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Zoo-archaeology (or archaeo-zoology), also known as faunal analysis, is a branch of archaeology that studies remains of animals from archaeological sites.[1] Faunal remains are the items left behind when an animal dies.[1] These include bones, shells, hair, chitin, scales, hides, proteins and DNA.[1] Of these items, bones and shells are the ones that occur most frequently at archaeological sites where faunal remains can be found.[1] Most of the time, a majority of these faunal remains do not survive.[1] They often decompose or break because of various circumstances.[1] This can cause difficulties in identifying the remains and interpreting their significance.[1]

Zooarchaeology serves as a "hybrid" discipline: combining the studies of archaeology and zoology, which are the study of past human culture and the study of animals respectively.[2] Therefore, zooarchaeologists may also be: anthropologists, paleontologists, archaeologists, zoologists, ecologists, etc.[3] However, the main focus of Zoo-archaeology is to not only find remnants of past animals, but to then identify and understand how humans and their environment (mainly animal populations) coexisted.[3] Zooarchaeology allows researchers to have a more holistic understanding of past human-environment interactions, thus making this topic a sub-field of environmental archaeology. Whether it is diet, domestication, tool use, or ritual; the study of animal remains provides a great amount of information about the groups that interacted with them. Archaeology provides information on the past which often proves invaluable for understanding the present and preparing for the future.[4] Zoo archaeology plays a valuable part in contributing to a holistic understanding of the animals themselves, the nearby groups, and the local environments.

A reference collection of shinbones (Tibia) of different animal species helps determining old bones. Dutch Heritage Agency.

One important aspect of zooarchaeology is using morphological and genetic evidence to answer questions zooarchaeologists have about the relationship between animals and humans.[7]:172 These questions include:

  1. What was the diet like, and in what ways were the animals used for food?[6]
  2. Which animals were eaten, in what amounts, and with what other foods?processual archaeology.[6] This approach puts more emphasis on explaining why things happened, not just what happened.[6] Archaeologists began to specialize in zooarchaeology, and their numbers increased.[6]

    One important aspect of zooarchaeology is using morphological and genetic evidence to answer questions zooarchaeologists have about the relationship between animals and humans.[7]:172 These questions include:

    1. What was the diet like, and in what ways were the animals used for food?[6]
    2. Which animals were eaten, in what amounts, and with what other foods?[6]
    3. Who were the ones to obtain the food, and did the availability of that food depend on age or gender?[6]
    4. How was culture, such as technologies and behavior, influenced by and associated with diet?[6]
    5. How can faunal remains identify social differences such as class or ethnicity?[8]
    6. What purposes, other than food, were animals used for?[6]
    7. What was the environment like?[7]:170
    8. How did hunter-gatherers collect food? [7]Another important aspect of zooarchaeology is its application to the migration patterns of humans. In areas where people are either closely tied to animal as companions or regularly follow the migrations of herds, the data collected from these animals can help give context to human movement as well.[9]:103 Studying animal remains can also give context to other remains and artifacts found in association with them.[10]:1

      Faunal remains

      Faunal remains are parts of animals that have been left in the material record, which archaeologists’ study. These remains are important to the record because they can show cultural practices, such as what food they are eating, based off the remains left behind.[11] Zooarcheologists can find out information like the species the animal is, the age the animal was when it died, and what its sex was.[11]

      Some common faunal remains found at sites include, as stated above, bones, shells, hair, chitin, scales, hides, proteins and DNA. These are often found in piles of waste that have been left behind. There, as well as in other places, the pieces of bone, scales, teeth, etc. may be mixed together where the archaeologist will have to sort through and identify where the remains came from (what animal/ what species) and where on that species the remain is from.[12] The types of fauna that leave behind these remains will depend on where the archaeological site is located. These animals can be domesticated or wild, and sometimes they find both types of remains at sites.[12]

      In addition to helping us understand the past, zooarchaeology can also help us to improve the present and the future.[13] Studying how people dealt with animals, and their effects can help avoid many potential ecological problems.[13] This specifically includes problems involving wildlife management.Faunal remains are parts of animals that have been left in the material record, which archaeologists’ study. These remains are important to the record because they can show cultural practices, such as what food they are eating, based off the remains left behind.[11] Zooarcheologists can find out information like the species the animal is, the age the animal was when it died, and what its sex was.[11]

      Some common faunal remains found at sites include, as stated above, bones, shells, hair, chitin, scales, hides, proteins and DNA. These are often found in piles of waste that have been left behind.

      Some common faunal remains found at sites include, as stated above, bones, shells, hair, chitin, scales, hides, proteins and DNA. These are often found in piles of waste that have been left behind. There, as well as in other places, the pieces of bone, scales, teeth, etc. may be mixed together where the archaeologist will have to sort through and identify where the remains came from (what animal/ what species) and where on that species the remain is from.[12] The types of fauna that leave behind these remains will depend on where the archaeological site is located. These animals can be domesticated or wild, and sometimes they find both types of remains at sites.[12]

      In addition to helping us understand the past, zooarchaeology can also help us to improve the present and the future.[13] Studying how people dealt with animals, and their effects can help avoid many potential ecological problems.[13] This specifically includes problems involving wildlife management.[13] For example, one of the questions that wildlife preservationists ask is whether they should keep animals facing extinction in several smaller areas, or in one larger area.[13] Based on zooarchaeological evidence, they found that animals that are split up into several smaller areas are more likely to go extinct.[13]

