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The Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby, who was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", sent from Rome
Rome
in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams.[1] From the time of Augustine until the 16th century, the Archbishops of Canterbury
Canterbury
were in full communion with the See of Rome
Rome
and usually received the pallium from the Pope. During the English Reformation, the Church of England
Church of England
broke away from the authority of the Catholic Church. Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cranmer
became the first Protestant holder of the office in 1533, while Reginald Pole
Reginald Pole
was the last Catholic in the position, serving from 1556 to 1558 during the Counter-Reformation. In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the methods of nomination of the Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
and other bishops. At various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the Pope, or the King of England. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England
Church of England
has been more explicitly a state church and the choice is legally that of the Crown; today it is made by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister, who receives a shortlist of two names from an ad hoc committee called the Crown Nominations Commission.

Contents

1 Present roles and status

1.1 Additional roles 1.2 Ecumenical
Ecumenical
and interfaith

2 Origins 3 Province and Diocese of Canterbury 4 Styles and privileges

4.1 Lambeth degrees

5 Residences 6 List of Archbishops of Canterbury 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Present roles and status[edit] Today the archbishop fills four main roles:[2]

He is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury, which covers the eastern parts of the County of Kent. Founded in 597, it is the oldest see in the English church. He is the metropolitan archbishop of the Province of Canterbury, which covers the southern two-thirds of England. He is the senior primate and chief religious figure of the Church of England (the British sovereign is the supreme governor of the church). Along with his colleague the Archbishop of York
Archbishop of York
he chairs the General Synod and sits on or chairs many of the church's important boards and committees; power in the church is not highly centralised, however, so the two archbishops can often lead only through persuasion. The Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
plays a central part in national ceremonies such as coronations; due to his high public profile, his opinions are often in demand by the news media. As spiritual leader of the Anglican Communion, the archbishop, although without legal authority outside England, is recognised by convention as primus inter pares ("first among equals") of all Anglican primates worldwide. Since 1867 he has convened more or less decennial meetings of worldwide Anglican bishops, the Lambeth Conferences.

In the last two of these functions, he has an important ecumenical and interfaith role, speaking on behalf of Anglicans in England and worldwide. The archbishop's main residence is Lambeth Palace
Lambeth Palace
in the London Borough of Lambeth. He also has lodgings in the Old Palace, Canterbury, located beside Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral, where the Chair of St Augustine sits. As holder of one of the "five great sees" (the others being York, London, Durham and Winchester), the Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
is ex officio one of the Lords Spiritual
Lords Spiritual
of the House of Lords. He is one of the highest-ranking men in England and the highest ranking non-royal in the United Kingdom's order of precedence. Since Henry VIII broke with Rome, the Archbishops of Canterbury
Canterbury
have been selected by the English (British since the Act of Union in 1707) monarch. Since the 20th century, the appointment of Archbishops of Canterbury
Canterbury
conventionally alternates between more moderate Anglo-Catholics
Anglo-Catholics
and Evangelicals.[3] The current archbishop, Justin Welby, the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury, was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
on 4 February 2013. As archbishop he signs himself as + Justin Cantuar. His predecessor, Rowan Williams, 104th Archbishop of Canterbury, was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
on 27 February 2003. Immediately prior to his appointment to Canterbury, Williams was the Bishop
Bishop
of Monmouth and Archbishop of Wales. On 18 March 2012, Williams announced he would be stepping down as Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
at the end of 2012 to become Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge.[4] Additional roles[edit] In addition to his office, the archbishop also holds a number of other positions; for example, he is Joint President of the Council of Christians and Jews in the United Kingdom. Some positions he formally holds ex officio and others virtually so (the incumbent of the day, although appointed personally, is appointed because of his office). Amongst these are:[5]

Chancellor of Canterbury
Canterbury
Christ Church University[6]

Visitor for the following academic institutions:

All Souls College, Oxford Selwyn College, Cambridge Merton College, Oxford Keble College, Oxford Ridley Hall, Cambridge The University of Kent
Kent
(main campus located in Canterbury) King's College London University of King's College Sutton Valence School Benenden School Cranbrook School Haileybury and Imperial Service College Harrow School King's College School, Wimbledon The King's School, Canterbury St John's School, Leatherhead Marlborough College Dauntsey's School Wycliffe Hall, Oxford
Wycliffe Hall, Oxford
(also Patron)

