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ARABS ( Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَب‎‎ ; ( listen )) are a population inhabiting the Arab world . They primarily live in the Arab
Arab
states in Western Asia , North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa and western Indian Ocean islands .

The Arabs
Arabs
are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BC as tribal people in eastern and southern Syria, and the north of the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabs
Arabs
appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–612 BC), and the succeeding Neo-Babylonian (626–539 BC), Achaemenid (539–332 BC), Seleucid and Parthian empires. Arab
Arab
tribes , most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids , begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to later stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires. Tradition holds that Arabs
Arabs
descend from Ishmael
Ishmael
, the son of Abraham
Abraham
. The Arabian Desert is the birthplace of "Arab". There are other Arab
Arab
groups as well that spread in the land and existed for millennia.

Before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661), "Arab" referred to any of the largely nomadic and settled Semitic people from the Arabian Peninsula , Syrian Desert , North and Lower Iraq. Today, "Arab" refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to the spread of Arabs
Arabs
and the Arabic
Arabic
language throughout the region during the early Muslim
Muslim
conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries and the subsequent Arabisation of indigenous populations. The Arabs
Arabs
forged the Rashidun (632–661), Umayyad (661–750) and the Abbasid (750–1258) caliphates, whose borders reached southern France
France
in the west, China
China
in the east, Anatolia
Anatolia
in the north, and the Sudan
Sudan
in the south. This was one of the largest land empires in history . In the early 20th century, the First World War signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
; which had ruled much of the Arab world since conquering the Mamluk Sultanate in 1517. This resulted in the defeat and dissolution of the empire and the partition of its territories , forming the modern Arab
Arab
states. Following the adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. The Charter of the Arab
Arab
League endorsed the principle of an Arab
Arab
homeland whilst respecting the individual sovereignty of its member states.

Today, Arabs
Arabs
primarily inhabit the 22 Arab
Arab
states within the Arab League: Algeria
Algeria
, Bahrain
Bahrain
, Comoros , Djibouti , Egypt
Egypt
, Iraq
Iraq
, Jordan , Kuwait
Kuwait
, Lebanon
Lebanon
, Libya
Libya
, Mauritania
Mauritania
, Morocco
Morocco
, Oman
Oman
, Palestine , Qatar
Qatar
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Somalia
Somalia
, Sudan
Sudan
, Syria
Syria
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, United Arab Emirates and Yemen
Yemen
. The Arab world stretches around 13 million km², from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the west to the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
in the southeast. Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab
Arab
States, Arabs
Arabs
can also be found in the global diaspora . The ties that bind Arabs
Arabs
are ethnic, linguistic , cultural , historical, identical , nationalist , geographical and political. The Arabs have their own customs, language, architecture , art , literature , music , dance, media , cuisine , dress , society , sports and mythology . The total number of Arabs
Arabs
are an estimated 450 million. This makes them the world's second largest ethnic group after the Han Chinese .

Arabs
Arabs
are a diverse group in terms of religious affiliations and practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs
Arabs
followed polytheistic religions. Some tribes had adopted Christianity
Christianity
or Judaism
Judaism
, and a few individuals, the _hanifs _, apparently observed monotheism . Today, Arabs
Arabs
are mainly adherents of Islam
Islam
, with sizable Christian minorities. Arab Muslims primarily belong to the Sunni
Sunni
, Shiite
Shiite
, Ibadi , Alawite
Alawite
, Druze
Druze
and Ismaili denominations. Arab
Arab
Christians generally follow one of the Eastern Christian
Christian
Churches , such as the Maronite , Coptic Orthodox , Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
, Greek Catholic
Greek Catholic
or Chaldean churches.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Identity * 3 Subgroups

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Arab world * 4.2 Arab diaspora

* 5 History

* 5.1 Pre-Islamic

* 5.1.1 Origins and early history * 5.1.2 Classical kingdoms * 5.1.3 Late kingdoms

* 5.2 Islamic

* 5.2.1 Arab
Arab
Caliphates

* 5.2.1.1 Rashidun Era (632–661) * 5.2.1.2 Umayyad
Umayyad
Era (661–750) * 5.2.1.3 Abbassid Era (750–1517)

* 5.2.2 Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire

* 5.3 Modern

* 6 Religion
Religion

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Language
Language
* 7.2 Literature
Literature
* 7.3 Gastronomy * 7.4 Art
Art
* 7.5 Architecture
Architecture
* 7.6 Music
Music
* 7.7 Spirituality * 7.8 Philosophy
Philosophy
* 7.9 Science * 7.10 Wedding and marriage

* 8 Genetics * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Further information: Arab (etymology) Arabic
Arabic
epitaph of Imru\' al-Qais , son of 'Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script . Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. December 7, 328 AD. Found at Nemara in the Hauran
Hauran
(Southern Syria
Syria
).

The earliest documented use of the word "Arab" to refer to a people appears in the Kurkh Monoliths , an Akkadian language record of the ninth century BC Assyrian conquest of Aram , which referred to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula under King Gindibu , who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria
Assyria
. Listed among the booty captured by the army of king Shalmaneser III
Shalmaneser III
of Assyria
Assyria
in the Battle of Qarqar are 1000 camels of "Gi-in-di-bu'u the ar-ba-a-a" or " Gindibu belonging to the _Arab_ (_ar-ba-a-a_ being an adjectival nisba of the noun _ʿarab_ ). The related word _ʾaʿrāb_ is still used to refer to Bedouins today, in contrast to _ʿarab_ which refers to Arabs in general.

The oldest surviving indication of an Arab
Arab
national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic
Arabic
in 328 using the Nabataean alphabet , which refers to Imru\' al-Qays ibn \'Amr as "King of all the Arabs". Herodotus refers to the Arabs
Arabs
in the Sinai, southern Palestine, and the frankincense region (Southern Arabia). Other ancient Greek historians like Agatharchides , Diodorus Siculus and Strabo
Strabo
mention Arabs
Arabs
living in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(along the Euphrates), in Egypt
Egypt
(the Sinai
Sinai
and the Red Sea), southern Jordan
Jordan
(the Nabataeans ), the Syrian steppe and in eastern Arabia (the people of Gerrha
Gerrha
). Inscriptions dating to the 6th century BCE in Yemen
Yemen
include the term "Arab". Traditional Qahtanite genealogy.

The most popular Arab
Arab
account holds that the word "Arab" came from an eponymous father called Ya\'rub who was supposedly the first to speak Arabic. Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani had another view; he states that Arabs
Arabs
were called GHARAB ("West") by Mesopotamians because Bedouins originally resided to the west of Mesopotamia; the term was then corrupted into "Arab".

Yet another view is held by al-Masudi that the word "Arabs" was initially applied to the Ishmaelites of the " Arabah " valley. In Biblical etymology, "Arab" (in Hebrew
Hebrew
_Arvi_ ) comes both from the desert origin of the Bedouins it originally described (_Arava_ means wilderness).

The root _ʿ-r-b_ has several additional meanings in Semitic languages—including "west/sunset," "desert," "mingle," "mixed," "merchant," and "raven"—and are "comprehensible" with all of these having varying degrees of relevance to the emergence of the name. It is also possible that some forms were metathetical from ʿ-B-R "moving around" ( Arabic
Arabic
ʿ-B-R "traverse"), and hence, it is alleged, "nomadic."

IDENTITY

Further information: Arab identity

Arab identity is defined independently of religious identity, and pre-dates the spread of Islam
Islam
, with historically attested Arab Christian
Christian
kingdoms and Arab
Arab
Jewish tribes . Today, however, most Arabs are Muslim, with a minority adhering to other faiths, largely Christianity
Christianity
, but also Druze
Druze
and Baha\'i . Near East
Near East
in 565, showing the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Kindah and Hejaz.

