al. 1991 named Kenorland . They argued that this continent formed around 2.5 Ga then rifted before reassembling along the 1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson and Taltson-Thelon orogenies. These two orogenies are derived from continental crust (not oceanic crust) and were probably intracontinental, leaving Kenorland intact from 2.5 Ga to present. Correlations between orogenies in Canada and Siberia remain more controversial.

Laurentia
Laurentia
and Baltica
Baltica
were connected during the Late Palaeoproterzoic (1.7–1.74 Ga) and Siberia later joined them. Paleomagnetic reconstructions indicate that they formed a single supercontinent during the Mesoproterozoic (1.5–1.45 Ga) but paleomagnetic data and geological evidences also suggest a considerable spatial gap between Siberia and Laurentia
Laurentia
and Arctica
Arctica
is thought to be the missing link.

PHANEROZOIC MICROCONTINENT

The current geological structure of the Arctic Region is the result of tectonic processes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic (250 Ma to present) when the Amerasian and Eurasian basins formed, but the presence of Precambrian metamorphic complexes discovered in the 1980s indicated a continent once existed between Laurentia
Laurentia
, Baltica
Baltica
, and Siberia .

In the reconstruction of Metelkin, Vernikovsky -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ A B C Vernikovsky & Dobretsov 2015 , p. 206 * ^ Rogers 1996 , Fig. 4, p. 97 * ^ Rogers 1996 , p. 97 * ^ E.g. Khain, Polyakova & Filatova 2009 , Tectonic units and their history, p. 335 * ^ Khain & Filatova 2009 , p. 1076 * ^ Zonenshain & Natapov 1987 , Introduction, p. 829 * ^ Rogers 1996 , Abstract * ^ Rogers & Santosh 2003 , Arctica
Arctica
and Kenorland (~2500 Ma), pp. 360–361 * ^ Tait & Pisarevsky 2009 , p. 37 * ^ A B Vernikovsky et al. 2014 , Introduction, pp. 265–266 * ^ Vernikovsky & Dobretsov 2015 , Fig. 2, p. 208 * ^ Ernst & Bleeker 2010 , 90–130 Ma: northern Canada, initiation of the Arctic Ocean, p. 701, fig. 6b, p.705 * ^ Metelkin, Vernikovsky Fig. 1, p. 115

SOURCES

* Ernst, R.; Bleeker, W. (2010). "Large igneous provinces (LIPs), giant dyke swarms, and mantle plumes: significance for breakup events within Canada and adjacent regions from 2.5 Ga to the Present". Canadian Journal of Earth
Earth
Sciences. 47 (5): 695–739. doi :10.1139/E10-025 . Retrieved March 2016. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * Khain, V. E.; Filatova, N. I. (2009). "From Hyperborea
Hyperborea
to Arctida: The Problem of the Precambrian Central Arctic Craton". Doklady Earth Sciences. 428 (1): 1076–1079. doi :10.1134/S1028334X09070071 . * Khain, V. E.; Polyakova, I. D.; Filatova, N. I. (2009). "Tectonics and petroleum potential of the East Arctic province" (PDF). Russian Geology and Geophysics. 50 (4): 334–345. doi :10.1016/j.rgg.2009.03.006 . Retrieved March 2016. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * Metelkin, D. V.; Vernikovsky, V. A.; Matushkin, N. Y. (2015). "Arctida between Rodinia
Rodinia
and Pangea" (PDF). Precambrian Research. 259: 114–129. doi :10.1016/j.precamres.2014.09.013 . Retrieved March 2016. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * Rogers, J. J. W. (1996). "A history of continents in the past three billion years". Journal of Geology. 104: 91–107, Chicago. Bibcode :1996JG....104...91R. JSTOR
JSTOR
30068065 . doi :10.1086/629803 . * Rogers, J. J. W.; Santosh, M. (2003). "Supercontinents in Earth History" (PDF). Gondwana
Gondwana
Research. 6 (3): 357–368. doi :10.1016/S1342-937X(05)70993-X . Retrieved March 2016. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * Sankaran, A. V. (2003). "The Supercontinent
Supercontinent
Medley: Recent Views" (PDF). Current Science. 85 (8): 1121–1123. Retrieved February 2016. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * Shatsky, N. S. (1935). "On the tectonics of the Arctic". Geology and Mineral Resources in the North of the USSR (in Russian). 1. pp. 149–165. * Tait, J. A.; Pisarevsky, S. A. (2009). Siberia, Laurentia
Laurentia
and Baltica
Baltica
in Mesoproterozoic (PDF). 2nd International Conference on Precambrian Continental Growth and Tectonism. doi :10.13140/2.1.3432.3840 . Retrieved March 2016. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * Vernikovsky, V. A.; Dobretsov, N. L. (2015). "Geodynamic evolution of the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
and modern problems in geological studies of the Arctic region" (PDF). Herald of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 85 (3): 206–212. doi :10.1134/S1019331615030193 . Retrieved March 2016. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * Vernikovsky, V. A.; Metelkin, D. V.; Vernikovskaya, A. E.; Matushkin, N. Y.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Shipilov, E. V. (2014). "Early evolution stages of the arctic margins (Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic) and plate reconstructions" (PDF). Proceedings of the International Conference on Arctic Margins VI. Fairbanks, Alaska. Retrieved March 2016. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * Williams, H.; Hoffman, P. E.; Lewry, J. F.; Monger, J .W. H.; Rivers, T. (1991). "Anatomy of North America: thematic portrayals of the continent". Tectonophysics. 187 (1–3): 117–134. doi :10.1016/0040-1951(91)90416-P . * Zonenshain, L. P.; Natapov, L. M. (1987). "Tectonic History of the Arctic Region from the Ordivician Through the Cretaceous". In Herman, Yvonne. The Arctic Seas: Climatology, Oceanography, Geology, and Biology. Springer. ISBN 9781461306771 . Retrieved March 2016. Check date values in: access-date= (help )

* v * t * e

Continents of the world

Africa
Africa

Antarctica
Antarctica

Asia
Asia

Australia

Europe
Europe

North America
North America

South America
South America

Afro-Eurasia
Afro-Eurasia

Americas
Americas

Eurasia
Eurasia

Oceania
Oceania

* FORMER SUPERCONTINENTS Gondwana
Gondwana
* Laurasia
Laurasia
* Pangaea
Pangaea
* Pannotia
Pannotia
* Rodinia
Rodinia
* Columbia * Kenorland * Nena * Sclavia * Ur * Vaalbara
Vaalbara

* HISTORICAL CONTINENTS Amazonia * Arctica * Asiamerica * Atlantica
Atlantica
* Avalonia
Avalonia
* Baltica
Baltica
* Cimmeria * Congo craton
Congo craton
* Euramerica
Euramerica
* Kalaharia * Kazakhstania * Laurentia
Laurentia
* North China * Siberia * South China * East Antarctica
East Antarctica
* India

* SUBMERGED CONTINENTS Kerguelen Plateau
Kerguelen Plateau
* Zealandia
Zealandia

* POSSIBLE FUTURE SUPERCONTINENTS Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima * Amasia * Novopangaea
Novopangaea

* MYTHICAL AND HYPOTHESISED CONTINENTS Atlantis
Atlantis
* Kumari Kandam * Lemuria * Meropis * Mu * Hyperborea
Hyperborea
* Terra Australis
Terra Australis

* See also Regions of the world * Continental fragment

* BOOK * CATEGORY

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Arctica
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