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The Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.[1] The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
(IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers call it the Arctic
Arctic
Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
or simply the Arctic
Arctic
Sea, classifying it a mediterranean sea or an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean.[2][3] It is also seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean. Located mostly in the Arctic
Arctic
north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere, the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
is almost completely surrounded by Eurasia and North America. It is partly covered by sea ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter. The Arctic Ocean's surface temperature and salinity vary seasonally as the ice cover melts and freezes;[4] its salinity is the lowest on average of the five major oceans, due to low evaporation, heavy fresh water inflow from rivers and streams, and limited connection and outflow to surrounding oceanic waters with higher salinities. The summer shrinking of the ice has been quoted at 50%.[1] The US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) uses satellite data to provide a daily record of Arctic
Arctic
sea ice cover and the rate of melting compared to an average period and specific past years.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Extent and major ports

2.1.1 United States 2.1.2 Canada 2.1.3 Greenland 2.1.4 Norway 2.1.5 Russia

2.2 Arctic
Arctic
shelves 2.3 Underwater features

3 Oceanography

3.1 Water flow 3.2 Sea ice

4 Climate 5 Animal and plant life 6 Natural resources 7 Environmental concerns

7.1 Arctic
Arctic
ice melting 7.2 Clathrate
Clathrate
breakdown 7.3 Other concerns

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] For much of European history, the north polar regions remained largely unexplored and their geography conjectural. Pytheas
Pytheas
of Massilia recorded an account of a journey northward in 325 BC, to a land he called "Eschate Thule", where the Sun only set for three hours each day and the water was replaced by a congealed substance "on which one can neither walk nor sail". He was probably describing loose sea ice known today as "growlers" or "bergy bits"; his "Thule" was probably Norway, though the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
or Shetland
Shetland
have also been suggested.[5]

Emanuel Bowen's 1780s map of the Arctic
Arctic
features a "Northern Ocean".

Early cartographers were unsure whether to draw the region around the North Pole
North Pole
as land (as in Johannes Ruysch's map of 1507, or Gerardus Mercator's map of 1595) or water (as with Martin Waldseemüller's world map of 1507). The fervent desire of European merchants for a northern passage, the Northern Sea Route
Northern Sea Route
or the Northwest Passage, to "Cathay" (China) caused water to win out, and by 1723 mapmakers such as Johann Homann
Johann Homann
featured an extensive "Oceanus Septentrionalis" at the northern edge of their charts. The few expeditions to penetrate much beyond the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
in this era added only small islands, such as Novaya Zemlya
Novaya Zemlya
(11th century) and Spitzbergen
Spitzbergen
(1596), though since these were often surrounded by pack-ice, their northern limits were not so clear. The makers of navigational charts, more conservative than some of the more fanciful cartographers, tended to leave the region blank, with only fragments of known coastline sketched in. This lack of knowledge of what lay north of the shifting barrier of ice gave rise to a number of conjectures. In England and other European nations, the myth of an "Open Polar Sea" was persistent. John Barrow, longtime Second Secretary of the British Admiralty, promoted exploration of the region from 1818 to 1845 in search of this. In the United States
United States
in the 1850s and 1860s, the explorers Elisha Kane and Isaac Israel Hayes
Isaac Israel Hayes
both claimed to have seen part of this elusive body of water. Even quite late in the century, the eminent authority Matthew Fontaine Maury
Matthew Fontaine Maury
included a description of the Open Polar Sea
Open Polar Sea
in his textbook The Physical Geography of the Sea (1883). Nevertheless, as all the explorers who travelled closer and closer to the pole reported, the polar ice cap is quite thick, and persists year-round. Fridtjof Nansen
Fridtjof Nansen
was the first to make a nautical crossing of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, in 1896. The first surface crossing of the ocean was led by Wally Herbert in 1969, in a dog sled expedition from Alaska
Alaska
to Svalbard, with air support.[6] The first nautical transit of the north pole was made in 1958 by the submarine USS Nautilus, and the first surface nautical transit occurred in 1977 by the icebreaker NS Arktika. Since 1937, Soviet
Soviet
and Russian manned drifting ice stations have extensively monitored the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean. Scientific settlements were established on the drift ice and carried thousands of kilometers by ice floes.[7] In World War II, the European region of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
was heavily contested: the Allied commitment to resupply the Soviet
Soviet
Union via its northern ports was opposed by German naval and air forces. Geography[edit]

A bathymetric/topographic map of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
and the surrounding lands.

The Arctic
Arctic
region; of note, the region's southerly border on this map is depicted by a red isotherm, with all territory to the north having an average temperature of less than 10 °C (50 °F) in July.

The Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
occupies a roughly circular basin and covers an area of about 14,056,000 km2 (5,427,000 sq mi), almost the size of Antarctica.[8][9] The coastline is 45,390 km (28,200 mi) long.[8][10] It is surrounded by the land masses of Eurasia, North America, Greenland, and by several islands. It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland
Greenland
Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea
White Sea
and other tributary bodies of water. It is connected to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
by the Bering Strait
Bering Strait
and to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
through the Greenland
Greenland
Sea and Labrador Sea.[1] Countries bordering the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
are: Russia, Norway, Iceland, Greenland, Canada
Canada
and the United States. Extent and major ports[edit] Main article: Borders of the oceans §  Arctic
Arctic
Ocean There are several ports and harbors around the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean[11] United States[edit] In Alaska, the main ports are Barrow (71°17′44″N 156°45′59″W / 71.29556°N 156.76639°W / 71.29556; -156.76639 (Barrow)) and Prudhoe Bay (70°19′32″N 148°42′41″W / 70.32556°N 148.71139°W / 70.32556; -148.71139 (Prudhoe)). Canada[edit] In Canada, ships may anchor at Churchill (Port of Churchill) (58°46′28″N 094°11′37″W / 58.77444°N 94.19361°W / 58.77444; -94.19361 (Port of Churchill)) in Manitoba, Nanisivik ( Nanisivik
Nanisivik
Naval Facility) (73°04′08″N 084°32′57″W / 73.06889°N 84.54917°W / 73.06889; -84.54917 (Nanisivik Naval Facility)) in Nunavut,[12] Tuktoyaktuk
Tuktoyaktuk
(69°26′34″N 133°01′52″W / 69.44278°N 133.03111°W / 69.44278; -133.03111 (Tuktoyaktuk)) or Inuvik
Inuvik
(68°21′42″N 133°43′50″W / 68.36167°N 133.73056°W / 68.36167; -133.73056 (Inuvik)) in the Northwest territories. Greenland[edit] In Greenland, the main port is at Nuuk
Nuuk
( Nuuk
Nuuk
Port and Harbour) (64°10′15″N 051°43′15″W / 64.17083°N 51.72083°W / 64.17083; -51.72083 ( Nuuk
Nuuk
Port and Harbour)). Norway[edit] In Norway, Kirkenes
Kirkenes
(69°43′37″N 030°02′44″E / 69.72694°N 30.04556°E / 69.72694; 30.04556 (Kirkenes)) and Vardø
Vardø
(70°22′14″N 031°06′27″E / 70.37056°N 31.10750°E / 70.37056; 31.10750 (Vardø)) are ports on the mainland. Also, there is Longyearbyen
Longyearbyen
(78°13′12″N 15°39′00″E / 78.22000°N 15.65000°E / 78.22000; 15.65000 (Longyearbyen)) on Svalbard, a Norwegian archipelago, next to Fram
Fram
Strait. Russia[edit] In Russia, major ports sorted by the different sea areas are:

Murmansk
Murmansk
(68°58′N 033°05′E / 68.967°N 33.083°E / 68.967; 33.083 (Murmansk)) in the Barents Sea Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk
(64°32′N 040°32′E / 64.533°N 40.533°E / 64.533; 40.533 (Arkhangelsk)) in the White Sea Labytnangi
Labytnangi
(66°39′26″N 066°25′06″E / 66.65722°N 66.41833°E / 66.65722; 66.41833 (Labytnangi)) Salekhard (66°32′N 066°36′E / 66.533°N 66.600°E / 66.533; 66.600 (Salekhard)), Dudinka
Dudinka
(69°24′N 086°11′E / 69.400°N 86.183°E / 69.400; 86.183 (Dudinka)), Igarka (67°28′N 86°35′E / 67.467°N 86.583°E / 67.467; 86.583 (Igarka)) and Dikson (73°30′N 080°31′E / 73.500°N 80.517°E / 73.500; 80.517 (Dikson)) in the Kara Sea Tiksi
Tiksi
(71°38′N 128°52′E / 71.633°N 128.867°E / 71.633; 128.867 (Tiksi)) in the Laptev Sea Pevek
Pevek
(69°42′N 170°17′E / 69.700°N 170.283°E / 69.700; 170.283 (Pevek)) in the East Siberian Sea

Arctic
Arctic
shelves[edit] The ocean's Arctic
Arctic
shelf comprises a number of continental shelves, including the Canadian Arctic
Arctic
shelf, underlying the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and the Russian continental shelf, which is sometimes simply called the " Arctic
Arctic
Shelf" because it is greater in extent. The Russian continental shelf consists of three separate, smaller shelves, the Barents Shelf, Chukchi Sea
Chukchi Sea
Shelf and Siberian Shelf. Of these three, the Siberian Shelf
Siberian Shelf
is the largest such shelf in the world. The Siberian Shelf
Siberian Shelf
holds large oil and gas reserves, and the Chukchi shelf forms the border between Russian and the United States
United States
as stated in the USSR–USA Maritime Boundary Agreement. The whole area is subject to international territorial claims. Underwater features[edit] An underwater ridge, the Lomonosov Ridge, divides the deep sea North Polar Basin into two oceanic basins: the Eurasian
Eurasian
Basin, which is between 4,000 and 4,500 m (13,100 and 14,800 ft) deep, and the Amerasian Basin
Amerasian Basin
(sometimes called the North American, or Hyperborean Basin), which is about 4,000 m (13,000 ft) deep. The bathymetry of the ocean bottom is marked by fault block ridges, abyssal plains, ocean deeps, and basins. The average depth of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
is 1,038 m (3,406 ft).[13] The deepest point is Litke Deep
Litke Deep
in the Eurasian
Eurasian
Basin, at 5,450 m (17,880 ft). The two major basins are further subdivided by ridges into the Canada Basin (between Alaska/ Canada
Canada
and the Alpha Ridge), Makarov Basin (between the Alpha and Lomonosov Ridges), Amundsen Basin (between Lomonosov and Gakkel ridges), and Nansen Basin
Nansen Basin
(between the Gakkel Ridge and the continental shelf that includes the Franz Josef Land). Oceanography[edit] Water flow[edit]