Today, the main unifying characteristic among Arabs
Arabs
is Arabic
Arabic
, a Central Semitic language from the Afroasiatic language family . Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
serves as the standardized and literary variety of Arabic
Arabic
used in writing. The Arabs
Arabs
are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people dwelling in the central Arabian Peninsula subjugated by Upper Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
-based state of Assyria. The Arabs
Arabs
appear to have remained largely under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC), and then the succeeding Neo-Babylonian Empire (605–539 BC), Persian Achaemenid Empire (539–332 BC), Greek Macedonian / Seleucid Empire and Parthian Empire .

Arab
Arab
tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids begin to appear in the south Syrian deserts and southern Jordan
Jordan
from the mid 3rd century AD onwards, during the mid to later stages of the Roman Empire and Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
. The Nabataeans of Jordan
Jordan
appear to have been an Aramaic speaking ethnic mix of Canaanites, Arameans and Arabs. Thus, although a more limited diffusion of Arab culture and language was felt in some areas by these migrant minority Arabs
Arabs
in _pre-Islamic_ times through Arab
Arab
Christian
Christian
kingdoms and Arab
Arab
Jewish tribes, it was only after the rise of Islam
Islam
in the mid-7th century that Arab
Arab
culture, people and language began their wholesale spread from the central Arabian Peninsula (including the south Syrian desert) through conquest and trade.

SUBGROUPS

Further information: Tribes of Arabia Approximate locations of certain tribes of Arabia , including those descended from Adnan, Hawazin and Quraysh at the dawn of Islam
Islam
600AD, Anizah inhabited the Syrian desert between modern day Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
.

Arabs
Arabs
in the narrow sense are the indigenous Arabians who trace their roots back to the tribes of Arabia and their immediate descendant groups in the Levant
Levant
and North Africa. Within the people of the Arabian Peninsula, distinction is made between: Perishing Arabs ( Arabic
Arabic
: العرب البائدة‎‎) are ancient tribes of whose history little is known. They include ‘Aad , Thamud , Tasm, Jadis, Imlaq and others. Jadis and Tasm perished because of genocide. 'Aad and Thamud perished because of their decadence, as recorded in the Qur'an. Archaeologists have recently uncovered inscriptions that contain references to 'Iram, which was a major city of the 'Aad. Imlaq is the singular form of 'Amaleeq and is probably synonymous to the biblical Amalek . Pure Arabs
Arabs
(العرب العاربة) or Qahtanites from Yemen
Yemen
, taken to be descended from Ya‘rub ibn Yashjub ibn Qahtan and further from either Ishmael
Ishmael
or Hud . Arabized Arabs (العرب المستعربة) or Adnanites , taken to be the descendants of Ishmael
Ishmael
son of Abraham.

Arabians are most prevalent in the Arabian Peninsula, but are also found in large numbers in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
( Arab
Arab
tribes in Iraq
Iraq
), the Levant
Levant
and Sinai
Sinai
(Negev Bedouin , Tarabin bedouin ), as well as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(Libya, South Tunisia
Tunisia
and South Algeria) and the Sudan
Sudan
region. Arabian tribes before the spread of Islam.

This traditional division of the Arabs
Arabs
of Arabia may have arisen at the time of the First Fitna
First Fitna
. Of the Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad
Muhammad
, the most prominent was the Quraysh . The Quraysh subclan, the Banu Hashim , was the clan of Muhammad. During the early Muslim
Muslim
conquests and the Islamic Golden Age , the political rulers of Islam
Islam
were exclusively members of the Quraysh.

The Arab
Arab
presence in Iran did not begin with the Arab
Arab
conquest of Persia in 633 AD. For centuries, Iranian rulers had maintained contacts with Arabs
Arabs
outside their borders, dealt with Arab
Arab
subjects and client states (such as those of Iraq
Iraq
and Yemen), and settled Arab tribesmen in various parts of the Iranian plateau. It follows that the "Arab" conquests and settlements were by no means the exclusive work of Arabs
Arabs
from the Hejaz
Hejaz
and the tribesmen of inner Arabia. The Arab infiltration into Iran began before the Muslim
Muslim
conquests and continued as a result of the joint exertions of the civilized Arabs
Arabs
(ahl al-madar) as well as the desert Arabs
Arabs
(ahl al-wabar). The largest group of Iranian Arabs are the Ahwazi Arabs , including Banu Ka\'b , Bani Turuf and the Musha\'sha\'iyyah sect. Smaller groups are the Khamseh
Khamseh
nomads in Fars Province and the Arabs in Khorasan . Post-card of Emir Mejhem ibn Meheid, chief of the Anaza tribe near Aleppo
Aleppo
with his sons after being decorated with the Croix de Légion d'honneur on September 20, 1920.

The Arabs
Arabs
of the Levant
Levant
are traditionally divided into Qays and Yaman tribes . This tribal division is likewise taken to date to the Umayyad period. The Yemen
Yemen
trace their origin to South Arabia or Yemen
Yemen
; they include Banu Kalb , Kindah , Ghassanids , and Lakhmids . Since the 1834 Peasants\' revolt in Palestine , the Arabic-speaking population of Palestine has shed its formerly tribal structure and emerged as the Palestinians .

Native Jordanians are either descended from Bedouins (of which, 6% live a nomadic lifestyle), or from the many deeply rooted non bedouin communities across the country, most notably Al-Salt city west of Amman
Amman
which was at the time of Emirate the largest urban settlement east of the Jordan
Jordan
River . Along with indigenous communities in Al Husn, Aqaba
Aqaba
, Irbid
Irbid
, Al Karak , Madaba , Jerash , Ajloun , Fuheis and Pella . In Jordan, there is no official census data for how many inhabitants have Palestinian roots but they are estimated to constitute half of the population, which in 2008 amounted to about 3 million. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics put their number at 3.24 million in 2009. Old Bedouin man and his wife in Egypt, 1918.

The Bedouins of western Egypt
Egypt
and eastern Libya
Libya
are traditionally divided into Saʿada and Murabtin , the Saʿada having higher social status. This may derive from a historical feudal system in which the Murabtin were vassals to the Saʿada In Sudan
Sudan
, there are numerous Arabic-speaking tribes, including the Shaigya , Ja\'alin and Shukria , who are ancestrally related to the Nubians . These groups are collectively known as Sudanese Arabs . In addition, there are other Afroasiatic-speaking populations, such as Copts and Beja . Commander and Amir
Amir
of Mascara , Banu Hilal .

The medieval Arab slave trade in the Sudan
Sudan
drove a wedge between the Arabic-speaking groups and the indigenous Nilotic populations. Slavery substantially persists today along these lines. It has contributed to ethnic conflict in the region, such as the Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile
Nile
, Northern Mali conflict
Northern Mali conflict
, or the Boko Haram insurgency .

The Arabs
Arabs
of the Maghreb
Maghreb
are descendants of Arabian tribes of Banu Hilal , the Banu Sulaym and the Maqil native of Middle East
Middle East
and of other tribes native to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, Yemen
Yemen
and Iraq
Iraq
. Arabs
Arabs
and Arabic
Arabic
-speakers inhabit plains and cities. The Banu Hilal spent almost a century in Egypt
Egypt
before moving to Libya
Libya
, Tunisia
Tunisia
and Algeria , and another century later some moved to Morocco
Morocco
, it is logical to think that they are mixed with inhabitants of Egypt
Egypt
and with Libya
Libya
.

