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The Arctic
Arctic
fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic
Arctic
regions of the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and common throughout the Arctic
Arctic
tundra biome.[1][7] It is well adapted to living in cold environments, and is best known for its thick, warm fur that is also used as camouflage. On average, Arctic
Arctic
foxes only live 3–4 years in the wild.[8] Its body length ranges from 46 to 68 cm (18 to 27 in), with a generally rounded body shape to minimize the escape of body heat. The Arctic
Arctic
fox preys on many small creatures such as lemmings, voles, ringed seal pups, fish, waterfowl, and seabirds. It also eats carrion, berries, seaweed, and insects and other small invertebrates. Arctic foxes form monogamous pairs during the breeding season and they stay together to raise their young in complex underground dens. Occasionally, other family members may assist in raising their young. Natural predators of the Arctic
Arctic
fox are the red fox, golden eagles, wolverines, wolves, and grizzly bears.[9][10]

Contents

1 Behavior

1.1 Reproduction 1.2 Diet

2 Adaptations

2.1 Sensory modalities 2.2 Physiology

3 Size 4 Taxonomy

4.1 Origins 4.2 Subspecies

5 Distribution and habitat

5.1 Migrations and travel

6 Conservation status 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Behavior Arctic
Arctic
foxes must endure a temperature difference of up to 90-100 °C between the external environment and their internal core temperature.[11] To prevent heat loss, the Arctic
Arctic
fox curls up tightly tucking its legs and head under its body and behind its furry tail. This position gives the fox the smallest surface area to volume ratio and protects the least insulated areas. Arctic
Arctic
foxes also stay warm by getting out of the wind and residing in their dens.[12][11] Although the Arctic
Arctic
fox is active year-round and do not hibernate, they attempt to preserve fat by reducing their locomotor activity.[13][14] They build up their fat reserves in the autumn, sometimes increasing their body weight by more than 50%. This provides greater insulation during the winter and a source of energy when food is scarce.[15] Reproduction In the spring, the Arctic
Arctic
fox’s attention switches to reproduction and a home for their potential offspring. They live in large dens in frost-free, slightly raised ground. These are complex systems of tunnels covering as much as 1,000 m2 (1,200 sq yd) and are often in eskers, long ridges of sedimentary material deposited in formerly glaciated regions. These dens may be in existence for many decades and are used by many generations of foxes.[15]

Pups of Arctic
Arctic
fox with summer morph

Arctic
Arctic
foxes tend to select dens that are easily accessible with many entrances, and that are clear from snow and ice making it easier to burrow in. The Arctic
Arctic
fox builds and chooses dens that face southward towards the sun, which makes the den warmer. Arctic
Arctic
foxes prefer large, maze-like dens for predator evasion and a quick escape especially when red foxes are in the area. Natal dens are typically found in rugged terrain, which may provide more protection for the pups. But, the parents will also relocate litters to nearby dens to avoid predators. When red foxes are not in the region, Arctic
Arctic
foxes will use dens that the red fox previously occupied. Shelter quality is more important to the Arctic
Arctic
fox than the proximity of spring prey to a den.[9] The main prey in the tundra is lemmings, which is why the white fox is often called the “lemming fox.” The white fox’s reproduction rates reflect the lemming population density, which cyclically fluctuates every 3-5years.[16][10] When lemmings are abundant, the white fox can give birth to 18 pups, but they often do not reproduce when food is scarce. The “coastal fox” or blue fox lives in an environment where food availability is relatively consistent, and they will have up to 5 pups every year.[10] Breeding usually takes place in April and May, and the gestation period is about 52 days. Litters may contain as many as 25 (the largest litter size in the order Carnivora).[17] The young emerge from the den when 3 to 4 weeks old and are weaned by 9 weeks of age.[15] Arctic
Arctic
foxes are primarily monogamous and both parents will care for the offspring. When predators and prey are abundant, Arctic
Arctic
foxes are more likely to be promiscuous (exhibited in both males and females) and display more complex social structures. Larger packs of foxes consisting of breeding or non-breeding males or females can guard a single territory more proficiently to increase pup survival. When resources are scarce, competition increases and the number of foxes in a territory decreases. On the coasts of Svalbard, the frequency of complex social structures is larger than inland foxes that remain monogamous due to food availability. In Scandinavia, there are more complex social structures compared to other populations due to the presence of the red fox. Also, conservationists are supplying the declining population with supplemental food. One unique case, however, is Iceland
Iceland
where monogamy is the most prevalent. The older offspring (1-year-olds) often remain within their parent’s territory even though predators are absent and there are fewer resources, which may indicate kin selection in the fox.[10] Diet

