The ARAWAK are a group of indigenous peoples of South America and
historically of the
* 1 Name * 2 History * 3 Modern population and descendants * 4 Arawak people * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography
Arawakan languages may have emerged in the
Orinoco River valley.
They subsequently spread widely, becoming by far the most widely
spread language family in South America at the time of European
contact , with speakers located in various areas along the
Amazon rivers and their tributaries. The group that self-identified
as the Arawak, also known as the
Lokono , settled the coastal areas of
what is now
At some point, the Arawakan-speaking
Taíno culture emerged in the
Caribbean. Two major models have been presented to account for the
Taíno ancestors in the islands; the "Circum-Caribbean"
model suggests an origin in the
Colombian Andes connected to the
Arhuaco people , while the Amazonian model supports an origin in the
Amazon basin, where the
Arawakan languages developed. The
among the first American people to encounter Europeans when
Christopher Columbus visited multiple islands and chiefdoms on his
first voyage in 1492, which was followed in 1493 by the establishment
of La Isabella on
With the establishment of La Isabella, and the discovery of gold
deposits on the island, the Spanish settler population on Hispaniola
started to grow substantially, while disease and conflict with the
Spanish began to kill tens of thousands of
Taíno every year. By 1504,
the Spanish had overthrown the last of the Taino cacique chiefdoms on
Hispaniola, and firmly established the supreme authority of the
Spanish colonists over the now-subjugated Taíno. Over the next
decade, the Spanish Colonists commenced a brutal genocide against the
Taíno on Hispaniola, who suffered poor living conditions,
disease, massacres, rapes, and enslavement at the hands of the
colonists. The population of Hispanoila at the point of first European
contact is estimated at between several hundred thousand to over a
million people, but by 1514, it had dropped to a mere 35,000. By
1509, the Spanish had successfully conquered
Taíno influence has survived even until today, though, as can be
seen in the religions, languages, and music of
MODERN POPULATION AND DESCENDANTS
Spaniards who arrived in the Bahamas ,
There are about 10,000 Lokono living primarily in the coastal areas of Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana, and many more Lokono descendants throughout the region. Unlike many indigenous groups in South America, the Lokono population is growing.
* John P. Bennett (Lokono), first Amerindian ordained as an Anglican priest in Guyana, linguist and author of An Arawak-English Dictionary (1989). * George Simon (Lokono), artist and archaeologist from Guyana.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to ARAWAK .
* ^ A B Rouse, Irving (1992). The Tainos. Yale University Press. p.
5. ISBN 0300051816 . Retrieved 16 June 2015.
* ^ Hill, Jonathan David; Santos-Granero, Fernando (2002).
Arawakan Histories: Rethinking Language Family and Culture
Area in Amazonia. University of Illinois Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN
0252073843 . Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Olson, James Stewart (1991). The Indians of Central and South
America: An Ethnohistorical Dictionary. Greenwood. p. 29. ISBN
0313263876 . Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Rouse, Irving (1992). The Tainos. Yale University Press. pp.
30–48. ISBN 0300051816 . Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ A B "
* Jesse, C., (2000). The Amerindians in St. Lucia (Iouanalao). St.
Lucia: Archaeological and Historical Society.
* Haviser, J. B.,Wilson, S. M. (ed.), (1997). Settlement Strategies
in the Early Ceramic Age. In The Indigenous People of the Caribbean,
Gainesville, Florida: University Press.
* Hofman, C. L., (1993). The Native Population of Pre-columbian
Saba. Part One. Pottery Styles and their Interpretations. , Leiden:
University of Leiden (Faculty of Archaeology).
* Haviser, J. B., (1987). Amerindian cultural Geography on Curaçao.
, Leiden: Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University.
* Handler, Jerome S. (Jan 1977). "Amerindians and Their
Contributions to Barbadian Life in the Seventeenth Century". The
Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society. no.3. Barbados:
Museum and Historical Society. 33: 189–210.
* Joseph, P. Musée, C. Celma (ed.), (1968). "LГhomme Amérindien
dans son environnement (quelques enseignements généraux)", In Les
Civilisations Amérindiennes des Petites Antilles, Fort-de-France:
Départemental d’Archéologie Précolombienne et de Préhistoire.
* Bullen, Ripley P., (1966). "Barbados and the Archeology of the
Caribbean", The Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society,
* Haag, William G., (1964). A Comparison of
* v * t * e
Ancestry and ethnicity in
* Carib * Macushi * Patamona * Pemon * Wai-Wai * Wapishana * Warao
* African * Brazilian * Chinese * Indian * Jewish * Portuguese
* v * t * e
Ancestry and ethnicity in
* Akurio * Kali\'na * Sikiana * Tiriyó * Wayana
* Kwinti * Ndyuka * Paramaccan * Saramaka
* Brazilian * Chinese * Dutch * Indian * Javanese * Jewish * Lebanese * Portuguese
* LCCN : sh85006444 * SUDOC : 028683994 * BNF : cb120469