Distribution of the major water mass in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean. The section sketches the different water masses along a vertical section from Bering Strait
Bering Strait
over the geographic North Pole
North Pole
to Fram
Fram
Strait. As the stratification is stable, deeper water masses are more dense than the layers above.

Density
Density
structure of the upper 1,200 m (3,900 ft) in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean. Profiles of temperature and salinity for the Amundsen Basin, the Canadian Basin
Canadian Basin
and the Greenland
Greenland
Sea are sketched in this cartoon.

In large parts of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, the top layer (about 50 m (160 ft)) is of lower salinity and lower temperature than the rest. It remains relatively stable, because the salinity effect on density is bigger than the temperature effect. It is fed by the freshwater input of the big Siberian and Canadian streams (Ob, Yenisei, Lena, Mackenzie), the water of which quasi floats on the saltier, denser, deeper ocean water. Between this lower salinity layer and the bulk of the ocean lies the so-called halocline, in which both salinity and temperature are rising with increasing depth.

A Copepod

Because of its relative isolation from other oceans, the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean has a uniquely complex system of water flow. It is classified as a mediterranean sea, which as “a part of the world ocean which has only limited communication with the major ocean basins (these being the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans) and where the circulation is dominated by thermohaline forcing”.[14] The Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
has a total volume of 18.07×106 km3, equal to about 1.3% of the World Ocean. Mean surface circulation is predominately cyclonic on the Eurasian
Eurasian
side and anticyclonic in the Canadian Basin.[15] Water enters from both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and can be divided into three unique water masses. The deepest water mass is called Arctic
Arctic
Bottom Water and begins around 900 metres (3,000 feet) depth.[14] It is composed of the densest water in the World Ocean
World Ocean
and has two main sources: Arctic
Arctic
shelf water and Greenland
Greenland
Sea Deep Water. Water in the shelf region that begins as inflow from the Pacific passes through the narrow Bering Strait
Bering Strait
at an average rate of 0.8 Sverdrups and reaches the Chukchi Sea.[16] During the winter, cold Alaskan winds blow over the Chukchi Sea, freezing the surface water and pushing this newly formed ice out to the Pacific. The speed of the ice drift is roughly 1–4 cm/s.[15] This process leaves dense, salty waters in the sea that sink over the continental shelf into the western Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
and create a halocline.[17]

The Kennedy Channel.

