Architecture is both the process and the product of planning,
designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often
perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical
civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural
The term architecture is also used metaphorically to refer to the
design of organizations and other abstract concepts. See glossary of
1 Definitions and etymology
2 Theory of architecture
2.1 Historic treatises
2.2 Modern concepts
2.3 Philosophy of architecture
3.1 Origins and vernacular architecture
3.2 Ancient architecture
3.3 Asian architecture
3.4 Islamic architecture
3.5 Middle Ages
Renaissance and the architect
3.7 Early modern and the industrial age
5 Cognitive architecture
6 Computer architecture
7 Enterprise architecture
8 Interior architecture
9 Landscape architecture
10 Naval architecture
11 Software architecture
13 See also
16 External links
Definitions and etymology
Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων
arkhitekton "architect", from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων
"builder") is both the process and the product of planning, designing,
and constructing buildings and other physical structures.
Architecture can mean:
A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures.
The art and science of designing buildings and (some) nonbuilding
The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other
A unifying or coherent form or structure.
Knowledge of art, science, technology, and humanity.
The design activity of the architect, from the macro-level (urban
design, landscape architecture) to the micro-level (construction
details and furniture). The practice of the architect, where
architecture means offering or rendering professional services in
connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built
Theory of architecture
Main article: Architectural theory
The Parthenon, Athens, Greece, "the supreme example among
architectural sites." (Fletcher).
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is
De architectura, by the Roman architect
Vitruvius in the early 1st
century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy
the three principles of firmitas, utilitas, venustas, commonly
known by the original translation – firmness, commodity and delight.
An equivalent in modern English would be:
Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good
Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is
Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing.
According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of
these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who
elaborates on the ideas of
Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re
Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion,
although ornament also played a part. For Alberti, the rules of
proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the
The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part
of an object, rather than something applied superficially, and was
based on universal, recognisable truths. The notion of style in the
arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of
Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent
Painters, Sculptors, and Architects had been translated into Italian,
French, Spanish, and English.
The Houses of Parliament, Westminster, master-planned by Charles
Barry, with interiors and details by A.W.N. Pugin
In the early 19th century,
Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin
Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote
Contrasts (1836) that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern,
industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of
neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only
"true Christian form of architecture."
The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps
of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what
Architecture was the "art which so disposes
and adorns the edifices raised by men ... that the sight of them"
contributes "to his mental health, power, and pleasure".
For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance. His work
goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture
unless it is in some way "adorned". For Ruskin, a well-constructed,
well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or
rustication, at the very least.
On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere
construction, the renowned 20th-century architect
Le Corbusier wrote:
"You employ stone, wood, and concrete, and with these materials you
build houses and palaces: that is construction. Ingenuity is at work.
But suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say:
This is beautiful. That is Architecture".
Le Corbusier's contemporary
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said
Architecture starts when you carefully put two bricks together. There
The National Congress of Brazil, designed by Oscar Niemeyer
The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan,
promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows
While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should
be entirely subject to functionality was met with both popularity and
skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function"
in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as
encompassing all criteria of the use, perception and enjoyment of a
building, not only practical but also aesthetic, psychological and
Sydney Opera House,
Australia designed by Jørn Utzon
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture
goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other
human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values,
architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming
that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.'
To restrict the meaning of (architectural) formalism to art for art's
sake is not only reactionary; it can also be a purposeless quest for
perfection or originality which degrades form into a mere
Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and
their approach to building design are rationalism, empiricism,
structuralism, poststructuralism, and phenomenology.
In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in
the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of
sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the
contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner which
is environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its
materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its
surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable
power sources for heating, cooling, water and waste management and
Philosophy of architecture
Main article: Philosophy of architecture
Architecture is a branch of philosophy of art, dealing
with aesthetic value of architecture, its semantics and relations with
development of culture.
Plato to Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze,
Robert Venturi as well as
many other philosophers and theoreticians, distinguish architecture
('technion') from building ('demiorgos'), attributing the former to
mental traits, and the latter to the divine or natural.
