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Arbutus
Arbutus
is a genus of 12 accepted species[2] of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae,[3] native to warm temperate regions of the Mediterranean, western Europe, the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
and North America. The name Arbutus
Arbutus
was taken from Latin, where it referred to Arbutus unedo.[4]

Contents

1 Description 2 Common names 3 Species

3.1 Old World 3.2 New World 3.3 Hybrids 3.4 Formerly placed here

4 Natural history 5 Uses and symbolism 6 Cultural significance 7 References 8 External links

Description[edit] Arbutus
Arbutus
are small trees or shrubs with red flaking bark and edible red berries.[5] Fruit development is delayed for about five months after pollination, so that flowers appear while the previous year's fruit are ripening.[5] Peak flowering for the genus is in April with peak fruiting in October.[6] Common names[edit]

Arbutus menziesii
Arbutus menziesii
lignotuber near ground level provides fire-resistant storage of energy and sprouting buds if fire damage requires replacement of the trunk or limbs. Note the typically smooth orange bark on the upper portion of the trunk.

Members of the genus are called madrones or madronas in the United States, from the Spanish name madroño (strawberry tree). In British Columbia, Canada, where the species is common, arbutus is commonly used or, rarely and locally, tick tree.[7][8] All refer to the same species, Arbutus
Arbutus
menziesii, native to the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
and Northern California
California
regions. It is Canada's only native broadleaved evergreen tree. Some species in the genera Epigaea, Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
and Gaultheria
Gaultheria
were formerly classified in Arbutus. As a result of its past classification, Epigaea
Epigaea
repens (mayflower) has an alternative common name of "trailing arbutus". Species[edit] A study published in 2001 which analyzed ribosomal DNA from Arbutus and related genera suggests that Arbutus
Arbutus
is paraphyletic and the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Basin species of Arbutus
Arbutus
are more closely related to Arctostaphylos, Arctous, Comarostaphylis, Ornithostaphylos
Ornithostaphylos
and Xylococcus than to the western North American species of Arbutus, and that the split between the two groups of species occurred at the Paleogene/ Neogene
Neogene
boundary.[9] The 12 species are as follows:[2] Old World[edit]

Arbutus andrachne
Arbutus andrachne
L. – Greek strawberry tree (Southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia) Arbutus canariensis
Arbutus canariensis
Duhamel – Canary madrone (Canary Islands) Arbutus pavarii
Arbutus pavarii
Pampan. (Libya) Arbutus unedo
Arbutus unedo
L. – Strawberry tree ( Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Basin, western France, and western Ireland)[10]

New World[edit]

Arbutus arizonica
Arbutus arizonica
(A.Gray) Sarg. – Arizona
Arizona
madrone (New Mexico, Arizona
Arizona
and western Mexico
Mexico
south to Jalisco) Arbutus
Arbutus
bicolor S. González, M. González et P. D. Sørensen (Mexico) Arbutus madrensis M. González - western Mexico Arbutus menziesii
Arbutus menziesii
Pursh – Pacific madrone (West coast of North America from southern British Columbia
British Columbia
to central California, on the west slopes of the Sierra Nevada and Pacific Coast Range
Pacific Coast Range
mountains) Arbutus mollis Kunth (Mexico) Arbutus occidentalis McVaugh & Rosatti - western Mexico Arbutus tessellata (Mexico)[11] Arbutus xalapensis
Arbutus xalapensis
Kunth (syn. A. texana, A. glandulosa, A. peninsularis) – Texas
Texas
madrone (Texas, New Mexico
New Mexico
and northeastern Mexico)[10]

Hybrids[edit]

Arbutus
Arbutus
'Marina' – Marina strawberry tree, unknown parentage although Arbutus unedo
Arbutus unedo
variety rubra is undoubtedly one of the parents. It is also likely that either or both of A. canariensis and A. andrachne conferred not only structural size but leaf size and smoothness of bark. The parent species likely experienced different blooming times, as the hybrid blooms nearly continuously and sets copious fruit.[citation needed] Arbutus
Arbutus
× andrachnoides Link (A. andrachne × A. unedo):[10] this hybrid has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.[12]

Formerly placed here[edit]

Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
tomentosa (Pursh) Lindl. (as A. tomentosa Pursh) Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (as A. uva-ursi L.) Comarostaphylis
Comarostaphylis
discolor (Hook.) Diggs (as A. discolor Hook.) Gaultheria
Gaultheria
phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer (as A. phillyreifolia Pers.)[10]

Natural history[edit] Arbutus
Arbutus
species are used as food plants by some Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
species including emperor moth, Pavonia pavonia
Pavonia pavonia
and the madrone butterfly.[13] The distribution of the latter species is in fact heavily affected by the distribution of the madrone.[13] Uses and symbolism[edit]

The bear and the tree at Puerta del Sol, Madrid

Several species are widely cultivated as ornamental plants outside of their natural ranges, though cultivation is often difficult due to their intolerance of root disturbance. The hybrid Arbutus
Arbutus
'Marina' is much more adaptable and thrives under garden conditions. The Arbutus unedo
Arbutus unedo
tree makes up part of the coat of arms (El oso y el madroño, The Bear and the Strawberry Tree) of the city of Madrid, Spain. A statue of a bear eating the fruit of the madroño tree stands in the center of the city (Puerta del Sol). The image appears on city crests, taxi cabs, man-hole covers, and other city infrastructure. The Arbutus
Arbutus
was important to the Straits Salish people of Vancouver Island, who used arbutus bark and leaves to create medicines for colds, stomach problems, and tuberculosis, and as the basis for contraceptives. The tree also figured into certain myths of the Straits Salish.[14] The fruit is edible but has minimal flavour and is not widely eaten. In Portugal, the fruit is sometimes distilled (legally or not) into a potent brandy known as medronho. In Madrid, the fruit is distilled into madroño, a sweet, fruity liqueur. Arbutus
Arbutus
is a great fuelwood tree since it burns hot and long. Many Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
states in the United States use the wood of A. menziesii primarily as a heat source,[citation needed] as the wood holds no value in the production of homes since it doesn't grow in straight timbers. My love's an arbutus is the title of a poem by the Irish writer Alfred Perceval Graves (1846–1931), set to music by his compatriot Charles Villiers Stanford (1852–1924) Cultural significance[edit] According to the Straits Salish, an anthropomorphic form of pitch would go fishing, but return to shore before it got too hot. One day he was too late getting back to shore and melted from the heat and several anthropomorphic trees rushed to get him - the first was Douglas fir, who took most of the pitch, the grand fir received a small portion, and the madrone received none - which is why they say it still has no pitch. Also, according to the Great Flood
Great Flood
legends of several bands in the northwest, the madrone helped people survive by providing an anchor on top of a mountain. Because of this the Saanich people
Saanich people
do not burn madrone out of thanks for saving them.[15]

This section contains what may be an unencyclopedic or excessive gallery of images. Galleries containing indiscriminate images of the article subject are discouraged; please improve or remove the section accordingly. (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Arbutus
Arbutus
menziesii—full tree

Arbutus
Arbutus
menziesii—flowers

Arbutus
Arbutus
menziesii—bark

Arbutus
Arbutus
unedo—Corsica

Arbutus
Arbutus
unedo—leaves and fruit

Arbutus menziesii
Arbutus menziesii
— trunk

Photographed in Los Altos, CA, Redwood Nature Preserve

Photographed in Bayda, Libya

References[edit]