Governor of Charterhouse School Governor of Wellington College Visitor, The Dulwich Charities Visitor, Whitgift Foundation Visitor, Hospital of the Blessed Trinity, Guildford
Guildford
(Abbot's Fund) Trustee, Bromley College Trustee, Allchurches Trust President, Corporation of Church House, Westminster Director, Canterbury
Canterbury
Diocesan Board of Finance Patron, St Edmund's School Canterbury Patron, The Worshipful Company of Parish Clerks Patron, Prisoners Abroad Patron, The Kent
Kent
Savers Credit Union

Ecumenical
Ecumenical
and interfaith[edit] The Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
is also a president of Churches Together in England (an ecumenical organisation).[7] Geoffrey Fisher, 99th Archbishop of Canterbury, was the first since 1397 to visit Rome, where he held private talks with Pope
Pope
John XXIII in 1960. In 2005, Rowan Williams
Rowan Williams
became the first Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
to attend a papal funeral since the Reformation. He also attended the inauguration of Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI. The 101st archbishop, Donald Coggan, was the first to attend a papal inauguration, that of Pope
Pope
John Paul II in 1978.[8] Since 2002, the Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
has co-sponsored the Alexandria Middle East Peace process with the Grand Mufti of Egypt. In July 2008, the archbishop attended a conference of Christians, Jews and Muslims convened by the King of Saudi Arabia at which the notion of the "clash of civilizations" was rejected. Delegates agreed "on international guidelines for dialogue among the followers of religions and cultures."[9] Delegates said that "the deepening of moral values and ethical principles, which are common denominators among such followers, would help strengthen stability and achieve prosperity for all humans."[10] Origins[edit]

Arms of the see of Canterbury. Nearly 500 years after the Reformation, the arms still depict the pallium, a symbol of the authority of the Pope
Pope
and metropolitan archbishops.

It has been suggested that the Roman province of Britannia had four archbishops, seated at Londinium
Londinium
(London), Eboracum
Eboracum
(York), Lindum Colonia (Lincoln) and Corinium Dobunnorum
Corinium Dobunnorum
(Cirencester).[11] However, in the 5th and 6th centuries Britannia began to be overrun by pagan, Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
who came to be known collectively as the Anglo-Saxons. Of the kingdoms they created, Kent
Kent
arguably had the closest links with European politics, trade and culture, because it was conveniently situated for communication with continental Europe. In the late 6th century, King Æthelberht of Kent
Kent
married a Christian Frankish princess named Bertha, possibly before becoming king, and certainly a number of years before the arrival of the first Christian mission to England.[12] He permitted the preaching of Christianity.[13] The first Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
was St Augustine (not to be confused with St Augustine of Hippo), who arrived in Kent
Kent
in 597 AD, having been sent by Pope
Pope
Gregory I on a mission to the English. He was accepted by King Æthelbert, on his conversion to Christianity, about the year 598. It seems that Pope
Pope
Gregory, ignorant of recent developments in the former Roman province, including the spread of the Pelagian heresy, had intended the new archiepiscopal sees for England to be established in London
London
and York.[14] In the event, Canterbury
Canterbury
was chosen instead of London, owing to political circumstances.[15] Since then the Archbishops of Canterbury
Canterbury
have been referred to as occupying the Chair of St. Augustine. A Gospel Book believed to be directly associated with St Augustine's mission survives in the Parker Library, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge University, England. Catalogued as Cambridge Manuscript 286, it has been positively dated to 6th century Italy and this bound book, the St Augustine Gospels, is still used during the swearing-in ceremony of new archbishops of Canterbury. Before the break with papal authority in the 16th century, the Church of England was an integral part of the Western European church. Since the break the Church of England, an established national church, still considers itself part of the broader Western Catholic tradition (although this is not accepted by the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which regards Anglicanism
Anglicanism
as schismatic[citation needed] and does not accept Anglican holy orders as valid) as well as being the "mother church" of the worldwide Anglican Communion. Province and Diocese of Canterbury[edit] The Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
exercises metropolitical (or supervisory) jurisdiction over the Province of Canterbury, which encompasses thirty of the forty-two dioceses of the Church of England, with the rest falling within the Province of York. The four dioceses of Wales were formerly also under the Province of Canterbury
Province of Canterbury
until 1920 when they were transferred from the established Church of England
Church of England
to the disestablished Church in Wales.

