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The Arafura Sea
Sea
lies west of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
overlying the continental shelf between Australia
Australia
and Indonesian New Guinea.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Extent

2 Name 3 Fisheries 4 See also 5 References

Geography[edit] The Arafura Sea
Sea
is bordered by Torres Strait
Torres Strait
and through that the Coral Sea
Sea
to the east, the Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
to the south, the Timor Sea
Sea
to the west and the Banda and Ceram seas to the northwest. It is 1,290 kilometres (800 mi) long and 560 kilometres (350 mi) wide. The depth of the sea is primarily 50–80 metres (165–265 feet) with the depth increasing to the west. The sea lies over the Arafura Shelf, part of the Sahul Shelf. When sea levels were low during the last glacial maximum, the Arafura Shelf, the Gulf of Carpentaria
Gulf of Carpentaria
and Torres Strait
Torres Strait
formed a large flat land bridge connecting Australia
Australia
and New Guinea
New Guinea
and easing migration of humans from Asia
Asia
into Australia. The combined landmass formed the continent of Sahul. Extent[edit] The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
(IHO) defines the Arafura Sea
Sea
as being one of the waters of the East Indian Archipelago. The IHO defines its limits as follows:[1]

On the North. The Southeastern limit of the Ceram Sea
Sea
[A line from Karoefa, New Guinea, to the Southeastern extreme of Adi Island, thence to Tg. Borang, the Northern point of Noehoe Tjoet [Kai Besar] (5°17′S 133°09′E / 5.283°S 133.150°E / -5.283; 133.150)] and the Eastern limit of the Banda Sea
Sea
[From Tg Borang, the Northern point of Noehoe Tjoet, through this island to its Southern point, thence a line to the Northeast point of Fordata, through this island and across to the Northeast point of Larat, Tanimbar Islands (7°06′S 131°55′E / 7.100°S 131.917°E / -7.100; 131.917), down the East coast of Jamdena [Yamdena] Island to its Southern point, thence through Anggarmasa to the North point of Selaroe and through this island to Tg Aro Oesoe its Southern point (8°21′S 130°45′E / 8.350°S 130.750°E / -8.350; 130.750)]. On the East. The Southwest coast of New Guinea
New Guinea
from Karoefa (133°27'E) to the entrance to the Bensbak River (141°01'E), and thence a line to the Northwest extreme of York Peninsula, Australia (11°05′S 142°03′E / 11.083°S 142.050°E / -11.083; 142.050). On the South. By the North coast of Australia
Australia
from the Northwest extreme of York Peninsula to Cape Don (11°19′S 131°46′E / 11.317°S 131.767°E / -11.317; 131.767). On the West. A line from Cape Don to Tanjong Aro Oesoe, the Southern point of Selaroe (Tanimbar Islands).

Name[edit] The sea's name appeared in George Windsor Earl's 1837 Sailing Directions for the Arafura Sea
Sea
which he compiled from the narratives of Lieuts. Kolff and Modera of the Dutch Navy.[2] It has been suggested that the name Arafura is of Portuguese origin, being the corruption of the word "Alfours," meaning "free men", but recent research at the Dutch National Archives has revealed AJ van der Aa's 1939 Toponymic Dictionary records "the inhabitants of the Moluccas
Moluccas
called themselves "haraforas", translating "Anak anak gunung" as "children of the mountains"." The Arafura Sea
Sea
name is from the indigenous name for "the people of mountains" in the Moluccas
Moluccas
(part of Indonesia) as identified by Dutch Lieutenants Kolff and Modera in the 1830s.[citation needed] Thomas Forrest sailed thru the Moluccas
Moluccas
(Maluku Islands) in 1775 and retailed reports of "Harafora" people living in the western end of New Guinea in subordination to the "Papuas", and mentioned them also in Magindano (Mindanao).[3] The geographer Conrad Malte-Brun
Conrad Malte-Brun
repeated Forrest's reports of a race of "Haraforas", in 1804,[4] and added Borneo to the distribution.[5] The ethnologist James C. Prichard described them as head-hunters.[6] The form "Horrafora" was recorded by John Coulter, in his account[7] of a sojourn in the interior of south-west New Guinea
New Guinea
in 1835, and applied to the tribespeople there. Coulter concluded that Papuans and Horraforas were two distinct races in New Guinea. Fisheries[edit] The Arafura Sea
Sea
is a rich fishery resource, particularly for shrimp and demersal fishing. Economically important species include Barramundi, grouper, Penaeid shrimp, Nemipteridae
Nemipteridae
fishes, and other kind of fish. In a world where marine ecosystems and fish stocks are generally collapsing, the Arafura Sea
Sea
stands out as among the richest marine fisheries in the world.[citation needed] However, the Arafura is coming under ever more intense pressure from illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing activities. Established in 2002, the Arafura and Timor Seas Expert Forum (ATSEF) seeks to promote economically and environmentally sustainable management of the seas.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arafura Sea.