^ "Genus: Arbutus
Arbutus
L". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-06-04. Retrieved 2012-04-17.  ^ a b Act. Bot. Mex no.99 Pátzcuaro abr. 2012. Arbutus
Arbutus
bicolor ^ "The plant list, Arbutus". Royal Botanic Garden, Kew.  ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant
Plant
Names. I: A-C. CRC Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-8493-2675-2.  ^ a b Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The plant book: A portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ^ " Arbutus
Arbutus
- iNaturalist". Retrieved 9 Nov 2017.  ^ Pojar, Jim; Andy MacKinnon (1994). Plants of Coastal British Columbia. Vancouver: Lone Pine Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-55105-042-3.  ^ Francis, Daniel (2000). The Encyclopedia of British Columbia
British Columbia
(2nd ed.). Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-55017-200-3.  ^ Hileman, Lena C.; Vasey, Michael C.; Parker, V.Thomas (2001). "Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Arbutoideae
Arbutoideae
(Ericaceae): Implications for the Madrean-Tethyan Hypothesis". Systematic Botany. 26 (1): 131–143. JSTOR 2666660.  ^ a b c d "GRIN Species Records of Arbutus". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2012-04-17.  ^ Paul D. Sørensen 1987. Arbutus tessellata (Ericaceae), new from Mexico
Mexico
Brittonia, 39(2):263-267. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Arbutus
Arbutus
× andrachnoides". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 12 January 2018.  ^ a b P.G., Kevan,; R.A., Bye, (1991). "natural history, sociobiology, and ethnobiology of Eucheira socialis Westwood (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), a unique and little-known butterfly from Mexico". Entomologist. ISSN 0013-8878.  ^ Pojar and MacKinnon, 49 ^ Plants of the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
Coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia & Alaska, Written by Paul Alaback, ISBN 978-1-55105-530-5

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Arbutus.

Hileman, Lena C.; Vasey, Michael C.; Thomas Parker, V. (2001). "Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Arbutoideae
Arbutoideae
(Ericaceae): Implications for the Madrean-Tethyan Hypothesis". Systematic Botany. 26 (1): 131–143. 

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Arbutus

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arbutus.

v t e

Extant Arbutoideae
Arbutoideae
subfamily species

Arbutus

Arbutus
Arbutus
andrachne Arbutus
Arbutus
arizonica Arbutus
Arbutus
canariensis Arbutus
Arbutus
glandulosa Arbutus
Arbutus
madrensis Arbutus
Arbutus
menziesii Arbutus
Arbutus
occidentalis Arbutus
Arbutus
pavarii Arbutus
Arbutus
peninsularis Arbutus
Arbutus
tessellata Arbutus
Arbutus
unedo Arbutus
Arbutus
xalapensis

Arctostaphylos

Subgenus Micrococcus

Section Micrococcus

Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
mendocinoensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
myrtifolia Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
nissenana Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
nummularia

Subgenus Arctostaphylos

Section Arctostaphylos

Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
bakeri Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
densiflora Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
edmundsii Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
franciscana Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
gabrielensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
glauca Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
hispidula Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
hookeri Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
insularis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
klamathensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
manzanita Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
mewukka Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
nevadensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
parryana Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
patula Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
pumila Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
pungens Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
rudis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
stanfordiana Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
uva-ursi Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
viscida

Section Foliobracteata

Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
andersonii Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
auriculata Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
canescens Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
catalinae Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
columbiana Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
confertiflora Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
cruzensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
glandulosa Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
glutinosa Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
hooveri Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
imbricata Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
luciana Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
malloryi Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
montaraensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
montereyensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
morroensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
nortensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
obispoensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
osoensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
otayensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
pajaroensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
pallida Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
pechoensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
pilosula Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
purissima Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
refugioensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
regismontana Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
silvicola Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
tomentosa Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
virgata Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
viridissima Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
wellsii

Section Pictobracteata

Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
pringlei

Unassigned

Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
rainbowensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
gabilanensis Arctostaphylos
Arctostaphylos
ohloneana

Arctous

Arctous alpina Arctous rubra

Comarostaphylis

Comarostaphylis
Comarostaphylis
arbutoides Comarostaphylis
Comarostaphylis
discolor Comarostaphylis
Comarostaphylis
diversifolia Comarostaphylis
Comarostaphylis
glaucescens Comarostaphylis
Comarostaphylis
lanata Comarostaphylis
Comarostaphylis
longifolia Comarostaphylis
Comarostaphylis
mucronata Comarostaphylis
Comarostaphylis
polifolia Comarostaphylis
Comarostaphylis
sharpii Comarostaphylis
Comarostaphylis
spinulosa

Ornithostaphylos

Ornithostaphylos
Ornithostaphylos
oppositifolia

Xylococcus

Xylococcus bicolor

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q430057 APDB: 188257 EoL: 71122 EPPO: 1ARDG FNA: 102447 FoC: 102447 Fossilworks: 157352 GBIF: 2882796 GRIN: 905 iNaturalist: 51047 IPNI: 14623-1 ITIS: 23625 NCBI: 13342 PLANTS: ARBUT Tropicos: 40

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