This water is met by Greenland
Greenland
Sea Deep Water, which forms during the passage of winter storms. As temperatures cool dramatically in the winter, ice forms and intense vertical convection allows the water to become dense enough to sink below the warm saline water below.[14] Arctic
Arctic
Bottom Water is critically important because of its outflow, which contributes to the formation of Atlantic Deep Water. The overturning of this water plays a key role in global circulation and the moderation of climate. In the depth range of 150–900 metres (490–2,950 feet) is a water mass referred to as Atlantic Water. Inflow from the North Atlantic Current enters through the Fram
Fram
Strait, cooling and sinking to form the deepest layer of the halocline, where it circles the Arctic
Arctic
Basin counter-clockwise. This is the highest volumetric inflow to the Arctic Ocean, equalling about 10 times that of the Pacific inflow, and it creates the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
Boundary Current.[16] It flows slowly, at about 0.02 m/s.[14] Atlantic Water has the same salinity as Arctic
Arctic
Bottom Water but is much warmer (up to 3 °C). In fact, this water mass is actually warmer than the surface water, and remains submerged only due to the role of salinity in density.[14] When water reaches the basin it is pushed by strong winds into a large circular current called the Beaufort Gyre. Water in the Beaufort Gyre
Beaufort Gyre
is far less saline than that of the Chukchi Sea
Chukchi Sea
due to inflow from large Canadian and Siberian rivers.[17] The final defined water mass in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
is called Arctic Surface Water and is found from 150–200 metres (490–660 feet). The most important feature of this water mass is a section referred to as the sub-surface layer. It is a product of Atlantic water that enters through canyons and is subjected to intense mixing on the Siberian Shelf.[14] As it is entrained, it cools and acts a heat shield for the surface layer. This insulation keeps the warm Atlantic Water from melting the surface ice. Additionally, this water forms the swiftest currents of the Arctic, with speed of around 0.3-0.6 m/s.[14] Complementing the water from the canyons, some Pacific water that does not sink to the shelf region after passing through the Bering Strait also contributes to this water mass. Waters originating in the Pacific and Atlantic both exit through the Fram Strait
Fram Strait
between Greenland
Greenland
and Svalbard
Svalbard
Island, which is about 2,700 metres (8,900 feet) deep and 350 kilometres (220 miles) wide. This outflow is about 9 Sv.[16] The width of the Fram Strait
Fram Strait
is what allows for both inflow and outflow on the Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean. Because of this, it is influenced by the Coriolis force, which concentrates outflow to the East Greenland
Greenland
Current on the western side and inflow to the Norwegian Current
Norwegian Current
on the eastern side.[14] Pacific water also exits along the west coast of Greenland
Greenland
and the Hudson Strait (1-2 Sv), providing nutrients to the Canadian Archipelago.[16] As noted, the process of ice formation and movement is a key driver in Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
circulation and the formation of water masses. With this dependence, the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
experiences variations due to seasonal changes in sea ice cover. Sea ice
Sea ice
movement is the result of wind forcing, which is related to a number of meteorological conditions that the Arctic
Arctic
experiences throughout the year. For example, the Beaufort High—an extension of the Siberian High
Siberian High
system—is a pressure system that drives the anticyclonic motion of the Beaufort Gyre.[15] During the summer, this area of high pressure is pushed out closer to its Siberian and Canadian sides. In addition, there is a sea level pressure (SLP) ridge over Greenland
Greenland
that drives strong northerly winds through the Fram
Fram
Strait, facilitating ice export. In the summer, the SLP contrast is smaller, producing weaker winds. A final example of seasonal pressure system movement is the low pressure system that exists over the Nordic and Barents Seas. It is an extension of the Icelandic Low, which creates cyclonic ocean circulation in this area. The low shifts to center over the North Pole
North Pole
in the summer. These variations in the Arctic
Arctic
all contribute to ice drift reaching its weakest point during the summer months. There is also evidence that the drift is associated with the phase of the Arctic
Arctic
Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.[15] Sea ice[edit]

Sea cover in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, showing the median, 2005 and 2007 coverage [18]

Main article: Arctic
Arctic
ice pack Much of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
is covered by sea ice that varies in extent and thickness seasonally. The mean extent of the ice has been decreasing since 1980 from the average winter value of 15,600,000 km2 (6,023,200 sq mi) at a rate of 3% per decade. The seasonal variations are about 7,000,000 km2 (2,702,700 sq mi) with the maximum in April and minimum in September. The sea ice is affected by wind and ocean currents, which can move and rotate very large areas of ice. Zones of compression also arise, where the ice piles up to form pack ice.[19][20][21] Icebergs occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island, and icebergs are formed from glaciers in western Greenland
Greenland
and extreme northeastern Canada. These icebergs pose a hazard to ships, of which the Titanic is one of the most famous. Permafrost
Permafrost
is found on most islands. The ocean is virtually icelocked from October to June, and the superstructure of ships are subject to icing from October to May.[11] Before the advent of modern icebreakers, ships sailing the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
risked being trapped or crushed by sea ice (although the Baychimo drifted through the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
untended for decades despite these hazards). Climate[edit] See also: Climate
Climate
change in the Arctic

Play media

Changes in ice between 1990–1999

Under the influence of the Quaternary glaciation, the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
is contained in a polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges. Winters are characterized by the polar night, extreme cold, frequent low-level temperature inversions, and stable weather conditions.[22] Cyclones are only common on the Atlantic side.[23] Summers are characterized by continuous daylight (midnight sun), and temperatures can rise above the melting point (0 °C (32 °F). Cyclones are more frequent in summer and may bring rain or snow.[23] It is cloudy year-round, with mean cloud cover ranging from 60% in winter to over 80% in summer.[24] The temperature of the surface of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
is fairly constant, near the freezing point of seawater. Because the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
consists of saltwater, the temperature must reach −1.8 °C (28.8 °F) before freezing occurs. The density of sea water, in contrast to fresh water, increases as it nears the freezing point and thus it tends to sink. It is generally necessary that the upper 100–150 m (330–490 ft) of ocean water cools to the freezing point for sea ice to form.[25] In the winter the relatively warm ocean water exerts a moderating influence, even when covered by ice. This is one reason why the Arctic
Arctic
does not experience the extreme temperatures seen on the Antarctic
Antarctic
continent. There is considerable seasonal variation in how much pack ice of the Arctic ice pack
Arctic ice pack
covers the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean. Much of the Arctic
Arctic
ice pack is also covered in snow for about 10 months of the year. The maximum snow cover is in March or April — about 20 to 50 cm (7.9 to 19.7 in) over the frozen ocean. The climate of the Arctic
Arctic
region has varied significantly in the past. As recently as 55 million years ago, during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, the region reached an average annual temperature of 10–20 °C (50–68 °F).[26] The surface waters of the northernmost[27] Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
warmed, seasonally at least, enough to support tropical lifeforms[28] requiring surface temperatures of over 22 °C (72 °F).[29] Animal and plant life[edit]

Three polar bears approach USS Honolulu near the North Pole.