Wittgenstein House is considered one of the most important
examples of interactions between philosophy and architecture. Built by
renowned Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, the house has been
the subject of extensive research about the relationship between its
stylistic features, Wittgenstein's personality, and his
Main article: History of architecture
Origins and vernacular architecture
Pre-historic model of a planned pre-historic temple, at the National
Museum of Archaeology in Valletta
Main article: Vernacular architecture
Building first evolved out of the dynamics between needs (shelter,
security, worship, etc.) and means (available building materials and
attendant skills). As human cultures developed and knowledge began to
be formalized through oral traditions and practices, building became a
craft, and "architecture" is the name given to the most highly
formalized and respected versions of that craft. It is widely assumed
that architectural success was the product of a process of trial and
error, with progressively less trial and more replication as the
results of the process proved increasingly satisfactory. What is
termed vernacular architecture continues to be produced in many parts
of the world. Indeed, vernacular buildings make up most of the built
world that people experience every day. Early human settlements were
mostly rural. Due to a surplus in production the economy began to
expand resulting in urbanization thus creating urban areas which grew
and evolved very rapidly in some cases, such as that of Çatal Höyük
Anatolia and Mohenjo Daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in
Vernacular architecture in Norway: wood and elevated-level
In Lesotho: rondavel stones.
Yola hut -Tagoat Co. Wexford Ireland
In many ancient civilizations, such as those of
Egypt and Mesopotamia,
architecture and urbanism reflected the constant engagement with the
divine and the supernatural, and many ancient cultures resorted to
monumentality in architecture to represent symbolically the political
power of the ruler, the ruling elite, or the state itself.
The architecture and urbanism of the Classical civilizations such as
the Greek and the Roman evolved from civic ideals rather than
religious or empirical ones and new building types emerged.
Architectural "style" developed in the form of the Classical orders.
Roman architecture was influenced by Greek architecture as they
incorporated many Greek elements into their building practices.
Texts on architecture have been written since ancient time. These
texts provided both general advice and specific formal prescriptions
or canons. Some examples of canons are found in the writings of the
1st-century BCE Roman
Architect Vitruvius. Some of the most important
early examples of canonic architecture are religious.
The Pyramids at Giza in Egypt
Parthenon in Athens, Greece.
Roman aqueduct in Segovia, Spain.
Early Asian writings on architecture include the Kao Gong Ji of China
from the 7th–5th centuries BCE; the
Shilpa Shastras of ancient India
Manjusri Vasthu Vidya Sastra of Sri Lanka.
The architecture of different parts of
Asia developed along different
lines from that of Europe; Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh architecture each
having different characteristics. Buddhist architecture, in
particular, showed great regional diversity. Hindu temple
architecture, which developed around the 3rd century BCE, is governed
by concepts laid down in the Shastras, and is concerned with
expressing the macrocosm and the microcosm. In many Asian countries,
pantheistic religion led to architectural forms that were designed
specifically to enhance the natural landscape.
Gyeongbokgung Palace in Seoul, South Korea.
Kinkaku-ji (Golden Pavilion), Kyoto, Japan.
The Great Red Gate at the
Ming Tombs near Beijing, China.
Bahay na Bato
Bahay na Bato houses in Philippines
Islamic architecture began in the 7th century CE, incorporating
architectural forms from the ancient
Middle East and Byzantium, but
also developing features to suit the religious and social needs of the
society. Examples can be found throughout the Middle East, North
Spain and the Indian Sub-continent.
Main article: Islamic architecture
Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem.
Taj Mahal in Agra, India.
Alhambra, Granada, Spain.
Sultan Ahmed Mosque
Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul
Europe during the
Medieval period, guilds were formed by craftsmen
to organise their trades and written contracts have survived,
particularly in relation to ecclesiastical buildings. The role of
architect was usually one with that of master mason, or Magister
lathomorum as they are sometimes described in contemporary documents.
The major architectural undertakings were the buildings of abbeys and
cathedrals. From about 900 CE onwards, the movements of both clerics
and tradesmen carried architectural knowledge across Europe, resulting
in the pan-European styles Romanesque and Gothic.
Notre Dame de Paris, France.
The Tower of London, England.
Doge's Palace, Venice, Italy.