DEMOGRAPHICS

The total number of Arabic
Arabic
speakers living in the Arab
Arab
nations is estimated at 366 million by the CIA Factbook (as of 2014). The estimated number of Arabs
Arabs
in countries outside the Arab League is estimated at 17.5 million, yielding a total of close to 384 million.

ARAB WORLD

Population density of the Arab world in 2008.

According to the Charter of the Arab League (also known as the _Pact of the League of Arab
Arab
States_), the League of Arab
Arab
States is composed of independent Arab
Arab
states that are signatories to the Charter.

Although all Arab
Arab
states have Arabic
Arabic
as an official language, there are many non-Arabic-speaking populations native to the Arab
Arab
world. Among these are Berbers , Toubou , Nubians , Jews
Jews
, Kurds , Armenians . Additionally, many Arab
Arab
countries in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
have sizable non- Arab
Arab
immigrant populations (10–30%). Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
and Oman
Oman
have a Persian speaking minority. The same countries also have Hindi-Urdu speakers and Filipinos
Filipinos
as sizable minority. Balochi speakers are a good size minority in Oman. Additionally, countries like Bahrain, UAE, Oman
Oman
and Kuwait
Kuwait
have significant non- Arab
Arab
and non- Muslim
Muslim
minorities (10–20%) like Hindus and Christians
Christians
from India
India
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, Nepal
Nepal
and the Philippines
Philippines
.

The table below shows the distribution of populations in the Arab world, as well as the official language(s) within the various Arab states.

ARAB STATE POPULATION OFFICIAL LANGUAGE(S)

Algeria
Algeria
38,700,000 Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with Berber

Bahrain
Bahrain
1,314,089 Arabic
Arabic
official language

Comoros 780,971 Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with Comorian and French

Djibouti 810,179 Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with French

Egypt
Egypt
94,526,231 Arabic
Arabic
official language

Iraq
Iraq
32,585,692 Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with Kurdish

Jordan
Jordan
9,531,712 Arabic
Arabic
official language

Kuwait
Kuwait
4,156,306 Arabic
Arabic
official language

Lebanon
Lebanon
5,882,562 Arabic
Arabic
official language

Libya
Libya
6,244,174 Arabic
Arabic
official language

Mauritania
Mauritania
3,516,806 Arabic
Arabic
official language

Morocco
Morocco
32,987,206 Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with Berber

Oman
Oman
3,219,775 Arabic
Arabic
official language

Palestine 4,225,710 Arabic
Arabic
official language

Qatar
Qatar
2,123,160 Arabic
Arabic
official language

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
27,345,986 Arabic
Arabic
official language

Somalia
Somalia
10,428,043 Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with Somali

Sudan
Sudan
35,482,233 Arabic
Arabic
co-official language with English

Syria
Syria
17,951,639 Arabic
Arabic
official language

Tunisia
Tunisia
10,937,521 Arabic
Arabic
official language

United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
8,264,070 Arabic
Arabic
official language

Yemen
Yemen
26,052,966 Arabic
Arabic
official language

ARAB DIASPORA

Main articles: Arab diaspora and List of Arabic
Arabic
neighborhoods Syrian immigrants in New York City, as depicted in 1895.

Arab diaspora refers to descendants of the Arab
Arab
immigrants who, voluntarily or as refugees, emigrated from their native lands in non- Arab
Arab
countries, primarily in East Africa
East Africa
, South America
South America
, Europe , North America
North America
, and parts of South Asia
South Asia
, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, the Caribbean
Caribbean
, and West Africa
West Africa
. According to the International Organization for Migration , there are 13 million first-generation Arab
Arab
migrants in the world, of which 5.8 million reside in Arab countries. Arab
Arab
expatriates contribute to the circulation of financial and human capital in the region and thus significantly promote regional development. In 2009, Arab
Arab
countries received a total of 35.1 billion USD in remittance in-flows and remittances sent to Jordan
Jordan
, Egypt
Egypt
and Lebanon
Lebanon
from other Arab
Arab
countries are 40 to 190 per cent higher than trade revenues between these and other Arab
Arab
countries. The 250,000 strong Lebanese community in West Africa
West Africa
is the largest non-African group in the region. Arab
Arab
traders have long operated in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and along the East Africa's Swahili coast . Zanzibar was once ruled by Omani Arabs. Most of the prominent Indonesians , Malaysians, and Singaporeans of Arab
Arab
descent are Hadhrami people
Hadhrami people
with origins in southern Yemen
Yemen
in the Hadramawt coastal region. Amel Bent , a France-born Maghrebi pop singer.

There are millions of Arabs
Arabs
living in Europe
Europe
mostly concentrated in France
France
(about 6,000,000 in 2005 ). Most Arabs
Arabs
in France
France
are from the Maghreb
Maghreb
but some also come from the Mashreq areas of the Arab world . Arabs
Arabs
in France
France
form the second largest ethnic group after French people of French origin. Spain
Spain
(about 800,000 to 1,600,000 – 1,800,000 ), there have been Arabs
Arabs
in Spain
Spain
since the early 8th century when the Umayyad conquest of Hispania created the state of Al-Andalus . Germany
Germany
(over 1,000,000 ), Italy
Italy
(about 680,000 ), United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(366,769 to 500,000 ). Greece
Greece
(250,000 to 750,000 ), In addition, Greece
Greece
has people from Arab
Arab
countries who have the status of refugees (e.g. refugees of the Syrian civil war ) or illegal immigrants trying to immigrate to Western Europe. Sweden
Sweden
(210,400 ). Netherlands
Netherlands
(180,000 ). Denmark
Denmark
(121,000). And in other European countries , such as Norway
Norway
, Austria
Austria
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, Republic of Macedonia , Romania
Romania
and Serbia
Serbia
. As of late 2015, Turkey had a population of 78.7 million, with Syrian refugees accounting for 3.1% of that figure based on conservative estimates. Demographic trends indicate that the country already had from 1,500,000 to more than 2,000,000, so Turkey\'s Arab
Arab
constituency now numbers anywhere from 4.5 to 5.1% of the population. In other words, nearly 4–5 million Arab
Arab
inhabitants. The Arab American National Museum
Arab American National Museum
in Dearborn, Michigan, USA.

Arab immigration to the United States began in sizable numbers during the 1880s. Today, it is estimated that nearly 3.7 million Americans trace their roots to an Arab country . Arab Americans are found in every state, but more than two thirds of them live in just ten states: California
California
, Michigan
Michigan
, New York , Florida
Florida
, Texas
Texas
, New Jersey
New Jersey
, Illinois
Illinois
, Ohio
Ohio
, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, and Virginia
Virginia
. Metropolitan Los Angeles , Detroit
Detroit
, and New York City
New York City
are home to one-third of the population. Contrary to popular assumptions or stereotypes, the majority of Arab Americans are native-born, and nearly 82% of Arabs
Arabs
in the U.S. are citizens. Arabs
Arabs
immigrants began to arrive in Canada in small numbers in 1882. Their immigration was relatively limited until 1945, after which time it increased progressively, particularly in the 1960s and thereafter. According to the website "Who are Arab Canadians," Montreal, the Canadian city with the largest Arab population, has approximately 267,000 Arab
Arab
inhabitants. Michel Temer , the 37th and current President of Brazil, is of Lebanese descent.