Endangered marine species in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
include walruses and whales. The area has a fragile ecosystem which is slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage.[11] Lion's mane jellyfish are abundant in the waters of the Arctic, and the banded gunnel is the only species of gunnel that lives in the ocean. The Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
has relatively little plant life except for phytoplankton.[30] Phytoplankton
Phytoplankton
are a crucial part of the ocean and there are massive amounts of them in the Arctic, where they feed on nutrients from rivers and the currents of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.[31] During summer, the sun is out day and night, thus enabling the phytoplankton to photosynthesize for long periods of time and reproduce quickly. However, the reverse is true in winter when they struggle to get enough light to survive.[31] Natural resources[edit] See also: Natural resources of the Arctic, Territorial claims in the Arctic, and Marine mammal Petroleum
Petroleum
and natural gas fields, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, sand and gravel aggregates, fish, seals and whales can all be found in abundance in the region.[11][21] The political dead zone near the center of the sea is also the focus of a mounting dispute between the United States, Russia, Canada, Norway, and Denmark.[32] It is significant for the global energy market because it may hold 25% or more of the world's undiscovered oil and gas resources.[33] Environmental concerns[edit] Main articles: Climate
Climate
change in the Arctic, Ozone depletion, and Pollution in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean Arctic
Arctic
ice melting[edit] The Arctic ice pack
Arctic ice pack
is thinning, and in many years there is also a seasonal hole in the ozone layer.[34] Reduction of the area of Arctic sea ice reduces the planet's average albedo, possibly resulting in global warming in a positive feedback mechanism.[21][35] Research shows that the Arctic
Arctic
may become ice free for the first time in human history within a few years or by 2040.[36][37] Estimates vary for when the last time the Arctic
Arctic
was ice free: 65 million years ago when fossils indicate that plants existed there to as few as 5,500 years ago; ice and ocean cores going back 8000 years to the last warm period or 125,000 during the last intraglacial period.[38] Warming temperatures in the Arctic
Arctic
may cause large amounts of fresh meltwater to enter the north Atlantic, possibly disrupting global ocean current patterns. Potentially severe changes in the Earth's climate might then ensue.[35] As the extent of sea ice diminishes and sea level rises, the effect of storms such as the Great Arctic
Arctic
Cyclone
Cyclone
of 2012 on open water increases, as does possible salt-water damage to vegetation on shore at locations such as the Mackenzie's river delta as stronger storm surges become more likely.[39] Clathrate
Clathrate
breakdown[edit] Main article: Clathrate
Clathrate
gun hypothesis

Marine extinction intensity during the Phanerozoic % Millions of years ago (H) K–Pg Tr–J P–Tr Cap Late D O–S

The Permian– Triassic
Triassic
extinction event (the Great Dying) may have been caused by release of methane from clathrates. An estimated 52% of marine genus became extinct, representing 96% of all marine species.

Sea ice, and the cold conditions it sustains, serves to stabilize methane deposits on and near the shoreline,[40] preventing the clathrate breaking down and outgassing methane into the atmosphere, causing further warming. Melting of this ice may release large quantities of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas into the atmosphere, causing further warming in a strong positive feedback cycle and; marine genus and species to become extinct.[40][41] Other concerns[edit] Other environmental concerns relate to the radioactive contamination of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
from, for example, Russian radioactive waste dump sites in the Kara Sea[42] and Cold War
Cold War
nuclear test sites such as Novaya Zemlya.[43] In addition, Shell planned to drill exploratory wells in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas during the summer of 2012, which environmental groups filed a lawsuit about in an attempt to protect native communities, endangered wildlife, and the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean in the event of a major oil spill.[44] On July 16, 2015, five nations ( United States
United States
of America, Russia, Canada, Norway, Denmark/Greenland) signed a declaration committing to keep their fishing vessels out of a 1.1 million square mile zone in the central Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
near the North Pole. The agreement calls for those nations to refrain from fishing there until there is better scientific knowledge about the marine resources and until a regulatory system is in place to protect those resources.[45][46] See also[edit]

Arctic
Arctic
portal Geography portal

Arctic
Arctic
Bridge Arctic
Arctic
cooperation and politics Arctic
Arctic
sea ice ecology and history Chukchi Cap Explorers of the Arctic Extreme points of the Arctic Fauna of the Arctic International Arctic
Arctic
Science Committee Nordicity North Atlantic Current Seven Seas Subarctic

References[edit]