A Arctic
Arctic
fox (Summer morph) with fish

Arctic
Arctic
foxes generally eat any small animal they can find, including lemmings, voles, other rodents, hares, birds, eggs, fish, and carrion. They scavenge on carcasses left by larger predators such as wolves and polar bears, and in times of scarcity even eat their feces. In areas where they are present, lemmings are their most common prey,[15] and a family of foxes can eat dozens of lemmings each day. In some locations in northern Canada, a high seasonal abundance of migrating birds that breed in the area may provide an important food source. On the coast of Iceland
Iceland
and other islands, their diet consists predominantly of birds. During April and May, the Arctic
Arctic
fox also preys on ringed seal pups when the young animals are confined to a snow den and are relatively helpless. They also consume berries and seaweed, so they may be considered omnivores.[18] This fox is a significant bird-egg predator, consuming eggs of all except the largest tundra bird species.[19] When food is overabundant, the Arctic
Arctic
fox buries (caches) the surplus as a reserve. Arctic
Arctic
foxes survive harsh winters and food scarcity by either hoarding food or storing body fat. Fat is deposited subcutaneously and viscerally in Arctic
Arctic
foxes. At the beginning of winter, the foxes have approximately 14740kJ of energy storage from fat alone. Using the lowest BMR value measured in Arctic
Arctic
foxes, an average sized fox (3.5 kg) would need 471kJ/day during the winter to survive. Arctic
Arctic
foxes can acquire goose eggs (from greater snow geese in Canada) at a rate of 2.7-7.3eggs/h, and they store 80-97% of them. Scats provide evidence that they eat the eggs during the winter after caching. Isotope analysis shows that eggs can still be eaten after a year, and the metabolizable energy of a stored goose egg only decreases by 11% after 60 days (a fresh egg has about 816kJ). Researchers have also noted that some eggs stored in the summer are accessed later the following spring prior to reproduction.[20] Adaptations