Renaissance and the architect
Renaissance Europe, from about 1400 onwards, there was a revival of
Classical learning accompanied by the development of Renaissance
Humanism which placed greater emphasis on the role of the individual
in society than had been the case during the
Buildings were ascribed to specific architects – Brunelleschi,
Palladio – and the cult of the individual had
begun. There was still no dividing line between artist, architect and
engineer, or any of the related vocations, and the appellation was
often one of regional preference.
A revival of the Classical style in architecture was accompanied by a
burgeoning of science and engineering which affected the proportions
and structure of buildings. At this stage, it was still possible for
an artist to design a bridge as the level of structural calculations
involved was within the scope of the generalist.
St. Peter's Basilica, Rome, Italy.
Palazzo Farnese, Rome, Italy.
Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy.
Early modern and the industrial age
With the emerging knowledge in scientific fields and the rise of new
materials and technology, architecture and engineering began to
separate, and the architect began to concentrate on aesthetics and the
humanist aspects, often at the expense of technical aspects of
building design. There was also the rise of the "gentleman architect"
who usually dealt with wealthy clients and concentrated predominantly
on visual qualities derived usually from historical prototypes,
typified by the many country houses of Great Britain that were created
in the Neo Gothic or
Scottish Baronial styles. Formal architectural
training in the 19th century, for example at
École des Beaux-Arts
École des Beaux-Arts in
France, gave much emphasis to the production of beautiful drawings and
little to context and feasibility.
Industrial Revolution laid open the door for mass
production and consumption.
Aesthetics became a criterion for the
middle class as ornamented products, once within the province of
expensive craftsmanship, became cheaper under machine production.
Vernacular architecture became increasingly ornamental.
could use current architectural design in their work by combining
features found in pattern books and architectural journals.
Palais Garnier, Paris, France.
Pont Alexandre III
Pont Alexandre III Paris, France.
Congeso Nacional Palace, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Main article: Modern architecture
Around the beginning of the 20th century, a general dissatisfaction
with the emphasis on revivalist architecture and elaborate decoration
gave rise to many new lines of thought that served as precursors to
Modern Architecture. Notable among these is the Deutscher Werkbund,
formed in 1907 to produce better quality machine made objects. The
rise of the profession of industrial design is usually placed here.
Following this lead, the
Bauhaus school, founded in Weimar,
1919, redefined the architectural bounds prior set throughout history,
viewing the creation of a building as the ultimate synthesis—the
apex—of art, craft, and technology.
When modern architecture was first practiced, it was an avant-garde
movement with moral, philosophical, and aesthetic underpinnings.
Immediately after World War I, pioneering modernist architects sought
to develop a completely new style appropriate for a new post-war
social and economic order, focused on meeting the needs of the middle
and working classes. They rejected the architectural practice of the
academic refinement of historical styles which served the rapidly
declining aristocratic order. The approach of the Modernist architects
was to reduce buildings to pure forms, removing historical references
and ornament in favor of functionalist details. Buildings displayed
their functional and structural elements, exposing steel beams and
concrete surfaces instead of hiding them behind decorative forms.
Architects such as
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright developed organic architecture,
in which the form was defined by its environment and purpose, with an
aim to promote harmony between human habitation and the natural world
with prime examples being
Robie House and Fallingwater.
Architects such as Mies van der Rohe,
Philip Johnson and Marcel Breuer
worked to create beauty based on the inherent qualities of building
materials and modern construction techniques, trading traditional
historic forms for simplified geometric forms, celebrating the new
means and methods made possible by the Industrial Revolution,
including steel-frame construction, which gave birth to high-rise
superstructures. By mid-century,
Modernism had morphed into the
International Style, an aesthetic epitomized in many ways by the Twin
Towers of New York's World Trade Center designed by Minoru Yamasaki.
Bauhaus school building in Dessau, Germany.
Guggenheim Museum, New York City, United States.
Cathedral of Brasília, Brazil.