View of Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
from the north west c. 1890–1900

The Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
has a ceremonial provincial curia, or court, consisting of some of the senior bishops of his province.[16] The Bishop
Bishop
of London—the most senior cleric of the church with the exception of the two archbishops—serves as Canterbury's provincial dean, the Bishop
Bishop
of Winchester as chancellor, the Bishop
Bishop
of Lincoln as vice-chancellor, the Bishop
Bishop
of Salisbury as precentor, the Bishop
Bishop
of Worcester as chaplain and the Bishop
Bishop
of Rochester as cross-bearer. Along with primacy over the Archbishop of York, the Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
also has a precedence of honour over the other bishops of the Anglican Communion. He is recognised as primus inter pares, or first amongst equals. He does not, however, exercise any direct authority in the provinces outside England, except in certain minor roles dictated by Canon in those provinces (for example, he is the judge in the event of an ecclesiastical prosecution against the Archbishop of Wales). He does hold metropolitical authority over several extra-provincial Anglican churches, and he serves as ex officio Bishop
Bishop
of the Falkland Islands. At present the archbishop has three suffragan bishops:

The Bishop
Bishop
of Dover is given the additional title of " Bishop
Bishop
in Canterbury" and empowered to act almost as if he were the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury, since the archbishop is so frequently away fulfilling national and international duties. Two further suffragans, the Bishop
Bishop
of Ebbsfleet and the Bishop
Bishop
of Richborough, are provincial episcopal visitors for the whole Province of Canterbury, licensed by the archbishop as "flying bishops" to visit parishes throughout the province who are uncomfortable with the ministrations of their local bishop who has participated in the ordination of women.

The Bishop
Bishop
of Maidstone was previously a second actual suffragan bishop working in the diocese, until it was decided at the diocesan synod of November 2010 that a new bishop will not be appointed.[17] Styles and privileges[edit] The Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
and the Archbishop of York
Archbishop of York
are both styled as "The Most Reverend"; retired archbishops are styled as "The Right Reverend". Archbishops are, by convention, appointed to the Privy Council and may, therefore, also use the style of "The Right Honourable" for life (unless they are later removed from the council). In formal documents, the Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
is referred to as "The Most Reverend Father in God, Forenames, by Divine Providence Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of All England
Primate of All England
and Metropolitan". In debates in the House of Lords, the archbishop is referred to as "The Most Reverend Primate, the Archbishop of Canterbury". "The Right Honourable" is not used in either instance. He may also be formally addressed as "Your Grace"—or, more often these days, simply as "Archbishop", or "Father". The surname of the Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
is not always used in formal documents; often only the first name and see are mentioned. The archbishop is legally entitled to sign his name as "Cantuar" (from the Latin
Latin
for Canterbury). The right to use a title as a legal signature is only permitted to bishops, Peers of the Realm
Peers of the Realm
and peers by courtesy. The current Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
usually signs as "+Justin Cantuar:". In the English and Welsh order of precedence, the Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
is ranked above all individuals in the realm, with the exception of the Sovereign
Sovereign
and members of the Royal Family.[18] Immediately below him is the Lord Chancellor
Lord Chancellor
and then the Archbishop of York. Lambeth degrees[edit] The Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
awards academic degrees, commonly called "Lambeth degrees". Residences[edit]

The Archbishop of Canterbury's official London
London
residence is Lambeth Palace, photographed looking east across the River Thames

The Archbishop of Canterbury's official residence in London
London
is Lambeth Palace. He also has a residence, named The Old Palace, next to Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
on the site of the medieval Archbishop's Palace. The archbishops had palaces on the periphery of London
London
and on the route between London
London
and Canterbury. Former palaces of the archbishops include

Croydon Palace: the summer residence of the Archbishops from the 15th to the 18th centuries. Addington Palace: purchased as a replacement for Croydon Palace
Croydon Palace
in 1807; sold in 1897. Archbishop's Palace, Maidstone: constructed in the 1390s, the palace was seized by the Crown at the time of the Reformation. Otford Palace: a medieval palace, rebuilt by Archbishop Warham c. 1515 and forfeited to the Crown by Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cranmer
in 1537. Archbishop's Palace, Charing: a palace existed from at least the 13th century; seized by the Crown after the Dissolution. Knole House: built by Archbishop Bourchier in the second half of the 15th century, it was forfeited to the Crown by Archbishop Cranmer in 1538. The Old Palace, Bekesbourne, built c. 1552 for Archbishop Cranmer[19]

List of Archbishops of Canterbury[edit] Main article: List of Archbishops of Canterbury Since 1900, the following have served as Archbishop of Canterbury:

1896–1902: Frederick Temple 1903–1928: Randall Davidson 1928–1942: Cosmo Gordon Lang 1942–1944: William Temple 1945–1961: Geoffrey Fisher 1961–1974: Michael Ramsey 1974–1980: Donald Coggan 1980–1991: Robert Runcie 1991–2002: George Carey 2002–2012: Rowan Williams 2013–present: Justin Welby

