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Lokono (Lokono Dian, literally 'people’s talk' by its speakers), also referred to as Arawak (Arowak/Aruák), is an Arawak language spoken by the Lokono people of South America in eastern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana.[3] While the term "Arawak" has been used in reference to this people, Lokono more accurately reflects the speakers' own language, as the name has been historically extended to cover the eponymous Arawak language family.

Lokono has an active–stative syntax.[4]

History

Lokono is a critically endangered language.[5] The Lokonoan language is most commonly spoken in South America. Some specific geographic areas where this language is spoken include Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, and Venezuela.[6] The percentage of living fluent speakers with active knowledge of the language is estimated to be 5% of the ethnic population.[7] There are small communities of semi-speakers who have varying degrees of comprehension and fluency in Lokono that keep the language alive despite its decline in usage.[8] It is estimated that around 2,500 remaining speakers (including fluent and semi-fluent speakers) remain in existence.[9] The decline in the use of Lokono as a language of communication is due to its lack of transmission from speaker to speaker to the next generation. The language is not passed to young children, as they are taught to practice the official languages of their countries. The oldest generation of speakers are around the age of 70 years of age of older.[5]

Classification

The Lokono language is part of the larger language group of Arawakan languages. The Arawakan languages are a large family of languages that developed in South America by its indigenous people.[10] The language eventually spread in branches to areas such as Central America, the Caribbean and the Bahamas.[11] Arawak is the largest family of languages in the Americas in vast comparison to other language groups. The languages have crossed numerous barriers, having been found in Suriname, Guyana, French Guyana, Venezuela most commonly.[12] It has been found with native speakers in Trinidad and Tobago and Colombia on the northern coast of South America and as far north as Spanish predominant countries such as Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Honduras The languages have also been found in Argentina and Paraguay as well.[9]

Etymology

Arawak is a tribal name in reference to the main crop food, the cassava root. It is commonly known as Manioc. The cassava root is a popular staple to millions in South America, Asia and Africa.[13] It is a woody shrub grown in tropical or subtropical regions. The speakers of the Arawak language also identify themselves as, Lokono, which translates to "the people" . The Arawak language within itself is known as, Lokono Dian, "the people's speech".[14]

Alternative Names

Alternative names of the same language include Arawák, Arahuaco, Aruak, Arowak, Arawac, Araguaco, Aruaqui, Arwuak, Arrowukas, Arahuacos, Locono, and Luccumi.[15]

Geographic Distribution

Lokono is an Arawakan language most commonly found to be spoken in eastern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. It was also formerly spoken on Caribbean islands such as Barbados and other neighboring countries .There are approximately 2,500 native speakers today. The following are regions where Arawak has been found spoken by native speakers.

  • Central America - Belize, Honduras, Guatemala and Nicaragua[6]
  • South America -Bolivia, Guyana, French Guiana, Surinam, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Brazil (and also formerly Argentina and Paraguay).[6]

Phonology

Consonants[16]

Bilabial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Aspirated stops
Unvoiced stops t k
Voiced stops b d
Fricatives ɸ s h
Nasal m n
Approximant w l j
Trills r ɽ

William Pet observes an additional /p/ in loanwords.[17]

Character Used Additional Usage IPA symbol Arawak Pronunciation
b b Like b in boy.
ch č t Like ch in chair.
d d ~ d͡ʒ Like d in day. Before i the Arawak pronunciation sounds like the j in jeep.
f Φ This sound does not exist in English. It is pronounced by narrowing your lips and blowing through them, as if you were playing a flute.
h h Like h in hay.
j y j Like y in yes).
k c, qu k Like the soft k sound in English ski.
kh c, qu, k kh Like the hard k sound in English key.
l l Like l in light.
lh r,r ɽ No exact equivalent in American English. This is a retroflex r, pronounced with the tongue touching the back of the palate. You may recognize this sound if you've heard people from India speaking English. Some American English speakers pronounce this sound in the middle of the word "hurting."
m m Like m in moon.
n n Like n in night.
p p Like the soft p in spin.
r ɾ Like the r in Spanish pero, somewhat like the tt in American English butter.
s z,c s Like the s in sun.
t t ~ t͡ʃ Like the soft t in star. Before i the Arawak pronunciation sounds like the ch in cheek.
th t th ~ t͡ʃʰ Like the hard t in tar. Before i the Arawak pronunciation sounds like the ch in cheek.
w hu w Like w in way.
' ʔ A pause sound, like the one in the middle of the word "uh-oh."

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i ɨ
Mid e o
Open a

Pet notes that phonetic realization of /o/ varies between [o] and [u].[17]

Character Used Additional Usage IPA Symbol Arawak Pronunciation
a a Like the a in father.
aa Like a only held longer.
e e Like the e sound in Spanish, similar to the a in gate.
ee e·, e: Like e only held longer.
i i Like the i in police.
ii i·, i: Like i only held longer.
o o ~ u Like o in note or u in flute.
oo o·, o: Like o only held longer.
y u, i ɨ Like the u in upon, only pronounced higher in the mouth.
yy y:, uu, ii ɨː Like y only held longer.