Main article: Postmodern architecture
Many architects resisted modernism, finding it devoid of the
decorative richness of historical styles. As the first generation of
modernists began to die after World War II, a second generation of
architects including Paul Rudolph, Marcel Breuer, and Eero Saarinen
tried to expand the aesthetics of modernism with Brutalism, buildings
with expressive sculptural façades made of unfinished concrete. But
an even new younger postwar generation critiqued modernism and
Brutalism for being too austere, standardized, monotone, and not
taking into account the richness of human experience offered in
historical buildings across time and in different places and cultures.
One such reaction to the cold aesthetic of modernism and
the school of metaphoric architecture, which includes such things as
biomorphism and zoomorphic architecture, both using nature as the
primary source of inspiration and design. While it is considered by
some to be merely an aspect of postmodernism, others consider it to be
a school in its own right and a later development of expressionist
Beginning in the late 1950s and 1960s, architectural phenomenology
emerged as an important movement in the early reaction against
modernism, with architects like Charles Moore in the United States,
Christian Norberg-Schulz in Norway, and
Ernesto Nathan Rogers
Ernesto Nathan Rogers and
Vittorio Gregotti, Michele Valori,
Bruno Zevi in Italy, who
collectively popularized an interest in a new contemporary
architecture aimed at expanding human experience using historical
buildings as models and precedents.
Postmodernism produced a style
that combined contemporary building technology and cheap materials,
with the aesthetics of older pre-modern and non-modern styles, from
high classical architecture to popular or vernacular regional building
Robert Venturi famously defined postmodern architecture as a
"decorated shed" (an ordinary building which is functionally designed
inside and embellished on the outside), and upheld it against
modernist and brutalist "ducks" (buildings with unnecessarily
expressive tectonic forms).
The Dancing House, Prague, Czech Republic.
Sydney Opera House, Australia.
Petronas Tower in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Main article: Contemporary architecture
Since the 1980s, as the complexity of buildings began to increase (in
terms of structural systems, services, energy and technologies), the
field of architecture became multi-disciplinary with specializations
for each project type, technological expertise or project delivery
methods. In addition, there has been an increased separation of the
'design' architect [Notes 1] from the 'project' architect who ensures
that the project meets the required standards and deals with matters
of liability.[Notes 2] The preparatory processes for the design of any
large building have become increasingly complicated, and require
preliminary studies of such matters as durability, sustainability,
quality, money, and compliance with local laws. A large structure can
no longer be the design of one person but must be the work of many.
Postmodernism have been criticised by some members of
the architectural profession who feel that successful architecture is
not a personal, philosophical, or aesthetic pursuit by individualists;
rather it has to consider everyday needs of people and use technology
to create liveable environments, with the design process being
informed by studies of behavioral, environmental, and social sciences.
Environmental sustainability has become a mainstream issue, with
profound effect on the architectural profession. Many developers,
those who support the financing of buildings, have become educated to
encourage the facilitation of environmentally sustainable design,
rather than solutions based primarily on immediate cost. Major
examples of this can be found in passive solar building design,
greener roof designs, biodegradable materials, and more attention to a
structure's energy usage. This major shift in architecture has also
changed architecture schools to focus more on the environment. There
has been an acceleration in the number of buildings which seek to meet
green building sustainable design principles. Sustainable practices
that were at the core of vernacular architecture increasingly provide
inspiration for environmentally and socially sustainable contemporary
techniques. The U.S. Green
Building Council's LEED (Leadership in
Energy and Environmental Design) rating system has been instrumental
Concurrently, the recent movements of New Urbanism, metaphoric
New Classical Architecture
New Classical Architecture promote a sustainable
approach towards construction that appreciates and develops smart
growth, architectural tradition and classical design. This in
contrast to modernist and globally uniform architecture, as well as
leaning against solitary housing estates and suburban sprawl.
Glass curtain walls, which were the hallmark of the ultra modern urban
life in many countries surfaced even in developing countries like
Nigeria where international styles had been represented since the mid
20th Century mostly because of the leanings of foreign-trained
Bird's Nest stadium, Beijing, China.
London City Hall, England.
Auditorio de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain..
Aspects of the
Business Represented by
Business architecture is defined as "a blueprint of the enterprise
that provides a common understanding of the organization and is used
to align strategic objectives and tactical demands." People who
develop and maintain business architecture are known as business
Business architecture is the bridge between the enterprise business
model and enterprise strategy on one side, and the business
functionality of the enterprise on the other side.