Arctic
Arctic
fox sleeping with its tail wrapped around itself

The Arctic
Arctic
fox lives in some of the most frigid extremes on the planet, but they do not start to shiver until the temperature drops to −70 °C (−94 °F). Among its adaptations for survival in the cold is its dense, multilayered pelage, which provides excellent insulation.[21][22] Additionally, the Arctic
Arctic
fox is the only canid whose foot pads are covered in fur. There are two genetically distinct coat color morphs: white and blue.[23] In the winter the white morph is white in color and turns brown along the back with light grey around the abdomen in summer. The blue morph is often a dark blue, brown, or grey color year-round. Although the blue allele is dominant over the white allele, 99% of the Arctic
Arctic
fox population is the white morph.[10][16] The fur of the Arctic
Arctic
fox provides the best insulation of any mammal.[24] The fox has a low surface area to volume ratio, as evidenced by its generally compact body shape, short muzzle and legs, and short, thick ears. Since less of its surface area is exposed to the Arctic
Arctic
cold, less heat escapes from its body.[25] Sensory modalities The Arctic
Arctic
fox has a functional hearing range between 125 Hz–16 kHz with a sensitivity that is ≤ 60 dB in air, and an average peak sensitivity of 24 dB at 4 kHz. Overall, the Arctic
Arctic
foxes hearing is less sensitive than the dog and the kit fox. The Arctic
Arctic
fox and the kit fox have a low upper-frequency limit compared to the domestic dog and other carnivores.[26] The Arctic
Arctic
fox can easily hear lemmings burrowing under 4-5 inches of snow.[27] When it has located its prey, it pounces and punches through the snow to catch its victim. [25] The Arctic
Arctic
fox also has a keen sense of smell. They can smell carcasses that are often left by polar bears anywhere from 10–40 km. It is possible that they use their sense of smell to also track down polar bears. Additionally, Arctic
Arctic
foxes can smell and find frozen lemmings under 46–77 cm of snow, and can detect a subnivean seal lair under 150 cm of snow.[28] Physiology The Arctic
Arctic
fox contains advantageous genes to overcome extreme cold and starvation periods. Transcriptome sequencing has identified two genes that are under positive selection: Glycolipid transfer protein domain containing 1 (GLTPD1) and V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2 (AKT2). GLTPD1 is involved in the fatty acid metabolism, while AKT2 pertains to the glucose metabolism and insulin signaling.[29] The average mass specific BMR and total BMR are 37% and 27% lower in the winter than the summer. The Arctic
Arctic
fox decreases its BMR via metabolic depression in the winter to conserve fat storage and minimize energy requirements. According to the most recent data, the lower critical temperature of the Arctic
Arctic
fox is at -7 °C in the winter and 5 °C in the summer. It was commonly believed that the Arctic
Arctic
fox had a lower critical temperature below -40 °C. However, some scientists have concluded that this stat is not accurate since it was never tested using the proper equipment.[11] About 22% of the total body surface area of the Arctic
Arctic
fox dissipates heat readily compared to red foxes at 33%. The regions that have the greatest heat loss are the nose, ears, legs, and feet, which is useful in the summer for thermal heat regulation. Also, the Arctic
Arctic
fox has a beneficial mechanism in their nose for evaporative cooling like dogs, which keeps the brain cool during the summer and exercise.[30] The thermal conductivity of Arctic
Arctic
fox fur in the summer and winter is the same; however, the thermal conductance of the Arctic
Arctic
fox in the winter is lower than the summer since fur thickness increases by 140%. In the summer, the thermal conductance of the Arctic
Arctic
foxes body is 114% higher than the winter, but their body core temperature is constant year-round. One way that Arctic
Arctic
foxes regulate their body temperature is by utilizing a countercurrent heat exchange in the blood of their legs.[11] Arctic
Arctic
foxes can constantly keep their feet above the tissue freezing point (-1 °C) when standing on cold substrates without losing mobility or feeling pain. They do this by increasing vasodilation and blood flow to a capillary rete in the pad surface, which is in direct contact with the snow rather than the entire foot. They selectively vasoconstrict blood vessels in the center of the foot pad, which conserves energy and minimizes heat loss.[31][32] Arctic foxes maintain the temperature in their paws independently from the core temperature. If the core temperature drops, the pad of the foot will remain constantly above the tissue freezing point.[33] Size The average head-and-body length of the male is 55 cm (22 in), with a range of 46 to 68 cm (18 to 27 in), while the female averages 52 cm (20 in) with a range of 41 to 55 cm (16 to 22 in).[21][34] In some regions, no difference in size is seen between males and females. The tail is about 30 cm (12 in) long in both sexes. The height at the shoulder is 25 to 30 cm (9.8 to 11.8 in).[35] On average males weigh 3.5 kg (7.7 lb), with a range of 3.2 to 9.4 kg (7.1 to 20.7 lb), while females average 2.9 kg (6.4 lb), with a range of 1.4 to 3.2 kg (3.1 to 7.1 lb).[21] Taxonomy Vulpes
Vulpes
lagopus is a 'true fox' belonging to the genus Vulpes
Vulpes
of the fox tribe Vulpini, which consists of 12 extant species.[36] It is classified under the subfamily Caninae
Caninae
of the canid family Canidae. Although it has previously been assigned to its own monotypic genus Alopex, recent genetic evidence now places it in the genus Vulpes along with the majority of other foxes.[7][37]