Latin America
Latin America
has the largest Arab
Arab
population outside of the Arab World . Latin America
Latin America
is home to anywhere from 17–25 to 30 million people of Arab
Arab
descent, which is more than any other diaspora region in the world. The Brazilian and Lebanese governments claim there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent. Also, the Brazilian government claims there are 4 million Brazilians of Syrian descent. According to a research conducted by IBGE in 2008, covering only the states of Amazonas, Paraíba, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso and Distrito Federal, 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle East
Middle East
. Other large Arab communities includes Argentina
Argentina
(about 4,500,000 ) The interethnic marriage in the Arab
Arab
community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most community members have only one parent who has Arab ethnicity. Venezuela
Venezuela
(over 1,600,000 ), Colombia
Colombia
(over 1,600,000 to 3,200,000 ), a genetic study found that on average the Colombians have 8.5% genes from Middle East
Middle East
, Mexico
Mexico
(over 1,100,000 ), Chile (over 800,000 ), and Central America
Central America
, particularly El Salvador
El Salvador
, and Honduras
Honduras
(between 150,000 and 200,000). is the fourth largest in the world after those in Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan. Arab
Arab
Haitians (a large number of whom live in the capital) are more often than not, concentrated in financial areas where the majority of them establish businesses. Georgia and the Caucasus
Caucasus
in 1060, during the final decline of the emirate.

In 1728, a Russian officer described a group of Arab
Arab
nomads who populated the Caspian shores of Mughan (in present-day Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
) and spoke a mixed Turkic- Arabic
Arabic
language. It is believed that these groups migrated to the Caucasus
Caucasus
in the 16th century. The 1888 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
also mentioned a certain number of Arabs populating the Baku Governorate
Baku Governorate
of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. They retained an Arabic
Arabic
dialect at least into the mid-19th century, there are nearly 30 settlements still holding the name _Arab_ (for example, Arabgadim , Arabojaghy , Arab-Yengija , etc.). From the time of the Arab
Arab
conquest of the Caucasus
Caucasus
, continuous small-scale Arab
Arab
migration from various parts of the Arab world occurred in Dagestan
Dagestan
. The majority of these lived in the village of Darvag, to the north-west of Derbent
Derbent
. The latest of these accounts dates to the 1930s. Most Arab communities in southern Dagestan
Dagestan
underwent linguistic Turkicisation , thus nowadays Darvag is a majority-Azeri village. According to the _History of Ibn Khaldun_, the Arabs
Arabs
that were once in Central Asia have been either killed or have fled the Tatar invasion of the region, leaving only the locals. However, today many people in Central Asia identify as Arabs. Most Arabs
Arabs
of Central Asia are fully integrated into local populations, and sometimes call themselves the same as locals (for example, Tajiks , Uzbeks ) but they use special titles to show their Arab
Arab
origin such as Sayyid
Sayyid
, Khoja or Siddiqui . Kechimalai Mosque, Beruwala. One of the oldest mosques in Sri Lanka. It is believed to be the site where the first Arabs
Arabs
landed in Sri Lanka.

There are only two communities in India
India
which self-identify as Arabs, the Chaush of the Deccan region and the Chavuse of Gujarat
Gujarat
. These groups are largely descended from Hadhrami migrants who settled in these two regions in the 18th century. However, neither community still speaks Arabic, although the Chaush have seen re-immigration to the Arab
Arab
States of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and thus a re-adoption of Arabic. In South Asia
South Asia
, where Arab
Arab
ancestry is considered prestigious, many communities have origin myths that claim Arab
Arab
ancestry. These include the Mappilla of Kerala
Kerala
and the Labbai of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. Among North Indian and Pakistani Arabs
Arabs
there are groups who claim the status of Sayyid
Sayyid
and have origin myths that allege descent from the Prophet Mohammad . The South Asian Iraqi biradri may be considered Arabs because records of their ancestors who migrated from Iraq
Iraq
exist in historical documents. There are about 5,000,000 Native Indonesians with Arab
Arab
ancestry. Arab Indonesians are mainly of Hadrami descent. The Sri Lankan Moors are the third largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, comprising 9.23% of the country's total population. Some sources trace the ancestry of the Sri Lankan Moors to Arab
Arab
traders who settled in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
at some time between the 8th and 15th centuries. Baggara belt.

Afro-Arabs are individuals and groups from Africa
Africa
who are of partial Arab
Arab
descent. Most Afro-Arabs inhabit the Swahili Coast in the African Great Lakes region, although some can also be found in parts of the Arab world . Large numbers of Arabs
Arabs
migrated to West Africa
West Africa
, particularly Côte d\'Ivoire (home to over 100,000 Lebanese), Senegal (roughly 30,000 Lebanese), Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
(roughly 10,000 Lebanese today; about 30,000 prior to the outbreak of civil war in 1991), Liberia
Liberia
, and Nigeria
Nigeria
. Since the end of the civil war in 2002, Lebanese traders have become re-established in Sierra Leone. The Arabs
Arabs
of Chad occupy northern Cameroon
Cameroon
and Nigeria
Nigeria
(where they are sometimes known as Shuwa), and extend as a belt across Chad and into Sudan, where they are called the Baggara grouping of Arab
Arab
ethnic groups inhabiting the portion of Africa's Sahel
Sahel
. The Chadian Arabs are (2,391,000 to 2,500,000 ), Nigeria
Nigeria
(289,000 ), Cameroon
Cameroon
(171,000), Niger
Niger
(150,000 ), and the Central African Republic (107,000).

HISTORY

_ It has been suggested that this section be merged with History of the Arabs
Arabs
_. (Discuss ) _Proposed since June 2017._

PRE-ISLAMIC

Main article: Pre-Islamic Arabia

Pre-Islamic Arabia refers to the Arabian Peninsula prior to the rise of Islam
Islam
in the 630s. The study of Pre-Islamic Arabia is important to Islamic studies as it provides the context for the development of Islam. Some of the settled communities in the Arabian Peninsula developed into distinctive civilizations. Sources for these civilizations are not extensive, and are limited to archaeological evidence, accounts written outside of Arabia, and Arab
Arab
oral traditions later recorded by Islamic scholars. Among the most prominent civilizations was Dilmun
Dilmun
, which arose around the 4th millennium BC and lasted to 538 BC, and Thamud , which arose around the 1st millennium BC and lasted to about 300 CE. Additionally, from the beginning of the first millennium BC, Southern Arabia was the home to a number of kingdoms, such as the Sabaean kingdom , and the coastal areas of Eastern Arabia were controlled by the Parthian and Sassanians from 300 BC.

Origins And Early History

Further information: Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples and Proto- Arabic
Arabic

The first written attestation of the ethnonym _Arab_ occurs in an Assyrian inscription of 853 BCE, where Shalmaneser III
Shalmaneser III
lists a King Gindibu of _mâtu arbâi_ ( Arab
Arab
land) as among the people he defeated at the Battle of Karkar . Some of the names given in these texts are Aramaic , while others are the first attestations of Ancient North Arabian dialects. In fact several different ethnonyms are found in Assyrian texts that are conventionally translated "Arab": _Arabi, Arubu, Aribi_ and _Urbi_. Many of the Qedarite queens were also described as queens of the _aribi_. The Hebrew Bible occasionally refers to _Aravi_ peoples (or variants thereof), translated as "Arab" or "Arabian." The scope of the term at that early stage is unclear, but it seems to have referred to various desert-dwelling Semitic tribes in the Syrian Desert and Arabia. Arab
Arab
tribes came into conflict with the Assyrians during the reign of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal , and he records military victories against the powerful Qedar tribe among others. Old Arabic
Arabic
diverges from Central Semitic by the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. Nabataean trade routes in Pre-Islamic Arabia .