Main article: Cognitive architecture
Cognitive architecture can refer to a theory about the structure of
the human mind. One of the main goals of a cognitive architecture is
to summarize the various results of cognitive psychology in a
comprehensive computer model. However, the results need to be in a
formalized form so far that they can be the basis of a computer
program. The formalized models can be used to further refine a
comprehensive theory of cognition, and more immediately, as a
commercially usable model. Successful cognitive architectures include
ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought, ACT) and SOAR.
Institute of Creative Technologies
Institute of Creative Technologies defines cognitive architecture
as: "hypothesis about the fixed structures that provide a mind,
whether in natural or artificial systems, and how they work together
– in conjunction with knowledge and skills embodied within the
architecture – to yield intelligent behavior in a diversity of
Main article: Computer architecture
Pipelined implementation of MIPS architecture.
In computer engineering, "computer architecture" is a set of rules and
methods that describe the functionality, organization, and
implementation of computer systems. Some definitions of architecture
define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a
computer but not a particular implementation. In other definitions
computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design,
microarchitecture design, logic design, and implementation.
Main article: Enterprise architecture
Enterprise architecture (EA) is "a well-defined practice for
conducting enterprise analysis, design, planning, and implementation,
using a holistic approach at all times, for the successful development
and execution of strategy.
Enterprise architecture applies
architecture principles and practices to guide organizations through
the business, information, process, and technology changes necessary
to execute their strategies. These practices utilize the various
aspects of an enterprise to identify, motivate, and achieve these
Practitioners of enterprise architecture, enterprise architects, are
responsible for performing the analysis of business structure and
processes and are often called upon to draw conclusions from the
information collected to address the goals of enterprise architecture:
effectiveness, efficiency, agility, and durability.
Main article: Interior architecture
Charles Rennie Mackintosh – Music Room 1901
Interior architecture is the design of a space which has been created
by structural boundaries and the human interaction within these
boundaries. It can also be the initial design and plan for use, then
later redesign to accommodate a changed purpose, or a significantly
revised design for adaptive reuse of the building shell. The
latter is often part of sustainable architecture practices, conserving
resources through "recycling" a structure by adaptive redesign.
Generally referred to as the spatial art of environmental design, form
and practice, interior architecture is the process through which the
interiors of buildings are designed, concerned with all aspects of the
human uses of structural spaces. Put simply, Interior
the design of an interior in architectural terms.
Main article: Landscape architecture
Orangery at the Palace of Versailles, outside Paris
Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor public areas,
landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioral,
or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of
existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the
landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the
desired outcome. The scope of the profession includes landscape
design; site planning; stormwater management; environmental
restoration; parks and recreation planning; visual resource
management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private
estate and residence landscape master planning and design; all at
varying scales of design, planning and management. A practitioner in
the profession of landscape architecture is called a landscape
Main article: Naval architecture
Body plan of a ship showing the hull form
Naval architecture, also known as naval engineering, is an engineering
discipline dealing with the engineering design process, shipbuilding,
maintenance, and operation of marine vessels and structures.
Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, design,
development, design evaluation and calculations during all stages of
the life of a marine vehicle. Preliminary design of the vessel, its
detailed design, construction, trials, operation and maintenance,
launching and dry-docking are the main activities involved. Ship
design calculations are also required for ships being modified (by
means of conversion, rebuilding, modernization, or repair). Naval
architecture also involves formulation of safety regulations and
damage control rules and the approval and certification of ship
designs to meet statutory and non-statutory requirements.
Main article: Software architecture
Software architecture refers to the fundamental structures of a
software system, the discipline of creating such structures, and the
documentation of these structures. These structures are needed to
reason about the software system. Each structure comprises software
elements, relations among them, and properties of both elements and
relations, along with rationale for the introduction and
configuration of each element. The architecture of a software system
is a metaphor, analogous to the architecture of a building.
Software architecture is about making fundamental structural choices
which are costly to change once implemented. Software architecture
choices, also called architectural decisions, include specific
structural options from possibilities in the design of software. For
example, the systems that controlled the space shuttle launch vehicle
had the requirement of being very fast and very reliable. Therefore,
an appropriate real-time computing language would need to be chosen.
