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Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
haemolyticum, formerly known as Corynebacterium hæmolyticum, is a species of bacteria classified as a gram-positive bacillus. It is catalase-negative, aerobic, beta-hemolytic, and not motile.[1] It is part of the normal flora of the pharynx, but it may sometimes cause head and neck infections, pharyngitis, and sinusitis[1] ( Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
haemolyticum infections).

Contents

1 History 2 Detection 3 Pathology 4 Treatment 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] It was first described by MacClean et al. in 1946 from US servicemen and peoples of the South Pacific suffering from sore throat.[2] Due to its resemblance to another genus of bacteria, Corynebacterium, A. haemolyticum was initially classified as C. pyogenes subspecies hominus.[3] It was known for several decades as Corynebacterium haemolyticum; controversies regarding classification were resolved in 1982 when a new genus, Arcanobacterium, was created by Collins et al.[4][5] to reclassify Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
haemolyticum on the basis of its peptidoglycan, fatty acid, and DNA
DNA
characteristics. Since its initial description, the spectrum of diseases caused by A. haemolyticum has been expanded to include sepsis and osteomyelitis. Organisms are Gram-positive,[6] facultative anaerobic, catalase-negative rods (but transition to the coccal shape occurs as the organism grows) with arrangements described as matchbox or Chinese letters arrangements. Growth is enhanced in blood and by carbon dioxide. Detection[edit] Hemolysis
Hemolysis
is detected on human blood agar plates, and routine plating of specimens suspected of containing A. haemolyticum on human blood agar is suggested to distinguish it from Streptococcus pyogenes, as A. haemolyticum can easily be confused with this organism. Microscopic morphology differences can be used to differentiate them, since Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
is rod-shaped and Streptococcus is coccus-shaped.[7] A. haemolyticum infection is most common in 15- to 25-year-old persons and manifests as exudative pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis accompanied by cervical lymphadenopathy. Symptoms look like those of β-hemolytic streptococci or viral infection. A rash of the chest and of the abdomen, neck, or extremities is seen in 20% to 25% of cases, enhancing the risk of diagnostic error as streptococcal infection or penicillin allergy, when β-lactam therapy is initiated without exact diagnosis.[8] A. haemolyticum often occurs in polymicrobic infections together with typical respiratory pathogens such as streptococci. The isolation of classical pathogens from specimens that also contain A. haemolyticum might be in part responsible for the tendency to miss the organism. Pathology[edit] A. haemolyticum is the cause of pharyngitis (sore throat) in up to 2.5% of cases.[9] In one study, it was the causative agent of pharyngitis in 1.4% of military conscripts.[10] It is rarely found in the skin or throat of healthy people, meaning it is not a member of the usual bacterial flora.[3] Little is known about the means by which A. haemolyticum causes infection or the associated skin manifestations. The organism is known to produce uncharacterized hemolytic agent(s), a neuraminidase and a phospholipase D (PLD) acting preferentially on sphingomyelin. PLD is known to result in tissue damage, but the role in disease of the cytotoxic effect caused by this extracellular toxin is not established. Pyothorax
Pyothorax
has been reported.[11] Treatment[edit] A. haemolyticum isolated from humans is susceptible to erythromycin[12] (proposed as the first-line drug), clindamycin, gentamicin, and cephalosporins. The use of parenteral antimicrobial drugs must be limited to serious infections. See also[edit]

Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
haemolyticum infection

References[edit]