Medieval Arab
Arab
genealogists divided Arabs
Arabs
into three groups:

* "Ancient Arabs", tribes that had vanished or been destroyed, such as ʿĀd and Thamud , often mentioned in the Qur\'an as examples of God's power to vanquish those who fought his prophets. * "Pure Arabs" of South Arabia, descending from Qahtan . The Qahtanites
Qahtanites
(Qahtanis) are said to have migrated from the land of Yemen following the destruction of the Ma\'rib Dam (_sadd Ma'rib_). * The "Arabized Arabs" (_mustaʿribah_) of Central Arabia ( Najd ) and North Arabia, descending from Ishmael
Ishmael
the elder son of Abraham
Abraham
, through Adnan
Adnan
(hence, Adnanites ). The Book of Genesis narrates that God
God
promised Hagar
Hagar
to beget from Ishmael
Ishmael
twelve princes and turn him to a great nation.(Genesis 17:20) The Book of Jubilees claims that the sons of Ishmael
Ishmael
intermingled with the 6 sons of Keturah , from Abraham , and their descendants were called Arabs
Arabs
and Ishmaelites :

And Ishmael
Ishmael
and his sons, and the sons of Keturah and their sons, went together and dwelt from Paran to the entering in of Babylon
Babylon
in all the land towards the East facing the desert. And these mingled with each other, and their name was called Arabs, and Ishmaelites . —  Book of Jubilees 20:13 Assyrian horsemen pursue defeated Arabs.

Assyrian and Babylonian Royal Inscriptions and North Arabian inscriptions from 9th to 6th century B.C.E, mention the king of Qedar as king of the Arabs
Arabs
and King of the Ishmaelites. Of the names of the sons of Ishmael
Ishmael
the names "Nabat, Kedar, Abdeel, Dumah, Massa, and Teman" were mentioned in the Assyrian Royal Inscriptions as tribes of the Ishmaelites. Jesur was mentioned in Greek inscriptions in the First Century B.C.E Life-size bronze bust sculpture of Ibn Khaldun .

Ibn Khaldun 's _ Muqaddima _ distinguishes between sedentary Arabian Muslims
Muslims
who used to be nomadic , and Bedouin nomadic Arabs
Arabs
of the desert. He used the term "formerly nomadic" Arabs
Arabs
and refers to sedentary Muslims
Muslims
by the region or city they lived in, as in Yemenis . The Christians
Christians
of Italy
Italy
and the Crusaders preferred the term Saracens for all the Arabs
Arabs
and Muslims
Muslims
of that time. The Christians
Christians
of Iberia used the term Moor to describe all the Arabs
Arabs
and Muslims
Muslims
of that time.

Muslims
Muslims
of Medina
Medina
referred to the nomadic tribes of the deserts as the A'raab, and considered themselves sedentary, but were aware of their close racial bonds. The term "A'raab" mirrors the term Assyrians used to describe the closely related nomads they defeated in Syria. The Qur\'an does not use the word _ʿarab_, only the nisba adjective _ʿarabiy_. The Qur'an calls itself _ʿarabiy_, "Arabic", and _Mubin_, "clear". The two qualities are connected for example in ayat 43 .2–3, "By the _clear_ Book: We have made it an _Arabic_ recitation in order that you may understand". The Qur'an became regarded as the prime example of the _al-ʿarabiyya_, the language of the Arabs. The term _ ʾiʿrāb _ has the same root and refers to a particularly clear and correct mode of speech. The plural noun _ʾaʿrāb_ refers to the Bedouin tribes of the desert who resisted Muhammad, for example in _at-Tawba _ 97,

_al-ʾaʿrābu ʾašaddu kufrān wanifāqān_ "the Bedouin are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy".

Based on this, in early Islamic terminology, _ʿarabiy_ referred to the language, and _ʾaʿrāb_ to the Arab
Arab
Bedouins, carrying a negative connotation due to the Qur'anic verdict just cited. But after the Islamic conquest of the eighth century, the language of the nomadic Arabs
Arabs
became regarded as the most pure by the grammarians following Abi Ishaq , and the term kalam al-ʿArab, "language of the Arabs", denoted the uncontaminated language of the Bedouins.

Classical Kingdoms

Main articles: Palmyra
Palmyra
and Nabateans
Nabateans
Facade of Al Khazneh in Petra
Petra
, Jordan, built by the Nabateans
Nabateans
.

Proto-Arabic, or Ancient North Arabian , texts give a clearer picture of the Arabs' emergence. The earliest are written in variants of epigraphic south Arabian _musnad _ script, including the 8th century BCE Hasaean inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, the 6th century BCE Lihyanite texts of southeastern Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and the Thamudic texts found throughout the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai
Sinai
(not in reality connected with Thamud ).

The Nabataeans were nomadic newcomers who moved into territory vacated by the Edomites
Edomites
– Semites who settled the region centuries before them. Their early inscriptions were in Aramaic , but gradually switched to Arabic, and since they had writing, it was they who made the first inscriptions in Arabic. The Nabataean alphabet was adopted by Arabs
Arabs
to the south, and evolved into modern Arabic script around the 4th century. This is attested by Safaitic inscriptions (beginning in the 1st century BCE) and the many Arabic
Arabic
personal names in Nabataean inscriptions. From about the 2nd century BCE, a few inscriptions from Qaryat al-Faw reveal a dialect no longer considered _proto-Arabic_, but _pre-classical Arabic_. Five Syriac inscriptions mentioning Arabs
Arabs
have been found at Sumatar Harabesi , one of which dates to the 2nd century CE.

Late Kingdoms

Further information: Lakhmids , Ghassanids , and Kindites Near East in 565, showing the Lakhmids and their neighbors.

The Ghassanids , Lakhmids and Kindites were the last major migration of pre-Islamic Arabs
Arabs
out of Yemen
Yemen
to the north. The Ghassanids increased the Semitic presence in the then Hellenized Syria
Syria
, the majority of Semites were Aramaic peoples. They mainly settled in the Hauran
Hauran
region and spread to modern Lebanon
Lebanon
, Palestine and East Jordan. Costumes of Arab
Arab
women, 4th to 6th centuries.

Greeks
Greeks
and Romans referred to all the nomadic population of the desert in the Near East
Near East
as Arabi. The Romans called Yemen
Yemen
"Arabia Felix ". The Romans called the vassal nomadic states within the Roman Empire _ Arabia Petraea _, after the city of Petra
Petra
, and called unconquered deserts bordering the empire to the south and east Arabia Magna . The Lakhmids as a dynasty inherited their power from the Tanukhids , the mid Tigris region around their capital Al-Hira . They ended up allying with the Sassanids against the Ghassanids and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. The Lakhmids contested control of the Central Arabian tribes with the Kindites with the Lakhmids eventually destroying Kinda in 540 after the fall of their main ally Himyar . The Persian Sassanids dissolved the Lakhmid
Lakhmid
dynasty in 602, being under puppet kings, then under their direct control. The Kindites migrated from Yemen
Yemen
along with the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, but were turned back in Bahrain
Bahrain
by the Abdul Qais Rabi\'a tribe. They returned to Yemen
Yemen
and allied themselves with the Himyarites who installed them as a vassal kingdom that ruled Central Arabia from "Qaryah Dhat Kahl" (the present-day called Qaryat al-Faw). They ruled much of the Northern/Central Arabian peninsula, until they were destroyed by the Lakhmid
Lakhmid
king Al-Mundhir , and his son \'Amr .