Additionally, to satisfy the need for reliability the choice could be
made to have multiple redundant and independently produced copies of
the program, and to run these copies on independent hardware while
Documenting software architecture facilitates communication between
stakeholders, captures decisions about the architecture design, and
allows reuse of design components between projects.:29–35
System architecture is a conceptual model that defines the structure,
behavior, and more views of a system. An architecture description
is a formal description and representation of a system, organized in a
way that supports reasoning about the structures and behaviors of the
A system architecture can comprise system components that will work
together to implement the overall system. There have been efforts to
formalize languages to describe system architecture, collectively
these are called architecture description languages (ADLs).
Angkor Wat, Cambodia, symmetry and elevation have often been utilised
in the architectural expression of religious devotion or political
Machu Picchu, Peru, shows the adaptations of architecture and town
planning to a rugged natural site
Lower Manhattan, March 2001. The 20th century saw cities across the
world transformed by highrise buildings in the International Style
Architectural design competition
Glossary of architecture
List of human habitation forms
Mathematics and architecture
Outline of architecture
Sociology of architecture
^ A design architect is one who is responsible for the design.
^ A project architect is one who is responsible for ensuring the
design is built correctly and who administers building contracts –
in non-specialist architectural practices the project architect is
also the design architect and the term refers to the differing roles
the architect plays at differing stages of the process.
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There it begins. -
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
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Architecture Guild, A Guide to the
Body of Knowledge™, v 4.1 (BIZBOK® Guide), 2014. Part 1, p. 2
Special Interest Group "What Is Business
Architecture?" at bawg.omg.org, 2008 (archive.org). Accessed
04-03-2015; Cited in: William M. Ulrich,
Philip Newcomb Information
Systems Transformation: Architecture-Driven Modernization Case
Studies. (2010), p. 4.
^ Refer to the ICT website: http://cogarch.ict.usc.edu/
^ Clements, Alan. Principles of Computer Hardware (Fourth ed.).
Architecture describes the internal organization of a
computer in an abstract way; that is, it defines the capabilities of
the computer and its programming model. You can have two computers
that have been constructed in different ways with different
technologies but with the same architecture.
^ Hennessy, John; Patterson, David. Computer Architecture: A
Quantitative Approach (Fifth ed.). p. 11. This task has many
aspects, including instruction set design, functional organization,
logic design, and implementation.
^ Federation of EA Professional Organizations, Common Perspectives on
Architecture and Governance Magazine, Issue
9-4, November 2013 (2013). Retrieved on November 19, 2013.
^ Smith, Kevin Lee. "PEAF – Framework". www.pragmaticea.com.
^ "Interior Architecture". RISD Interior
^ Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe, Susan Jellicoe, The Landscape of Man: Shaping
the Environment from Prehistory to the Present Day
^ RINA. "Careers in Naval Architecture". www.rina.org.uk.
^ Biran, Adrian; (2003). Ship hydrostatics and stability (1st Ed.) –
Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-4988-7
^ Clements, Paul; Felix Bachmann; Len Bass; David Garlan; James Ivers;
Reed Little; Paulo Merson; Robert Nord; Judith Stafford (2010).
Documenting Software Architectures: Views and Beyond, Second Edition.
Boston: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-321-55268-7.
^ Perry, D. E.; Wolf, A. L. (1992). "Foundations for the study of
software architecture" (PDF). ACM SIGSOFT Software
17 (4): 40. doi:10.1145/141874.141884.
^ Bass, Len; Paul Clements; Rick Kazman (2012). Software Architecture
In Practice, Third Edition. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
^ Hannu Jaakkola and Bernhard Thalheim. (2011) "Architecture-driven
modelling methodologies." In: Proceedings of the 2011 conference on
Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases XXII. Anneli Heimbürger et
al. (eds). IOS Press. p. 98
^ Paul C. Clements (1996) "A survey of architecture description
languages." Proceedings of the 8th international workshop on software
specification and design. IEEE Computer Society, 1996.
^ Nenad Medvidovic and Richard N. Taylor (2000). "A classification and
comparison framework for software architecture description languages."
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