      One of the issues to which zooarchaeologists pay close attention is taphonomy.[5] Techniques used in the study of taphonomy include researching how items are buried and deposited at an archaeological site, what the conditions are that aid in the preservation of these items, and how these items get destroyed, all a part of what is referred to by archaeologist Michael Brian Schiffer as behavioral archaeology.[5] One important aspect of taphonomy is assessing how a specimen became damaged; understanding the taphonomy of a faunal assemblage can explain how and why bones were damaged.[10] One source of damage to animal bones is humans.[10]:169 Cut marks on animal bones provide evidence for butchering.[10]:169 Fractures, such as by percussion impact and spiral fracture on a bone can suggest that it was processed by humans for its marrow, minerals, and nutrients.[10]:170 Other human processes that affect bones include burning[10]:171 and damage that occurs during archaeological excavations.[10]:178 Non-human damage to bones includes interspecies damage,[10]:173 damage from raptors,[10]:173 damage from rodents,[10]:175 damage from fungi,[10]:176 environmental weathering,[10]:176 and polishing.[10]:176 Distinguishing different types of damage to animal bones is a tedious and complex process that requires background in multiple scientific fields.[10]:169 Some of the physical damage on bones can be seen with the naked eye, but a lens with 10x magnification and good lighting is necessary for seeing most damage.[10]:169

      Identification and taxonomy

      Identification is integral to the archaeological analysis of animal remains.[10]:1<

      Identification is integral to the archaeological analysis of animal remains.[10]:1 Identification of animal remains requires a combination of anatomy, taxonomy, and studies of archaeological context.[10]:1 The ability to identify a piece of bone requires knowing what element (bone in the body) it is, and to what animal the bone belongs.[10]:1 The latter is referred to as taxonomy, which is used to sort animals into different groups.[10]:1 Zooarchaeology uses Linnean nomenclature, which includes varying degrees of specificity in regards to the species.[10]:2 Linnaean nomenclature (Linnaean taxonomy) is used because it allows archaeologists to identify and show the genetic and morphological relationships between species.[10]:2 These relationships are based on species evolution, which can often be subject to interpretation.[10]:4 While more specific identification is preferable, it is better to be less specific in the identification rather than identify a specimen incorrectly.[10]:2 When examining animal remains, it is common that there are bones that are too small or too damaged to be able to accurately identify it.[10]:3 Archaeological context can be used to help with assumptions about species identification.[10]:3 Skeletal classification is the other half of properly identifying animal remains.[10]:1 Bones can be classified by the material it is made of and by its shape. (7) Three categories of bone shapes include long bones, flat bones, and irregular bones.[10]:7 Bones are structured differently depending on where they are located and what part of the bone it is; the main structural differences are found between spongy bone and compact bone.[10]:8 Spongy bone and compact bone both serve different purposes in regards to bone function; for example, the outside layer of the bone that provides structure is made of compact bone, whereas the inside of the bone is made of spongy bone.[10]:8 The study of bones is useful to zooarchaeology because certain morphological aspects of a bone are associated with particular periods of growth, which can help narrow down the age the specimen was at death.[10]:9 The analysis of teeth require a slightly different approach than bone, but retain the same level of importance when it comes to analysis.[10]:9 The wear pattern and tooth morphology provides information about a species diet and age; the enamel also has biochemical remains of what the animal ate.[10]:9 While animal remains can include more than just bones and teeth, the nature of things like hair and muscle cause it to deteriorate quickly after death, leaving the skeleton behind; this is why most of zooarchaeology revolves around skeletal morphology.[10]:6 Laboratory analysis can include comparing the skeletons found on site with already identified animal skeletons.[5] This not only helps to identify what the animal is, but also whether the animal was domesticated or not.[5]

      Genetic analysis

      Genetic analysis using ancient DNA is an important tool used by zooarchaeologists. Genetic history of an animal can give information on population movement over time and environmental adaptations necessary to live in an area.[9]:103 It can also give context to how animals may or may not have been domesticated over time by a group of people.[9]:104 Ancient DNA is critical to the genetic analysis of animals remains. Whereas modern DNA has very long fragments in samples, ancient DNA has very short fragments, making it very easily contaminated.[9]:94 The extraction and sampling of ancient DNA requires highly specialized training, as well as intensive protocol to prevent it from being contaminated by modern DNA.[14]:5 The paper :Ancient DNA Analysis of the Oldest Canid Species from the Siberian Arctic and Genetic Contribution to the Domestic Dog" by Lee et al. gives a description of claws and teeth were sampled for ancient DNA. In a facility specially designed for ancient DNA extraction, with the use of personal protective equipment and regular bleaching of surfaces and tools, the claws and teeth were wiped with bleach to destroy all modern DNA on the surface, and were then drilled into a powder. The DNA fragments were extracted from the bone powder using an ancient DNA extraction protocol. After using several processes to replicate the DNA fragments and verify the results (PCR and gel electrophoresis), the ancient DNA from the bone powder was sequenced and then analyzed.[14]:5

      ZooMS

      With With ZooMS analysis (Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry), the animal species behind a bone fragment or bone artefact can be determined even when no morphological traits survive. The method makes use of interspecies differences in the structure of collagen.

      Quantification