ISLAMIC

Further information: Arab
Arab
conquests Age of the Caliphs Expansion under Muhammad
Muhammad
, 622–632/A.H. 1–11 Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate , 632–661/A.H. 11–40 Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate , 661–750/A.H. 40–129

Arab
Arab
Caliphates

Rashidun Era (632–661)

Main article: Rashidun Caliphate

After the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
in 632, Rashidun armies launched campaigns of conquest, establishing the Caliphate
Caliphate
, or Islamic Empire, one of the largest empires in history . It was larger and lasted longer than the previous Arab
Arab
empires of Queen Mawia or the Palmyrene Empire , which were predominantly Syriac rather than Arab. The Rashidun state was a completely new state and not a mere imitation of the earlier Arab
Arab
kingdoms such as the Himyarite
Himyarite
, Lakhmids or Ghassanids, although it benefited greatly from their art, administration and architecture.

Umayyad
Umayyad
Era (661–750)

Main article: Umayyad Caliphate See also: Abbadid , Taifa , Nasrid dynasty (Sistan) , Zengid dynasty , and Ikhshidid dynasty
Ikhshidid dynasty
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Kairouan
Kairouan
, Tunisia
Tunisia
was founded in 670 by the Arab
Arab
general Uqba ibn Nafi ; it is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb
Maghreb
and represents an architectural testimony of the Arab conquest of North Africa.

In 661, the Rashidun Caliphate fell into the hands of the Umayyad dynasty and Damascus
Damascus
was established as the empire's capital. The Umayyads were proud of their Arab
Arab
ancestry and sponsored the poetry and culture of pre-Islamic Arabia. They established garrison towns at Ramla , Raqqa , Basra
Basra
, Kufa , Mosul
Mosul
and Samarra , all of which developed into major cities.

Caliph
Caliph
Abd al-Malik established Arabic
Arabic
as the Caliphate's official language in 686. This reform greatly influenced the conquered non- Arab
Arab
peoples and fueled the Arabization of the region. However, the Arabs' higher status among non- Arab
Arab
Muslim
Muslim
converts and the latter's obligation to pay heavy taxes caused resentment. Caliph
Caliph
Umar II strove to resolve the conflict when he came to power in 717. He rectified the disparity, demanding that all Muslims
Muslims
be treated as equals, but his intended reforms did not take effect, as he died after only three years of rule. By now, discontent with the Umayyads swept the region and an uprising occurred in which the Abbasids came to power and moved the capital to Baghdad
Baghdad
. The Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
, constructed during the reign of Abd al Malik .

Umayyads expanded their Empire westwards capturing North Africa
North Africa
from the Byzantines. Before the Arab
Arab
conquest, North Africa
North Africa
was inhibited by various people including Punics , Vandals and Greeks. It was not until the 11th century that the Maghreb
Maghreb
saw a large influx of ethnic Arabs. Starting with the 11th century, the Arab
Arab
bedouin Banu Hilal tribes migrated to the West. Having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Berber Zirids for abandoning Shias , they travelled westwards.

The Banu Hilal quickly defeated the Zirids and deeply weakened the neighboring Hammadids . Their influx was a major factor in the Arabization of the Maghreb. Although Berbers ruled the region until the 16th century (under such powerful dynasties as the Almoravids , the Almohads , Hafsids , etc.), the arrival of these tribes eventually helped Arabize much of it ethnically, in addition to the linguistic and political impact on local non-Arabs. With the collapse of the Umayyad
Umayyad
state in 1031 AD, Islamic Spain
Spain
was divided into small kingdoms.

Abbassid Era (750–1517)

Main article: Abbasid Caliphate Mustansiriya University in Baghdad
Baghdad
.

The Abbasids were the descendants of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib , one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad
Muhammad
and of the same Banu Hashim clan. The Abbasids led a revolt against the Umayyads and defeated them in the Battle of the Zab effectively ending their rule in all parts of the Empire with the exception of al-Andalus . In 762, the second Abbasid Caliph
Caliph
al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad
Baghdad
and declared it the capital of the Caliphate. Unlike the Umayyads, the Abbasids had the support of non- Arab
Arab
subjects. _ An illustration from Maqamat al-Hariri_ showing scholars at an Abbasid library in Baghdad, 1237.

The Islamic Golden Age was inaugurated by the middle of the 8th century by the ascension of the Abbasid Caliphate and the transfer of the capital from Damascus
Damascus
to the newly founded city of Baghdad
Baghdad
. The Abbassids were influenced by the Qur\'anic injunctions and hadith such as "The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of martyrs" stressing the value of knowledge. During this period the Muslim
Muslim
world became an intellectual centre for science, philosophy, medicine and education as the Abbasids championed the cause of knowledge and established the " House of Wisdom " ( Arabic
Arabic
: بيت الحكمة‎‎) in Baghdad. Rival dynasties such as the Fatimids of Egypt
Egypt
and the Umayyads of al-Andalus were also major intellectual centres with cities such as Cairo
Cairo
and Córdoba rivaling Baghdad
Baghdad
.

The Abbasids ruled for 200 years before they lost their central control when Wilayas began to fracture in the 10th century; afterwards, in the 1190s, there was a revival of their power, which was ended by the Mongols , who conquered Baghdad
Baghdad
in 1258 and killed the Caliph
Caliph
Al-Musta\'sim . Members of the Abbasid royal family escaped the massacre and resorted to Cairo, which had broken from the Abbasid rule two years earlier; the Mamluk generals taking the political side of the kingdom while Abbasid Caliphs were engaged in civil activities and continued patronizing science, arts and literature.

Ottoman Empire

Main articles: Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Ottoman Caliphate
Caliphate
Soldiers of the Arab
Arab
Army in the Arabian Desert carrying the Flag of the Arab Revolt .

From 1517 to 1918, much of the Arab world was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. The Ottomans defeated the Mamluk Sultanate in Cairo, and ended the Abbasid Caliphate. Arabs
Arabs
did not feel the change of administration because the Ottomans modeled their rule after the previous Arab
Arab
administration systems. After World War I
World War I
when the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was overthrown by the British Empire
British Empire
, former Ottoman colonies were divided up between the British and French as League of Nations mandates .

MODERN

Arabs
Arabs
in modern times live in the Arab
Arab
world, which comprises 22 countries in Western Asia, North Africa, and parts of the Horn of Africa. They are all modern states and became significant as distinct political entities after the fall and defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1908–1922) .

RELIGION

Main articles: Arabian mythology , Arab Muslims , Arab Christians , Druze
Druze
, and Bahá\'í Faith Bas-relief: Nemesis , Allāt and the dedicator.

Arabs
Arabs
are mostly Muslims
Muslims
with a Sunni
Sunni
majority and a Shia minority, one exception being the Ibadis , who predominate in Oman
Oman
. Arab Christians
Christians
generally follow Eastern Churches
Eastern Churches
such as the Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic
Greek Catholic
churches, though a minority of Protestant Church followers also exists; The Copts and the Maronites , follow the Coptic Church and Maronite Church accordingly. The Greek Catholic church and Maronite church are under the Pope
Pope
of Rome, and a part of the larger worldwide Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. There are also Arab
Arab
communities consisting of Druze
Druze
and Baha\'is .

Before the coming of Islam, most Arabs
Arabs
followed a pagan religion with a number of deities, including Hubal
Hubal
, Wadd , Allāt , Manat , and Uzza . A few individuals, the _hanifs _, had apparently rejected polytheism in favor of monotheism unaffiliated with any particular religion. Some tribes had converted to Christianity
Christianity
or Judaism. The most prominent Arab
Arab
Christian
Christian
kingdoms were the Ghassanid and Lakhmid kingdoms. When the Himyarite
Himyarite
king converted to Judaism
Judaism
in the late 4th century, the elites of the other prominent Arab
Arab
kingdom, the Kindites , being Himyirite vassals, apparently also converted (at least partly). With the expansion of Islam, polytheistic Arabs
Arabs
were rapidly Islamized , and polytheistic traditions gradually disappeared. The holiest place in Islam, the Kaaba
Kaaba
, is located in Saudi Arabia .