See also[edit]

Accord of Winchester Religion in the United Kingdom Ecumenical
Ecumenical
Patriarch of Constantinople

References[edit]

^ "Announcement of the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury". Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
Website. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.  ^ Archbishop's Roles and Responsibilities Archived 14 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine., Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
website. Retrieved 8 February 2008. ^ The Archbishop of Canterbury, website of the Archbishop of York. Retrieved 31 March 2009. ^ Dr Williams resigns ^ "Register of Lords' interests". House of Lords. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 15 August 2007.  ^ "Archbishop installed as first Chancellor". Canterbury
Canterbury
Christ Church University. 12 December 2005. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2008.  ^ "The Presidents of Churches Together in England". Churches Together in England. Retrieved 23 February 2014.  ^ Hickman, Baden (19 May 2000). "Lord Coggan of Canterbury". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2014.  ^ "Madrid Interfaith
Interfaith
Dialogue Conference: Beginning of a Process". Saudi-US Relations Information Service. Archived from the original on 15 May 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2014.  ^ Niles, D. Preman (1989). Resisting the threats to life: covenanting for justice, peace, and the integrity of creation. Geneva: WCC Publications. ISBN 9782825409640.  ^ Wacher, J., The Towns of Roman Britain, Batsford, 1974, especially pp. 84–6. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Bertha. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, i, 25. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, i, 29. ^ Brooks, N., The Early History of the Church of Canterbury, Leicester University Press, 1984, pp. 3–14. ^ Order of Service from the Enthronement of the 104th Archbishop in 2003 Archived 2 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Canterbury
Canterbury
Diocese — Synod News Archived 15 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Whitaker's Almanack, 2008, p43 – (Precedence, England and Wales) ^ http://www.gatehouse-gazetteer.info/English%20sites/4000.html Tim Tatton Brown, Lambeth Palace: A History of the Archbishops of Canterbury
Canterbury
and Their Houses (2000) p.73-4

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Archbishops of Canterbury.

Archbishop of Canterbury
Canterbury
– official website The Archbishopric of Canterbury, from Its Foundation to the Norman Conquest, by John William Lamb", Published 1971, Faith Press, from Google Book Search

v t e

Archbishop of Canterbury

Justin Welby Primate of All England List of Archbishops of Canterbury Lambeth Palace Province of Canterbury Diocese of Canterbury Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral Old Palace, Canterbury Tim Thornton, Bishop
Bishop
at Lambeth, Bishop
Bishop
to the Forces and Bishop
Bishop
for the Falkland Islands (episcopal chief of staff)

Historic palaces (Canterbury—Lambeth chain)

The Old Palace, Bekesbourne
Bekesbourne
(16th–17th centuries) Archbishop's Palace, Charing
Archbishop's Palace, Charing
(8th–16th) Archbishop's Palace, Maidstone
Archbishop's Palace, Maidstone
(14th–16th) Knole House
Knole House
(15th–16th) Otford Palace
Otford Palace
(8th–16th) Addington Palace
Addington Palace
(19th) Croydon Palace
Croydon Palace
(c. 10th–18th)

v t e

Archbishops of Canterbury

Pre-Conquest

Augustine Laurence Mellitus Justus Honorius Deusdedit Wighard Theodore of Tarsus Berhtwald Tatwine Nothhelm Cuthbert Bregowine Jænberht Æthelhard Wulfred Feologild Ceolnoth Æthelred Plegmund Athelm Wulfhelm Oda Ælfsige Byrhthelm Dunstan Æthelgar Sigeric the Serious Ælfric of Abingdon Ælfheah Lyfing Æthelnoth Eadsige Robert of Jumièges Stigand

Conquest–Reformation

Lanfranc Anselm Ralph d'Escures William de Corbeil Theobald of Bec Thomas Becket Roger de Bailleul Richard of Dover Baldwin of Forde Reginald Fitz Jocelin Hubert Walter Reginald John de Gray Stephen Langton Walter d'Eynsham Richard le Grant Ralph Neville John of Sittingbourne John Blund Edmund of Abingdon Boniface William Chillenden Robert Kilwardby Robert Burnell John Peckham Robert Winchelsey Thomas Cobham Walter Reynolds Simon Mepeham John de Stratford John de Ufford Thomas Bradwardine Simon Islip William Edington Simon Langham William Whittlesey Simon Sudbury William Courtenay Thomas Arundel Roger Walden Thomas Arundel Henry Chichele John Stafford John Kemp Thomas Bourchier John Morton Thomas Langton Henry Deane William Warham Thomas Cranmer Reginald Pole