^ a b c Michael Pidwirny (2006). "Introduction to the Oceans". www.physicalgeography.net. Archived from the original on 9 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-07.  ^ Tomczak, Matthias; Godfrey, J. Stuart (2003). Regional Oceanography: an Introduction (2nd ed.). Delhi: Daya Publishing House. ISBN 81-7035-306-8.  ^ "' Arctic
Arctic
Ocean' - Encyclopædia Britannica". Retrieved 2012-07-02. As an approximation, the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
may be regarded as an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean.  ^ Some Thoughts on the Freezing and Melting of Sea Ice and Their Effects on the Ocean
Ocean
K. Aagaard and R. A. Woodgate, Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington, January 2001. Retrieved 7 December 2006. ^ Pytheas
Pytheas
Archived September 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Andre Engels. Retrieved 16 December 2006. ^ Channel 4, "Sir Wally Herbert dies" 13 June 2007 ^ North Pole
North Pole
drifting stations (1930s–1980s) ^ a b Wright, John W., ed. (2006). The New York Times Almanac (2007 ed.). New York, New York: Penguin Books. p. 455. ISBN 0-14-303820-6.  ^ "Oceans of the World" (PDF). rst2.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2010-10-28.  ^ " Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
Fast Facts". wwf.pandora.org (World Wildlife Foundation). Archived from the original on 29 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-28.  ^ a b c d CIA World Fact Book: Arctic
Arctic
Ocean. Retrieved 11 November 2013. ^ "Backgrounder – Expanding Canadian Forces Operations in the Arctic". Archived from the original on 2008-08-11. Retrieved 2007-08-17.  ^ "The Mariana Trench – Oceanography". www.marianatrench.com. 2003-04-04. Archived from the original on 7 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-02.  ^ a b c d e f g h [Regional Oceanography: An Introduction. Tomczak, Godfrey. Retrieved 18 November 2013.] ^ a b c d [Descriptive Physical Oceanography. Talley, Pickard, Emery, Swift. Retrieved 2 November 2013.] ^ a b c d Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
Circulation: Going Around at the Top of the World. Retrieved 2 November 2013. ^ a b Polar Discovery: Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
Circulation. Retrieved 2 November 2013. ^ Continued Sea Ice Decline in 2005 Archived October 7, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. Robert Simmon, Earth
Earth
Observatory, and Walt Meier, NSIDC. Retrieved 7 December 2006. ^ Sea Ice Index. Nsidc.org. Retrieved on 2011-03-06. ^ Polar Sea Ice Cap and Snow – Cryosphere Today. Arctic.atmos.uiuc.edu (2007-09-23). Retrieved on 2011-03-06. ^ a b c Buixadé Farré, Albert; Stephenson, Scott R.; Chen, Linling; Czub, Michael; Dai, Ying; Demchev, Denis; Efimov, Yaroslav; Graczyk, Piotr; Grythe, Henrik; Keil, Kathrin; Kivekäs, Niku; Kumar, Naresh; Liu, Nengye; Matelenok, Igor; Myksvoll, Mari; O'Leary, Derek; Olsen, Julia; Pavithran .A.P., Sachin; Petersen, Edward; Raspotnik, Andreas; Ryzhov, Ivan; Solski, Jan; Suo, Lingling; Troein, Caroline; Valeeva, Vilena; van Rijckevorsel, Jaap; Wighting, Jonathan (16 October 2014). "Commercial Arctic
Arctic
shipping through the Northeast Passage: Routes, resources, governance, technology, and infrastructure". Polar Geography. Taylor & Francis. doi:10.1080/1088937X.2014.965769 . Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 December 2015.  ^ Serreze, Mark C; Barry, Roger G (2014). The Arctic
Arctic
Climate
Climate
System (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 168–172. ISBN 978-1-107-03717-5.  ^ a b Simmonds, Ian; Burke, Craig; Keay, Kevin (2008). " Arctic
Arctic
climate change as manifest in cyclone behavior". Journal of Climate. 21. Bibcode:2008JCli...21.5777S. doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2366.1.  ^ Serreze, Mark C; Barry, Roger G (2014). The Arctic
Arctic
Climate
Climate
System (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 56–59. ISBN 978-1-107-03717-5.  ^ " NSIDC
NSIDC
sea ice". Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-10.  ^ Shellito, C.J.; Sloan, L.C.; Huber, M. (2003). " Climate
Climate
model sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 levels in the Early-Middle Paleogene". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 193 (1): 113–123. Bibcode:2003PPP...193..113S. doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(02)00718-6.  ^ Drill cores were recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge, presently at 87°N ^ the dinoflagellates Apectodinium augustum ^ Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.; Woltering, M.; Brinkhuis, H.; Damsté, J.S.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Huber, M.; Reichart, G.J.; Stein, R.; et al. (2006). "Subtropical Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum". Nature. 441 (7093): 610–613. Bibcode:2006Natur.441..610S. doi:10.1038/nature04668. PMID 16752441.  ^ Microbes flourish under Arctic
Arctic
sea ice; Scientists shocked to find phytoplankton thriving under frozen surface July 28th, 2012; Vol.182 #2 (p. 17) Science News ^ a b Physical Nutrients and Primary Productivity Professor Terry Whiteledge. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 December 2006. ^ The Arctic's New Gold Rush – BBC ^ The Battle for the Next Energy Frontier: The Russian Polar Expedition and the Future of Arctic
Arctic
Hydrocarbons, by Shamil Yenikeyeff and Timothy Fenton Krysiek, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, August 2007 ^ Clean Air Online – Linking Today into Tomorrow[permanent dead link] ^ a b Earth
Earth
– melting in the heat? Richard Black, 7 October 2005. BBC News. Retrieved 7 December 2006. ^ Russia the next climate recalcitrant Peter Wilson, 17 November 2008, The Australian. Retrieved 3 November 2016. ^ "When will the Arctic
Arctic
lose its sea ice?". National Snow & Ice Data Center. May 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2016.  ^ "Has the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
always had ice in summer?". National Snow & Ice Data Center. February 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2016.  ^ Lauren Morello (March 5, 2013). "Warmer Arctic
Arctic
with Less Ice Increases Storm Surge". Climate
Climate
Central. Retrieved March 8, 2013.  ^ a b Steve Connor (23 September 2008). "Exclusive: The methane time bomb". The Independent. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2009.  ^ Volker Mrasek (17 April 2008). "A Storehouse of Greenhouse Gases Is Opening in Siberia". Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2009.  ^ 400 million cubic meters of radioactive waste threaten the Arctic area Archived October 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Thomas Nilsen, Bellona, 24 August 2001. Retrieved 7 December 2006. ^ Plutonium in the Russian Arctic, or How We Learned to Love the Bomb Bradley Moran, John N. Smith. Retrieved 7 December 2006. ^ Tim Phillips, " Alaska
Alaska
Natives Sue Federal Government for Approving Shell's Insufficient Clean-Up Plan for a Potential Oil Spill in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean", Activist Defense, July 11, 2012. ^ " Arctic
Arctic
deal bans North Pole
North Pole
fishing". BBC News. 16 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.  ^ Rosen, Yereth (16 July 2015). "5 nations sign declaration to protect Arctic
Arctic
'donut hole' from unregulated fishing". Alaska
Alaska
Dispatch News. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Neatby, Leslie H., Discovery in Russian and Siberian Waters 1973 ISBN 0-8214-0124-6 Ray, L., and bacon, B., eds., The Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
1982 ISBN 0-333-31017-9 Thorén, Ragnar V. A., Picture Atlas of the Arctic
Arctic
1969 ISBN 0-8214-0124-6