Today, Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
dominates in most areas, overwhelmingly so in North Africa
North Africa
and the Horn of Africa. Shia Islam
Islam
is dominant among the Arab
Arab
population in Bahrain
Bahrain
and southern Iraq
Iraq
while northern Iraq
Iraq
is mostly Sunni. Substantial Shia populations exist in Lebanon
Lebanon
, Yemen
Yemen
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, northern Syria
Syria
and the al-Batinah region in Oman
Oman
. There are small numbers of Ibadi and non-denominational Muslims too. The Druze
Druze
community is concentrated in Lebanon, Syria, Israel and Jordan. Many Druze
Druze
claim independence from other major religions in the area and consider their religion more of a philosophy. Their books of worship are called Kitab Al Hikma (Epistles of Wisdom). They believe in reincarnation and pray to five messengers from God. In Israel, the Druze
Druze
have a _status aparte_ from the general Arab population, treated as a separate ethno-religious community. A Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
Church during a snow storm in Amman
Amman
, Jordan
Jordan
.

In pre-Islamic Arabia , Christianity
Christianity
had a prominent presence among several Arab
Arab
communities, including the Bahrani people of Eastern Arabia , the Christian community of Najran , in parts of Yemen
Yemen
, and among certain northern Arabian tribes such as the Ghassanids , Lakhmids , Taghlib
Taghlib
, Banu Amela , Banu Judham , Tanukhids and Tayy . In the early Christian
Christian
centuries, Arabia was sometimes known as _Arabia heretica_, due to its being "well known as a breeding-ground for heterodox interpretations of Christianity." Christians
Christians
make up 5.5% of the population of Western Asia and North Africa. A sizeable share of those are Arab Christians proper, and affiliated Arabic-speaking populations of Copts and Maronites. In Lebanon, Christians
Christians
number about 40.5% of the population. In Syria, Christians make up 10% of the population. In West Bank
West Bank
and in Gaza Strip , Christians
Christians
make up 8% and 0.7% of the populations, respectively. In Egypt, Coptic Christians
Christians
number about 10% of the population. In Iraq, Christians
Christians
constitute 0.1% of the population. In Israel, Arab Christians
Christians
constitute 2.1% (roughly 9% of the Arab
Arab
population). Arab Christians
Christians
make up 8% of the population of Jordan
Jordan
. Most North and South American Arabs
Arabs
are Christian, so are about half of the Arabs
Arabs
in Australia
Australia
who come particularly from Lebanon, Syria
Syria
and Palestine. One well known member of this religious and ethnic community is Saint Abo , martyr and the patron saint of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
, Georgia . Arab
Arab
Christians also live in holy Christian
Christian
cities such as Nazareth
Nazareth
, Bethlehem
Bethlehem
and the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem and many other villages with holy Christian
Christian
sites.

CULTURE

Main article: Arabic
Arabic
culture

Part of a series on

ARAB CULTURE

Architecture
Architecture

STYLES

* Mashrabiya * Muqarnas * Arabesque * Windcatcher
Windcatcher
* Gardens

FEATURES OF MOSQUES

* Minaret
Minaret
* Maqsurah * Mihrab * Sahen * Dikka * Iwan * Qubba * Sebil * Mosaic * Ribat

Art
Art

CALLIGRAPHY

* Naskh * Diwani * Ruq\'ah * Thuluth * Hijazi * Muhaqqaq * Maghrebi * Kufic
Kufic
* Mashq * Jawi * Nastaʿlīq * Pseudo- Kufic
Kufic
* Pegon

TEXTILES

* Khayameia * Rugs (prayer ) * Black Stone
Black Stone

Cuisine

* Khalij (Persian Gulf) * Mashriq
Mashriq
(Levant) * Arab
Arab
Mawsit (Egypt) * Arab
Arab
Maghrib (North Africa)

Dress

HEADWEAR

* Keffiyeh * Agal * Taqiyah * Tarboush (fez) * Turban
Turban
* Bisht

CLOTHING

* Thawb * Jellabiya * Abaya * Sirwal * Turban
Turban
* Kaftan
Kaftan
* Tantour * Takchita * Jilbāb * Macawis

Language
Language

PRE-ISLAMIC

* North * South * Nabataean * Classical

PRE-MODERN · Modern

* Maghrebi (Western) * Mawsiti (Central) * Mashriq
Mashriq
(Eastern) * Khaliji (Southern)

Literature
Literature

* Classical * Epic literature * Saj (ryhmed prose) * Tafsir (commentary) * _Arabian Nights _ * _ The Book of the Apple _ * Sindbad (Sinbad) * Bayad and Riyad * _Book of Songs _ * _Book of Examples _ * _Book of Animals _ * Maqamat Al-Hamadhani * Nashiri

POETRY

* Arūḍ * Kharja * Zajal * Noha * Waṣf * Hamasah * Mu\'allaqat * Mufaddaaliyyat * Basit * Ghazal * Ghinnawa * Bohoor Al-Shi\'r

* Modern Arabic
Arabic
poetry

Music
Music

* Arabic
Arabic
maqam * Tone system * Andalusi nubah * Qasidah * Muwashshah * Taqsim * Sama\'i * Dulab * Liwa * Maqam al-iraqi * Bashraf * Tahmilah * Sawt * Malhun * Fijiri * Baladi * Iqa\' * Dawr * Zaffa * Taqtuqa * Wazn * Waslah

Religion
Religion

* Muslims
Muslims
* Christians
Christians
* Druze
Druze

* Bahá\'í Faith

* v * t * e

Arabic
Arabic
culture is the culture of Arab
Arab
people, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea . Language
Language
, literature , gastronomy , art , architecture , music , spirituality , philosophy , mysticism (etc.) are all part of the cultural heritage of the Arabs.

Arabs
Arabs
share basic beliefs and values that cross national and social class boundaries. Social
Social
attitudes have remained constant because Arab society is more conservative and demands conformity from its members. It is important for Western observers to be able to identify and distinguish these cultural patterns from individual behaviors.

LANGUAGE

Main article: Arabic
Arabic
Arabic
Arabic
calligraphy .

Another important and unifying characteristic of Arabs
Arabs
is a common language . Arabic
Arabic
is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic Family . Evidence of its first use appears in accounts of wars in 853 BC. It also became widely used in trade and commerce. Arabic
Arabic
also is a liturgical language of 1.7 billion Muslims
Muslims
. It is one of six official languages of the United Nations . It is revered as the language that God
God
chose to reveal the Quran
Quran
.

Arabic
Arabic
has developed into at least two distinct forms. Classical Arabic
Arabic
is the form of the Arabic language
Arabic language
used in literary texts from Umayyad
Umayyad
and Abbasid times (7th to 9th centuries). It is based on the medieval dialects of Arab
Arab
tribes . Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
(MSA) is the direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content, while the lexis and stylistics of Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
are different from Classical Arabic
Arabic
. Colloquial Arabic, an informal spoken language, varies by dialect from region to region; various forms of the language are in use today and provide an important force for Arab
Arab
cohesion.

LITERATURE

Main article: Arabic
Arabic
literature Self portrait of renowned Lebanese poet/writer Khalil Gibran .