^ a b Volante M, Corina L, Contucci AM, Calò L, Artuso A (2008). " Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
haemolyticum: two case reports". Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 28: 144–6. PMC 2644988 . PMID 18646577.  ^ MacLean PD, Liebow AA, Rosenberg AA (1946). "A hemolytic Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
resembling Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
ovis and Corynebacterium pyogenes in man". J Infect Dis. 79: 69–90. doi:10.1093/infdis/79.1.69.  ^ a b Linder R (1997). " Rhodococcus equi
Rhodococcus equi
and Arcanobacterium haemolyticum: two "coryneform" bacteria increasingly recognized as agents of human infection". Emerging Infect. Dis. 3 (2): 145–53. doi:10.3201/eid0302.970207. PMC 2627624 . PMID 9204295.  ^ Collins, MD; Jones, D; Schofield, GM (1982), "Reclassification of ' Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
haemolyticum' (MacLean, Liebow & Rosenberg) in the genus Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
gen.nov. as Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
haemolyticum nom.rev., comb.nov.", J Gen Microbiol, 128 (6): 1279–1281, doi:10.1099/00221287-128-6-1279, PMID 7119737.  ^ Collins, MD; et al. (1982), "Chemical studies as a guide to the classification of Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
pyogenes and "Corynebacterium haemolyticum"", J Gen Microbiol, 128 (2): 335–341, doi:10.1099/00221287-128-2-335, PMID 7077293.  ^ " Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
Haemolyticum: Overview - eMedicine". Archived from the original on 29 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-11.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-11-07. Retrieved 2014-11-06.  ^ "EID V3 N2: Rhodococcus equi
Rhodococcus equi
and Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
haemolyticum: Two Coryneform Bacteria
Bacteria
Increasingly Recognized as Agents of Human Infection". Archived from the original on 27 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  ^ Mackenzie A, Fuite LA, Chan FT, King J, Allen U, MacDonald N, Diaz-Mitoma F (1995). "Incidence and pathogenicity of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum during a 2-year study in Ottawa". Clin Infect Dis. 21 (1): 177–81. doi:10.1093/clinids/21.1.177.  ^ Carlson P, Kontianinen S, Renkonen OV, Sivonen A, Vorpi R Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
haemolyticum and streptococcal pharyngitis in army conscripts Scand J Infect Dis. 1995; 27 (1) 17–8 ^ Parija SC, Kaliaperumal V, Kumar SV, Sujatha S, Babu V, Balu V (2005). " Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
haemolyticum associated with pyothorax: case report". BMC Infectious Diseases. 5: 68. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-5-68. PMC 1236925 . PMID 16144543.  ^ Malini A, Deepa EK, Manohar PV, Borappa K, Prasad SR (2008). "Soft tissue infections with Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
haemolyticum: report of three cases". Indian J Med Microbiol. 26 (2): 192–5. doi:10.4103/0255-0857.40543. PMID 18445965. 

External links[edit]

Type strain of Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
haemolyticum at BacDive
BacDive
- the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase

v t e

Gram-positive bacterial infection: Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
(primarily A00–A79, 001–041, 080–109)

Actinomycineae

Actinomycetaceae

Actinomyces israelii

Actinomycosis Cutaneous actinomycosis

Tropheryma whipplei

Whipple's disease

Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
haemolyticum

Arcanobacterium
Arcanobacterium
haemolyticum infection

Actinomyces gerencseriae

Propionibacteriaceae

Propionibacterium acnes

Corynebacterineae

Mycobacteriaceae

M. tuberculosis/ M. bovis

Tuberculosis: Ghon focus/Ghon's complex Pott disease brain

Meningitis Rich focus

Tuberculous lymphadenitis

Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis

cutaneous

Scrofuloderma Erythema induratum Lupus vulgaris Prosector's wart Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
cutis orificialis Tuberculous cellulitis Tuberculous gumma

Lichen scrofulosorum Tuberculid

Papulonecrotic tuberculid

Primary inoculation tuberculosis Miliary Tuberculous pericarditis Urogenital tuberculosis Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis

M. leprae

Leprosy: Tuberculoid leprosy Borderline tuberculoid leprosy Borderline leprosy Borderline lepromatous leprosy Lepromatous leprosy Histoid leprosy

Nontuberculous

R1:

M. kansasii M. marinum

Aquarium granuloma

R2:

M. gordonae

R3:

M. avium complex/ Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
avium/ Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
intracellulare/MAP

MAI infection

M. ulcerans

Buruli ulcer

M. haemophilum

R4/RG:

M. fortuitum M. chelonae M. abscessus

Nocardiaceae

Nocardia asteroides/Nocardia brasiliensis

Nocardiosis

Rhodococcus equi

Corynebacteriaceae

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
diphtheriae

Diphtheria

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
minutissimum

Erythrasma

Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
jeikeium

Group JK corynebacterium sepsis

Bifidobacteriaceae

Gardnerella vaginalis

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q22113627 BacDive: 197 GBIF: 3225738 ITIS: 959465

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