Arctic
Arctic
fox[38](Fig. 10)

Kit fox

Swift fox[39]

Corsac fox

Rüppell's fox

Red fox

Cape fox

Blanford's fox

Fennec fox

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog

Bat-eared fox

It was originally described by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae in 1758 as Canis
Canis
lagopus. The type specimen was recovered from Lapland, Sweden. The generic name vulpes is Latin
Latin
for "fox".[40] The specific name lagopus is derived from Ancient Greek λαγώς (lagōs, "hare") and πούς (pous, "foot"), referring to the hair on its feet similar to those found in cold-climate species of hares.[39] Looking at the most recent phylogeny, the Arctic
Arctic
fox diverged from the domesticated dog ( Canis
Canis
lupus familiaris) at approximately 12MYA. The Arctic
Arctic
fox and the red fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
vulpes) diverged approximately 3.17MYA. Additionally, the Arctic
Arctic
fox diverged from its sister group, the kit fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
macrotis), at about 0.9MYA.[41] Origins The origins of the Arctic
Arctic
fox have been described by the “out of Tibet” hypothesis. On the Tibetan Plateau, fossils of the extinct ancestral Arctic
Arctic
fox ( Vulpes
Vulpes
giuzhudingi) from the early Pliocene (5.08-3.6 MYA) were found along with many other precursors of modern mammals that evolved during the Pliocene (5.3-2.6 MYA). It is believed that this ancient fox is the ancestor of the modern Arctic
Arctic
fox. Globally, the Pliocene was about 2-3 °C warmer than today, and the Arctic
Arctic
during the summer in the mid-Pliocene was 8 °C warmer. By using stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis of fossils, researchers claim that the Tibetan Plateau experienced tundra-like conditions during the Pliocene and harbored cold-adapted mammals that later spread to North America and Eurasia during the Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million-11,700 years ago).[42] Subspecies Besides the nominate subspecies, V. l. lagopus, four other subspecies of this fox are described:

Bering Islands Arctic
Arctic
fox, V. l. beringensis Iceland
Iceland
Arctic
Arctic
fox, V. l. fuliginosus Pribilof Islands
Pribilof Islands
Arctic
Arctic
fox, V. l. pribilofensis Greenland Arctic
Arctic
fox, V. l. foragorapusis

Distribution and habitat

The Arctic
Arctic
fox's seasonal furs, summer (top), "blue" (middle), and winter (bottom)

The Arctic
Arctic
fox has a circumpolar distribution and occurs in Arctic tundra habitats in northern Europe, northern Asia, and North America. Its range includes Greenland, Iceland, Fennoscandia, Svalbard, Jan Mayen and other islands in the Barents Sea, northern Russia, islands in the Bering Sea, Alaska, and Canada as far south as Hudson Bay. In the late 19th century, it was introduced into the Aleutian Islands southwest of Alaska. However, the population on the Aleutian Islands is currently being eradicated in conservation efforts to preserve the local bird population.[43] It mostly inhabits tundra and pack ice, but is also present in boreal forests in Canada and the Kenai Peninsula
Kenai Peninsula
in Alaska. They are found at elevations up to 3,000 m (9,800 ft) above sea level and have been seen on sea ice close to the North Pole.[44] The Arctic
Arctic
fox is the only land mammal native to Iceland.[45] It came to the isolated North Atlantic island at the end of the last ice age, walking over the frozen sea. The Arctic
Arctic
Fox
Fox
Center in Súðavík contains an exhibition on the Arctic
Arctic
fox and conducts studies on the influence of tourism on the population.[46] Its range during the last ice age was much more extensive than it is now, and fossil remains of the Arctic
Arctic
fox have been found over much of northern Europe and Siberia.[1] The color of the fox’s coat also determines where they are most likely to be found. The white morph mainly lives inland and blends in with the snowy tundra, while the blue morph occupies the coasts because its dark color blends in with the cliffs and rocks.[16]