Post-Reformation

Matthew Parker Edmund Grindal John Whitgift Richard Bancroft George Abbot William Laud William Juxon Gilbert Sheldon William Sancroft John Tillotson Thomas Tenison William Wake John Potter Thomas Herring Matthew Hutton Thomas Secker Frederick Cornwallis John Moore Charles Manners-Sutton William Howley John Bird Sumner Charles Longley Archibald Campbell Tait Edward White Benson Frederick Temple Randall Davidson Cosmo Lang William Temple Geoffrey Fisher Michael Ramsey Donald Coggan Robert Runcie George Carey Rowan Williams Justin Welby

Italics indicate a person who was elected but not confirmed.

v t e

Anglican hierarchy in Great Britain and Ireland

Church of England

Canterbury Province

Diocesan bishops

Archbishop of Canterbury Bath & Wells Birmingham Bristol Chelmsford Chichester Coventry Derby Ely Exeter Europe Gloucester Guildford Hereford Leicester Lichfield Lincoln London Norwich Oxford Peterborough Portsmouth Rochester Saint Albans St Edmundsbury & Ipswich Salisbury Southwark Truro Winchester Worcester

Suffragan bishops

Aston Barking Basingstoke Bedford Bradwell Brixworth Buckingham Colchester Crediton Croydon Dorchester Dorking Dover Dudley Dunwich Ebbsfleet Edmonton Europe Fulham Grantham Grimsby Hertford Horsham Huntingdon Kensington Kingston-upon-Thames Lewes Loughborough Ludlow Lynn Maidstone Plymouth Ramsbury Reading Repton Richborough Sherborne Shrewsbury Southampton St Germans Stafford Stepney Swindon Taunton Tewkesbury Thetford Tonbridge Warwick Willesden Wolverhampton Woolwich

York Province

Diocesan bishops

Archbishop of York Blackburn Carlisle Chester Durham Leeds Liverpool Manchester Newcastle Sheffield Sodor & Man Southwell

Suffragan bishops

Berwick Beverley Birkenhead Bolton Bradford Burnley Doncaster Huddersfield Hull Jarrow Lancaster Middleton Penrith Richmond Ripon Selby Sherwood Stockport Wakefield Warrington Whitby

Other

Bishop
Bishop
at Lambeth Bishop
Bishop
to the Forces Bishop
Bishop
to HM Prisons Bishop
Bishop
for Urban Life and Faith Bishop
Bishop
of the Falkland Islands Chair of the CMDDP Bishop
Bishop
for Higher and Further Education

Church in Wales

Archbishop of Wales Bangor Llandaff Monmouth Saint Asaph Saint David's Swansea & Brecon

Scottish Episcopal Church

Primus of the Scottish Episcopal Church Aberdeen and Orkney Argyll & The Isles Brechin Edinburgh Glasgow & Galloway Moray, Ross & Caithness St Andrews, Dunkeld & Dunblane

Church of Ireland

Armagh Province

Archbishop of Armagh Clogher Connor Derry and Raphoe Down & Dromore Kilmore, Elphin & Ardagh Tuam, Killala & Achonry

Dublin Province

Archbishop of Dublin Cashel & Ossory Cork, Cloyne & Ross Limerick & Killaloe Meath & Kildare

v t e

Anglican Communion

General

Supreme Governor of the Church of England Episcopal polity

Archbishop of Canterbury Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
Primates Meeting

Lambeth Conferences Anglican Consultative Council Homosexuality

Windsor Report

Ordination of women Ecumenism

African provinces

Burundi Central Africa Congo Indian Ocean Jerusalem and the Middle East Kenya Nigeria Rwanda Southern Africa South Sudan Sudan Tanzania Uganda West Africa

American provinces

Brazil Canada Central America Mexico South America United States of America West Indies

Asian provinces

Bangladesh (United) Hong Kong and Macao Japan Jerusalem and the Middle East Korea Myanmar (Burma) North India (United) Pakistan (United) Philippines South East Asia South India (United)

European provinces

England Ireland Scotland Wales

Oceanian provinces

Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia Australia Melanesia Papua New Guinea

Extra-provincial churches

Bermuda Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Cuba Falkland Islands Portugal Spain

Churches in full communion

Mar Thoma Syrian Church Malabar Syrian Church Union of Utrecht Philippine Independent Church Porvoo Communion

.