Grammar

The personal pronouns are shown below. The forms on the left are free forms, which can stand alone. The forms on the right are bound forms (prefixes), which must be attached to the front of a verb, a noun, or a postposition.[18]

singular plural
1st person de, da- we, wa-
2nd person bi, by- hi, hy-
3rd person li, ly- (he)

tho, thy- (she)

ne, na-

Cross-Refrencing Affixes

All verbs are sectioned into transitive, active transitive and stative intransitive.[16]

Prefixes( A/Sa) and Suffixes(O/So) of Cross-Reference Affixes
prefixes suffixes
Person sg pl sg pl
1 nu- or ta- wa- -na, -te -wa
2 (p)i- (h)i- -pi -hi
3(non formal) ri-, i na- ri, -i -na
3(formal) thu-, ru- na- -thu,-ru, -u -na
'impersonal' pa- - - -

A= Sa=cross referencing prefix

O=So= cross referencing suffix

Vocabulary

Gender

In the Arawak language there are two distinct genders of masculine and feminine. They are used in cross referencing affixes, in demonstratives, in nominalization and in personal pronouns. Typical pronominal genders for example are feminine and non-feminine. The markers go back to Arawak third person singular cross referencing : feminine -(r)u, masculine -(r)i[15]

Number

Arawak Languages do distinguish singular and plural, however plural is optional unless the referent is a person. Markers used are *-na/-ni (animate/human plural) and *-pe (inanimate/animate non-human plural)[15]

Possession

Arawak nouns are fragmented into inalienably and alienably possessed. Inalienably crossed nouns include things such as body parts, terms for kinship and common nouns like food selections. Deverbal nominalization belong to that grouping. Both forms of possession are marked with prefixes (A/Sa) . Inalienably possessed nouns have what is known as an "unpossessed" form (also known as 'absolute') marked with the suffix *-tfi or *-hV. Alienably possessed nouns take one of the suffixes *-ne/ni, *-te, *-re, *i/e, or *-na. All suffixes used as nominalizers.[19]

Negation

Arawak languages have a negative prefix ma- and attributive-relative prefix ka-. An example of the use is ka-witi-w (a woman with good eyes) and ma-witti-w (a woman with bad eyes aka. blind) .

Writing System

The Arawak language system has an alphabetical system similar to the Roman Alphabet with some minor changes and new additions to letters. The letters in brackets under each alphabetical letter is the IPA symbol for each letter. An IPA symbol is phonetic transcriptions for English learners.[20]

Writing System & Language of Arawak(Lokono) Language

Examples[21]

English Eastern Arawak Words (French Guiana) Western Arawak(Guyana)
One Ábą Aba
Two Bian Biama
Three Kabun Kabyn
Four Biti Bithi
Man Wadili Wadili
Woman Hiaro Hiaro
Dog Péero Péero
Sun Hadali Hadali
Moon Kati Kathi
Water Uini Vuniabu

References

  1. ^ Arawak at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Lokono". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Pet, Willem J. A. A Grammar Sketch and Lexicon of Arawak (Lokono Dian). SIL International. 2011. p 2. http://www-01.sil.org/silepubs/Pubs/928474543236/e-Books_30_Pet_Arawak_Suriname.pdf
  4. ^ Aikhenvald, "Arawak", in Dixon & Aikhenvald, eds., The Amazonian Languages, 1999.
  5. ^ a b "Lokono". endangeredlanguages. 
  6. ^ a b c Aikhenvald, Alexandra. "Areal Diffusion, Genetic Inheritance and Problems of Subgrouping: A north Arawak Case Study". Google Books. 
  7. ^ Edwards, W. (1979). "An Ethnohistory of Amerindians in Guyana". Ethnohistory. 26 (2): pp. 161–175 – via JSTOR. 
  8. ^ Harbert, Wayne; Pet, Willem (1988-10-01). "Movement and Adjunct Morphology in Arawak and Other Languages". International Journal of American Linguistics. 54 (4): 416–435. doi:10.1086/466095. ISSN 0020-7071. 
  9. ^ a b Aikhenvald, Alexandrs (2013). "Arawak Languages". Aronoff, Mark, (ed.) Linguistics: Oxford Bibliographies. Oxford Bibliographies Online – via Oxford Bibliographies. 
  10. ^ "The diachrony of person-number marking in the Lokono-Wayuunaiki subgroup of the Arawak family: reconstruction, sound change and analogy". Language Sciences. 55: 1–15. 2016-05-01. doi:10.1016/j.langsci.2016.02.001. ISSN 0388-0001. 
  11. ^ Aikhenvald, Alexandra. "Areal Diffusion and Genetic Inheritance : Problems in Comparative Linguistics : A north Arawak Case Study". Google Books. 
  12. ^ Negation in Arawak languages. Michael, Lev,, Granadillo, Tania,. Leiden. ISBN 9789004257016. OCLC 873949439. 
  13. ^ Aikhenvald, Alexandra (2008). "PERSON MARKING AND DISCOURSE IN NORTH ARAWAK LANGUAGES". Studia Linguistica. 49: 152–195 – via Wiley. 
  14. ^ A Brief Introduction to Some Aspects of the Culture and Language of the Guyana Arawak (Lokono) Tribe. Amerindian Languages Project, University of Guyana. 1980. 
  15. ^ a b c Hill, Johnathon. "Comparative Arawakan Histories : Rethinking Language Family and Culture Area in Amazonia". Google Books. 
  16. ^ a b Willem, Pet (1987). "A Grammar Sketch and Lexicon of Arawak (Lokono Dian)". SIL International. Series Issue: 30 – via SIL. 
  17. ^ a b Pet, William (1988). Lokono dian: the Arawak language of Surinam: a sketch of its grammatical structure and lexicon. PhD dissertation, Cornell University. 
  18. ^ Pet, Willem J. A. A Grammar Sketch and Lexicon of Arawak (Lokono Dian). SIL International. 2011. p 12. http://www-01.sil.org/silepubs/Pubs/928474543236/e-Books_30_Pet_Arawak_Suriname.pdf
  19. ^ Rybka, Konrad (2015). "State-of-the-Art in the Development of the Lokono Language". Language Documentation & Conservation: 9110–9133. – via ebscohost. 
  20. ^ "Arawak". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 
  21. ^ Trevino, David (2016). "Arawak". Salem Press Encyclopedia – via ebescohost.