Arctic
Arctic
fox in winter pelage, Iceland

Arctic
Arctic
fox

Migrations and travel During the winter, 95.5% of Arctic
Arctic
foxes utilize commuting trips, which remain within the fox’s home range. Commuting trips in Arctic foxes last less than 3 days and occur between 0-2.9 times a month. Nomadism is found in 3.4% of the foxes, and loop migrations (where the fox travels to a new range, then returns to its home range) are the least common at 1.1%. Arctic
Arctic
foxes in Canada that undergo nomadism and migrations voyage from the Canadian archipelago to Greenland and northwestern Canada. The duration and distance traveled between males and females is not significantly different. Arctic
Arctic
foxes closer to goose colonies (located at the coasts) are less likely to migrate. Meanwhile, foxes experiencing low-density lemming populations are more likely to make sea ice trips. Residency is common in the Arctic
Arctic
fox population so that they can maintain their territories. Migratory foxes have a mortality rate >3 times higher than resident foxes. Nomadic behavior becomes more common as the foxes age.[8] Conservation status

Skull

The conservation status of the species is in general good and several hundred thousand individuals are estimated to remain in total. The IUCN has assessed it as being of "least concern".[1] However, the Scandinavian mainland population is acutely endangered, despite being legally protected from hunting and persecution for several decades. The estimate of the adult population in all of Norway, Sweden, and Finland is fewer than 200 individuals.[15] As a result, the populations of arctic fox have been carefully studied and inventoried in places such as the Vindelfjällens Nature Reserve
Vindelfjällens Nature Reserve
(Sweden), which has the arctic fox as its symbol. The abundance of the Arctic
Arctic
fox tends to fluctuate in a cycle along with the population of lemmings and voles (a 3- to 4-year cycle).[19] The populations are especially vulnerable during the years when the prey population crashes, and uncontrolled trapping has almost eradicated two subpopulations.[15] The pelts of Arctic
Arctic
foxes with a slate-blue coloration were especially valuable. They were transported to various previously fox-free Aleutian Islands
Aleutian Islands
during the 1920s. The program was successful in terms of increasing the population of blue foxes, but their predation of Aleutian Canada geese conflicted with the goal of preserving that species.[47] The Arctic
Arctic
fox is losing ground to the larger red fox. This has been attributed to climate change—the camouflage value of its lighter coat decreases with less snow cover.[48] Red foxes dominate where their ranges begin to overlap by killing Arctic
Arctic
foxes and their kits.[49] An alternate explanation of the red fox's gains involves the gray wolf. Historically, it has kept red fox numbers down, but as the wolf has been hunted to near extinction in much of its former range, the red fox population has grown larger, and it has taken over the niche of top predator.[citation needed] In areas of northern Europe, programs are in place that allow the hunting of red foxes in the Arctic
Arctic
fox's previous range. As with many other game species, the best sources of historical and large-scale population data are hunting bag records and questionnaires. Several potential sources of error occur in such data collections.[50] In addition, numbers vary widely between years due to the large population fluctuations. However, the total population of the Arctic
Arctic
fox must be in the order of several hundred thousand animals.[51] The world population of Arctic
Arctic
foxes is thus not endangered, but two Arctic
Arctic
fox subpopulations are. One is on Medny Island
Medny Island
(Commander Islands, Russia), which was reduced by some 85–90%, to around 90 animals, as a result of mange caused by an ear tick introduced by dogs in the 1970s.[52] The population is currently under treatment with antiparasitic drugs, but the result is still uncertain. The other threatened population is the one in Fennoscandia
Fennoscandia
(Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Kola Peninsula). This population decreased drastically around the start of the 20th century as a result of extreme fur prices, which caused severe hunting also during population lows.[53] The population has remained at a low density for more than 90 years, with additional reductions during the last decade.[54] The total population estimate for 1997 is around 60 adults in Sweden, 11 adults in Finland, and 50 in Norway. From Kola, there are indications of a similar situation, suggesting a population of around 20 adults. The Fennoscandian population thus numbers around 140 breeding adults. Even after local lemming peaks, the Arctic
Arctic
fox population tends to collapse back to levels dangerously close to nonviability.[51] The Arctic
Arctic
fox is classed as a "prohibited new organism" under New Zealand's Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996, preventing it from being imported into the country.[55] See also