Australia
Australia
portal Indonesia
Indonesia
portal

Alfur people Aru Islands Asmat people Makassan contact with Australia

References[edit]

^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010.  ^ Earl, George Windsor; Kolff, D. H.; Modera, Justin (1837). "Sailing directions for the Arafura Sea". Hydrographic Office, London.  ^ Captain Thomas Forrest, A Voyage to New Guinea, and the Moluccas, from Balambangan: &c. (Dublin, 1779). ^ Edme Mentelle & Malte Brun, Géographie mathématique, physique et politique de toutes les parties du monde, &c., vol. XII (Paris, Henry Tardieu & Laporte, 1804), pages 400, 597. ^ M. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, or a Description of All the Parts of the World on a New Plan, &c., vol. III (Edinburgh, Adam Black, 1822). ^ James Clowes Prichard, Researches into the Physical History of Man (London, J. & A. Arch, 1813), page 307. ^ John Coulter, M.D., Adventures on the Western Coast of South America and the Interior of California: including a narrative of incidents at the Kingsmill Islands, New Ireland, New Britain, New Guinea, and other islands in the Pacific Ocean; &c., vol. II (London, Longmans, 1847), chapters 11—16.

v t e

List of Australian seas

Ocean

Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Southern Ocean

Sea

Arafura Sea Coral Sea Tasman Sea Timor Sea

Strait

Backstairs Passage Bass Strait Clarence Strait Dundas Strait Endeavour Strait Investigator Strait Torres Strait

Gulf

Admiralty Gulf Beagle Gulf Cambridge Gulf Gulf of Carpentaria Great Australian Bight Exmouth Gulf Joseph Bonaparte Gulf Gulf St Vincent Spencer Gulf Van Diemen Gulf

v t e

Indonesian seas

Ocean

Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean

Sea

Andaman Sea Arafura Sea Bali Sea Banda Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Flores Sea Halmahera Sea Java Sea Molucca Sea Natuna Sea Philippine Sea Savu Sea South China Sea Timor Sea

Strait

Alas Strait Alor Strait Badung Strait Bali Strait Bangka Strait Berhala Strait Dampier Strait Gaspar Strait Karimata Strait Laut Strait Lombok Strait Madura Strait Makassar Strait Malacca Strait Mentawai Strait Ombai Strait Pitt Strait Riau Strait Rupat Strait Sape Strait Selayar Strait Singapore Strait Sumba Strait Sunda Strait Torres Strait Wetar Strait

Gulf

Balikpapan Bay Bintuni Bay Boni Gulf Cenderawasih Bay Jakarta Bay Lampung Gulf Pelabuhanratu Gulf Saleh Bay Semangka Gulf Tolo Bay Tomini Gulf

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea
Sea
of Åland Sea
Sea
of Azov Sea
Sea
of Crete Sea
Sea
of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea
Sea
of Japan Sea
Sea
of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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