ARACHOSIA /ærəˈkoʊsiə/ is the Hellenized name of an ancient
satrapy in the eastern part of the
Achaemenid , Seleucid , Parthian ,
Greco-Bactrian , and Indo-Scythian empires.
Arachosia was centred on
the Arghandab valley in modern-day southern
* 1 Name * 2 Geography * 3 Peoples * 4 History * 5 Religion * 6 Theory of Croatian Iranian origin * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links
"Arachosia" is the Latinized form of Greek Ἀραχωσία -
Arachōsíā. "The same region appears in the
(1.12) under the indigenous dialect form Haraxvaitī- (whose -axva- is
typical non-Avestan)." In
Old Persian inscriptions, the region is
referred to as 𐏃𐎼𐎢𐎺𐎫𐎡𐏁, written
h(a)-r(a)-u-v(a)-t-i. This form is the "etymological equivalent" of
Vedic Sanskrit Sarasvatī- , the name of a (mythological) river
literally meaning "rich in waters/lakes" and derived from sáras-
"lake, pond." (cf.
Aredvi Sura Anahita
"Arachosia" was named after the name of a river that runs through it, in Greek Arachōtós, today known as the Arghandab , a left bank tributary of the Helmand .
In his list,
The inhabitants of Arachosia were Iranian peoples , referred to as Arachosians or Arachoti. It is assumed that they were called Paktyans by ethnicity, and that name may have been in reference to the ethnic Pax̌tūn (Pashtun) tribes .
Isidorus of Charax in his 1st century CE "Parthian stations" itinerary described an "Alexandropolis, the metropolis of Arachosia", which he said was still Greek even at such a late time:
"Beyond is Arachosia. And the Parthians call this White India; there are the city of Biyt and the city of Pharsana and the city of Chorochoad and the city of Demetrias; then Alexandropolis, the metropolis of Arachosia; it is Greek, and by it flows the river Arachotus. As far as this place the land is under the rule of the Parthians." — "Parthians stations", 1st century CE. Original text in paragraph 19 of Parthian stations
Further information: History of
The region is first referred to in the
Achaemenid -era Elamite
The chronologically next reference to
Arachosia comes from the Greeks
and Romans, who record that under
Darius III the Arachosians and
Drangians were under the command of a governor who, together with the
army of the Bactrian governor, contrived a plot of the Arachosians
against Alexander (
Partition of Babylon
The Kushans captured
Arachosia from the
Arab geographers referred to the region (or parts of it) as 'Arokhaj', 'Rokhaj', 'Rohkaj' or simply 'Roh'.
Arachosia retained Zoroastrian religious and cultural influence until the advent of Islam in the 7th century. Much of the country remained Zoroastrian even while in Arab hands, but within a few centuries Islam became the region's dominant religion. See Sistan for information on the religion of the area after the Arab conquest.
THEORY OF CROATIAN IRANIAN ORIGIN
The theory of Croatian origin traces the origin of the
Croats to the
area of Arachosia. This connection was at first drawn due to the
similarity of Croatian (
* ^ A B C D E F G H Schmitt, Rüdiger (August 10, 2011). "Arachosia". United States: Encyclopædia Iranica. * ^ Lendering, Jona. "Alexandria in Arachosia". Amsterdam: livius.org . * ^ Mookerji, Radhakumud (1966). Chandragupta Maurya and his times (4 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 173. ISBN 978-81-208-0405-0 . Retrieved 2010-09-18. * ^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill\'s first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. 2. BRILL. p. 150. ISBN 90-04-08265-4 . Retrieved 2010-09-24. * ^ The Greeks in Bactria and India. Cambridge University Press. 2010-06-24. ISBN 978-1-108-00941-6 . Retrieved 2007-12-31. * ^ "Identity of Croatians in Ancient Afghanistan". iranchamber.com . * ^ Kalyanaraman, Srinivasan. "Sarasvati Civilization Volume 1". Bangalore: Babasaheb (Umakanta Keshav) Apte Smarak Samiti . * ^ Budimir/Rac, Stipan/Mladen. "Anthropogenic and agrobiological arguments of the scientific origin of Croats". Zagreb: Staroiransko podrijetlo Hrvata : zbornik simpozija / Lovrić, Andrija-Željko (ed). - Teheran : Iranian Cultural Center . * ^ Abbas, Samar. "Common Origin of Croats, Serbs and Jats". Bhubaneshwar: iranchamber.com . * ^ Beshevliev 1967: "Iranian elements in the Proto-Bulgarians" by V. Beshevliev (in Bulgarian)(Antichnoe Obschestvo, Trudy Konferencii po izucheniyu problem antichnosti, str. 237-247, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", Moskva 1967, AN SSSR, Otdelenie Istorii) http://members.tripod.com/~Groznijat/fadlan/besh.html * ^ Dvornik 1956: "The Slavs. Their Early History and Civilization." by F. Dvornik, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston, USA., 1956. * ^ Hina 2000: "Scholars assert Croats are Descendants of Iranian Tribes", Hina News Agency, Zagreb, Oct 15, 2000 (http://www.hina.hr) * ^ Sakac 1949: "Iranisehe Herkunft des kroatischen Volksnamens", ("Iranian origin of the Croatian Ethnonym") S. Sakac, Orientalia Christiana Periodica. XV (1949), 813-340. * ^ Sakac 1955: "The Iranian origin of the Croatians according to Constantine Porphyrogenitus", by S. Sakac, in "The Croatian nation in its struggle for freedom and independence" (Chicago, 1955); for other works by Sakac, cf. "Prof. Dr. Stjepan Krizin Sakac - In memoriam" by Milan Blazekovic, http://www.studiacroatica.com/revistas/050/0500501.htm * ^ Schmitt 1985: "Iranica Proto-Bulgarica" (in German), Academie Bulgare des Sciences, Linguistique Balkanique, XXVIII (1985), l, p.13-38; http://members.tripod.com/~Groznijat/bulgar/schmitt.html * ^ Tomicic 1998: "The old-Iranian origin of Croats", Symposium proceedings, Zagreb 24.6.1998, ed. Prof. Zlatko Tomicic ">(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-12-12. Retrieved 2011-06-13. * ^ Vernadsky 1952: "Der sarmatische Hintergrund der germanischen Voelkerwanderung," (Sarmatian background of the Germanic Migrations), G. Vernadsky, Saeculum, II (1952), 340-347.
* Frye, Richard N. (1963). The Heritage of Persia. World Publishing company, Cleveland, Ohio. Mentor Book edition, 1966. * Hill, John E. 2004. The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. Draft annotated English translation. * Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. * Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1 . * Toynbee, Arnold J. (1961). Between Oxus and Jumna. London. Oxford University Press. * Vogelsang, W. (1985). "Early historical Arachosia in South-east Afghanistan; Meeting-place between East and West." Iranica antiqua, 20 (1985), pp. 55–99.
* Arachosia * Alexandria in Arachosia * ARACHOSIA, province (satrapy)
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