Arctic
Arctic
rabies virus

References

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Canines". Science. 175 (4025): 988–990. Bibcode:1972Sci...175..988H. doi:10.1126/science.175.4025.988. JSTOR 1732725.  ^ " Arctic
Arctic
fox: Alopex lagopus". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ Boitani, Luigi (1984). Simon & Schuster's Guide to Mammals. Simon & Schuster/Touchstone Books, ISBN 978-0-671-42805-1 ^ Kumar, Vikas; et al. (2015). "Genetic signatures of adaptation revealed from transcriptome sequencing of Arctic
Arctic
and red foxes". BMC Genomics. 16 (585): 1–12. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1724-9. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Bininda-Emonds, ORP; JL Gittleman; A Purvis (1999). "Building large trees by combining phylogenetic information: a complete phylogeny of the extant Carnivora
Carnivora
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zerda" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 714 (714): 1–5. doi:10.1644/1545-1410(2002)714<0001:VZ>2.0.CO;2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 December 2011.  ^ Kumar, Vikas; et al. (2015). "Genetic signatures of adaptation revealed from transcriptome sequencing of Arctic
Arctic
and red foxes". BMC Genomics. 16 (585): 1–12. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1724-9. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Wang, Xiaoming; et al. (2015). "Cenozoic vertebrate evolution and paleoenvironment in Tibetan Plateau: Progress and prospects". Gondwana Research. 27 (4): 1335–1354. Bibcode:2015GondR..27.1335W. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2014.10.014. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Angerbjörn, A; Tannerfeldt, M. " Vulpes
Vulpes
lagopus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species 2014: e.T899A57549321. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014.  ^ George A. Feldhamer; Bruce C. Thompson; Joseph A. Chapman (2003). Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation. JHU Press. pp. 511–540. ISBN 978-0-8018-7416-1. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016.  ^ "Wildlife". Iceland
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Worldwide. iww.is. 2000. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010.  ^ "The Arctic
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Arctic
fox". In Novak, M.; et al. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. pp. 395–406. ISBN 0774393653.  ^ a b Tannerfeldt, M. (1997). Population fluctuations and life history consequences in the Arctic
Arctic
fox. Stockholm, Sweden: Dissertation, Stockholm University.  ^ Goltsman, M.; Kruchenkova, E. P.; MacDonald, D. W. (1996). "The Mednyi Arctic
Arctic
foxes: treating a population imperilled by disease". Oryx. 30 (4): 251–258. doi:10.1017/S0030605300021748.  ^ Lönnberg, E. (1927). Fjällrävsstammen i Sverige 1926. Uppsala, Sweden: Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.  ^ Angerbjörn, A.; et al. (1995). "Dynamics of the Arctic
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Further reading

Nowak, Ronald M. (2005). Walker's Carnivores of the World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. ISBN 0-8018-8032-7.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alopex lagopus.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Vulpes
Vulpes
lagopus

State of the Environment Norway: Arctic
Arctic
fox Smithsonian Institution – North American Mammals: Vulpes
Vulpes
lagopus Photo Gallery by islandsmyndir.is

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon dog
Raccoon dog
(N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic
Arctic
fox (V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q82738 ADW: Vulpes_lagopus ARKive: vulpes-lagopus EoL: 1053894 GBIF: 5219303 iNaturalist: 233598 ITIS: 622025 IUCN: 899 MSW: 14000873 NCBI: 49

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