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arctic
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Ocean.

Look up arctic ocean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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ice cover based on satellite data". nsidc.org. National Snow and Ice Data Center.  Marine Biodiversity Wiki

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Climate
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Fauna

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Culture

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v t e

Polar exploration

Arctic

Ocean History Expeditions Research stations

Farthest North North Pole

Barentsz Hudson Marmaduke Carolus Parry North Magnetic Pole

J. Ross J. C. Ross Abernethy Kane Hayes

Polaris

Polaris C. F. Hall

British Arctic
Arctic
Expedition

HMS Alert Nares HMS Discovery Stephenson Markham

Lady Franklin Bay Expedition

Greely Lockwood Brainard

1st Fram
Fram
expedition

Fram Nansen Johansen Sverdrup

Jason

Amedeo

F. Cook Peary Sedov Byrd Airship Norge

Amundsen Nobile Wisting Riiser-Larsen Ellsworth

Airship Italia Nautilus

Wilkins

ANT-25

Chkalov Baydukov Belyakov

"North Pole" manned drifting ice stations NP-1

Papanin Shirshov E. Fyodorov Krenkel

NP-36 NP-37 Sedov

Badygin Wiese

USS Nautilus USS Skate Plaisted Herbert NS Arktika Barneo Arktika 2007

Mir submersibles Sagalevich Chilingarov

Iceland Greenland

Pytheas Brendan Papar Vikings Naddodd Svavarsson Arnarson Norse colonization of the Americas Ulfsson Galti Erik the Red Christian IV's expeditions

J. Hall Cunningham Lindenov C. Richardson

Danish colonization

Egede

Scoresby Jason

Nansen Sverdrup

Peary Rasmussen

Northwest Passage Northern Canada

Cabot G. Corte-Real M. Corte-Real Frobisher Gilbert Davis Hudson Discovery

Bylot Baffin

Munk I. Fyodorov Gvozdev HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Discovery

Clerke

Mackenzie Kotzebue J. Ross HMS Griper

Parry

HMS Hecla

Lyon

HMS Fury

Hoppner

Crozier J. C. Ross Coppermine Expedition Franklin Back Dease Simpson HMS Blossom

Beechey

Franklin's lost expedition

HMS Erebus HMS Terror

Collinson Rae–Richardson Expedition

Rae J. Richardson

Austin McClure Expedition

HMS Investigator McClure HMS Resolute Kellett

Belcher Kennedy Bellot Isabel

Inglefield

2nd Grinnell Expedition

USS Advance Kane

Fox

McClintock

HMS Pandora

Young

Fram

Sverdrup

Gjøa

Amundsen

Rasmussen Karluk

Stefansson Bartlett

St. Roch

H. Larsen

Cowper

North East Passage Russian Arctic

Pomors Koch boats Willoughby Chancellor Barentsz Mangazeya Hudson Poole Siberian Cossacks Perfilyev Stadukhin Dezhnev Popov Ivanov Vagin Permyakov Great Northern Expedition

Bering Chirikov Malygin Ovtsyn Minin V. Pronchishchev M. Pronchishcheva Chelyuskin Kh. Laptev D. Laptev

Chichagov Lyakhov Billings Sannikov Gedenschtrom Wrangel Matyushkin Anjou Litke Lavrov Pakhtusov Tsivolko Middendorff Austro-Hungarian Expedition

Weyprecht Payer

Vega Expedition

A. E. Nordenskiöld Palander

USS Jeannette

De Long

Yermak

Makarov

Zarya

Toll Kolomeitsev Matisen Kolchak

Sedov Rusanov Kuchin Brusilov Expedition

Sv. Anna Brusilov Albanov Konrad

Wiese Nagórski Taymyr / Vaygach

Vilkitsky

Maud

Amundsen

AARI

Samoylovich

Begichev Urvantsev Sadko

Ushakov

Glavsevmorput

Schmidt

Aviaarktika

Shevelev

Sibiryakov

Voronin

Chelyuskin Krassin Gakkel Nuclear-powered icebreakers

NS Lenin Arktika class

Antarctic

Continent History Expeditions

Southern Ocean

Roché Bouvet Kerguelen HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Adventure

Furneaux

Smith San Telmo Vostok

Bellingshausen

Mirny

Lazarev

Bransfield Palmer Davis Weddell Morrell Astrolabe

Dumont d'Urville

United States
United States
Exploring Expedition

USS Vincennes Wilkes

USS Porpoise

Ringgold

Ross expedition

HMS Erebus (J. C. Ross Abernethy) HMS Terror (Crozier)

Cooper Challenger expedition

HMS Challenger Nares Murray

Jason

C. A. Larsen

"Heroic Age"

Belgian Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Belgica de Gerlache Lecointe Amundsen Cook Arctowski Racoviță Dobrowolski

Southern Cross

Southern Cross Borchgrevink

Discovery

Discovery Discovery Hut

Gauss

Gauss Drygalski

Swedish Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Antarctic O. Nordenskjöld C. A. Larsen

Scottish Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Bruce Scotia

Orcadas Base Nimrod Expedition

Nimrod

French Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions

Pourquoi-Pas Charcot

Japanese Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Shirase

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Fram Amundsen Framheim Polheim

Terra Nova

Terra Nova Scott Wilson E. R. Evans Crean Lashly

Filchner Australasian Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

SY Aurora Mawson

Far Eastern Party Imperial Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Endurance Ernest Shackleton Wild

James Caird Ross Sea
Ross Sea
party

Mackintosh

Shackleton–Rowett Expedition

Quest

IPY · IGY Modern research

Christensen Byrd BANZARE BGLE

Rymill

New Swabia

Ritscher

Operation Tabarin

Marr

Operation Highjump Captain Arturo Prat Base British Antarctic
Antarctic
Survey Operation Windmill

Ketchum

Ronne Expedition

F. Ronne E. Ronne Schlossbach

Operation Deep Freeze McMurdo Station Commonwealth Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Hillary V. Fuchs

Soviet
Soviet
Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions

1st

Somov Klenova Mirny

2nd

Tryoshnikov

3rd

Tolstikov

Antarctic
Antarctic
Treaty System Transglobe Expedition

Fiennes Burton

Lake Vostok Kapitsa

Farthest South South Pole

HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Adventure

Furneaux

Weddell HMS Erebus

J. C. Ross

HMS Terror

Crozier

Southern Cross

Borchgrevink

Discovery

Barne

Nimrod

Shackleton Wild Marshall Adams

South Magnetic Pole

Mawson David Mackay

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Fram Amundsen Bjaaland Helmer Hassel Wisting Polheim

Terra Nova

Scott E. Evans Oates Wilson Bowers

Byrd Balchen McKinley Dufek Amundsen–Scott South Pole
South Pole
Station Hillary V. Fuchs Pole of Cold

Vostok Station

Pole of inaccessibility

Pole of Inaccessibility Station Tolstikov

Crary A. Fuchs Messner

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian
Eurasian
Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China
China
proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China
China
Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China
China
Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian
Eurasian
Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska
Alaska
Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China
China
Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China
China
Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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Coordinates: 90°N 0°E / 90°N 0°E / 90; 0

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 248963128 GND: 40425

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