There is a small remnant of pre-Islamic poetry , but Arabic literature predominantly emerges in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, during the Golden Age of Islam
Islam
. Literary Arabic
Arabic
is derived from Classical Arabic
Arabic
, based on the language of the Quran
Quran
as it was analyzed by Arabic
Arabic
grammarians beginning in the 8th century. A large portion of Arabic
Arabic
literature before the 20th century is in the form of poetry , and even prose from this period is either filled with snippets of poetry or is in the form of _saj _ or rhymed prose. The _ghazal _ or love poem had a long history being at times tender and chaste and at other times rather explicit. In the Sufi
Sufi
tradition the love poem would take on a wider, mystical and religious importance. Arabic
Arabic
epic literature was much less common than poetry, and presumably originates in oral tradition, written down from the 14th century or so. Maqama or rhymed prose is intermediate between poetry and prose , and also between fiction and non-fiction. Maqama was an incredibly popular form of Arabic
Arabic
literature, being one of the few forms which continued to be written during the decline of Arabic
Arabic
in the 17th and 18th centuries. Arabian sheikhs .

Arabic
Arabic
literature and culture declined significantly after the 13th century, to the benefit of Turkish and Persian . A modern revival took place beginning in the 19th century, alongside resistance against Ottoman rule . The literary revival is known as _al-Nahda _ in Arabic, and was centered in Egypt
Egypt
and Lebanon
Lebanon
. Two distinct trends can be found in the _nahda_ period of revival. The first was a neo-classical movement which sought to rediscover the literary traditions of the past, and was influenced by traditional literary genres—such as the _maqama _—and works like _ One Thousand and One Nights _. In contrast, a modernist movement began by translating Western modernist works—primarily novels—into Arabic. A tradition of modern Arabic poetry was established by writers such as Francis Marrash , Ahmad Shawqi and Hafiz Ibrahim . Iraqi poet Badr Shakir al-Sayyab is considered to be the originator of free verse in Arabic
Arabic
poetry .

GASTRONOMY

Main article: Arabic
Arabic
cuisine A large plate of Mezes in Petra
Petra
, Jordan
Jordan
.

Arabic
Arabic
cuisine is the cuisine of the Arab
Arab
people. The cuisines are often centuries old and resemble and culture of great trading in spices, herbs, and foods. The three main regions, also known as the Maghreb
Maghreb
, the Mashriq
Mashriq
, and the Khaleej have many similarities, but also many unique traditions. These kitchens have been influenced by the climate, cultivating possibilities, as well as trading possibilities. The kitchens of the Maghreb
Maghreb
and Levant
Levant
are relatively young kitchens which were developed over the past centuries. The kitchen from the Khaleej region is a very old kitchen. The kitchens can be divided into the urban and rural kitchens.

Arab cuisine mostly follows one of three culinary traditions – from the Maghreb, the Levant
Levant
or the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
states . In the Maghreb countries ( Morocco
Morocco
, Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia
Tunisia
and Libya
Libya
) traditional main meals are tajines or dishes using couscous . In the Levant
Levant
(Palestine , Jordan
Jordan
, Lebanon
Lebanon
and Syria
Syria
) main meals usually start with mezze – small dishes of dips and other items which are eaten with bread. This is typically followed by skewers of grilled lamb or chicken. Gulf cuisine, tends to be more highly spiced with more use of rice. Sometimes a lamb is roasted and served whole.

One will find the following items on most dishes; Cinnamon
Cinnamon
, Curry powder , Fish
Fish
(in coastal areas), Garlic
Garlic
, Lamb (or veal), Mild to hot sauces , Mint , Onion
Onion
, Rice
Rice
, Saffron
Saffron
, Sesame
Sesame
, Yogurt , Spices due to heavy trading between the two regions. Tea
Tea
, Thyme
Thyme
(or oregano), Turmeric , Variety of fruits (primarily citrus), Variety of vegetables such as cucumbers , eggplants , lettuce , tomato , green pepper , green beans , zucchini and parsley .

ART

Main articles: Arabic
Arabic
art , Arabic
Arabic
miniature , and Arabesque Mosaic and arabesque on a wall of the Myrtle court in Alhambra
Alhambra
, Granada.

Arabic
Arabic
art takes on many forms, though it is jewelry , textiles and architecture that are the most well-known. It is generally split up by different eras, among them being early Arabic
Arabic
, early medieval , late medieval , late Arabic
Arabic
, and finally, current Arabic. One thing to remember is that many times a particular style from one era may continue into the next with few changes, while some have a drastic transformation. This may seem like a strange grouping of art mediums, but they are all closely related.

Arabic
Arabic
writing is done from right to left, and was generally written in dark inks, with certain things embellished with special colored inks (red, green, gold). In early Arabic
Arabic
and early Medieval , writing was typically done on parchment made of animal skin. The ink showed up very well on it, and occasionally the parchment was dyed a separate color and brighter ink was used (this was only for special projects). The name given to the form of writing in early times was called Kufic script.

Arabic
Arabic
miniatures are small paintings on paper , whether book illustrations or separate works of art. Arabic
Arabic
miniature art dates to the late 7th century. Arabs
Arabs
depended on such art not only to satisfy their artistic taste, but also for scientific explanations . Arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements. Another definition is "Foliate ornament, typically using leaves, derived from stylised half-palmettes , which were combined with spiralling stems". It usually consists of a single design which can be 'tiled' or seamlessly repeated as many times as desired.

ARCHITECTURE

Main article: Arabic
Arabic
architecture The Mosque-Cathedral of Cordóba , built by Abd al Rahman I in 987.

Arabic
Arabic
Architecture
Architecture
has a deep diverse history, it dates to the dawn of the history in pre-Islamic Arabia . Each of it phases largely an extension of the earlier phase, it left also heavy impact on the architecture of other nations. Arab
Arab
Architecture
Architecture
encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam
Islam
to the present day. What today is known as Islamic architecture was influenced by Roman , Byzantine and all other lands which the Arab conquereds in the 7th and 8th centuries.

Further east, it was also influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture as Islam
Islam
spread to Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. The principal Islamic architectural types are: the Mosque
Mosque
, the Tomb
Tomb
, the Palace
Palace
and the Fort
Fort
. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths , fountains and domestic architecture.

MUSIC

Main article: Arabic
Arabic
music _ Bayad plays the oud to The Lady. from the Riyad "> Umm Kulthum was an internationally famous Egyptian singer.

A number of musical instruments used in classical music are believed to have been derived from Arabic
Arabic
musical instruments: the lute was derived from the _ Oud
Oud
_, the rebec (ancestor of violin ) from the _rebab _, the guitar from _qitara_, which in turn was derived from the Persian Tar , naker from _naqareh _, adufe from _al-duff _, alboka from _al-buq_, anafil from _al-nafir_, exabeba from _al-shabbaba_ (flute ), atabal (bass drum ) from _al-tabl_, atambal from _al-tinbal_, the balaban , the castanet from _kasatan_, sonajas de azófar from _sunuj al-sufr_, the conical bore wind instruments , the xelami from the _sulami_ or _fistula _ (flute or musical pipe ), the shawm and dulzaina from the reed instruments _zamr_ and _al-zurna _, the gaita from the _ghaita _, rackett from _iraqya_ or _iraqiyya_, geige (violin) from _ghichak_, and the theorbo from the _tarab_.

During the 1950s and the 1960s, Arabic
Arabic
music began to take on a more Western tone – artists Umm Kulthum and Abdel Halim Hafez
Abdel Halim Hafez
along with composers Mohamed Abd al-Wahab and Baligh Hamdi pioneered the use of western instruments in Egyptian music. By the 1970s several other singers had followed suit and a strand of Arabic
Arabic
pop was born. Arabic pop usually consists of Western styled songs with Arabic
Arabic
instruments and lyrics. Melodies are often a mix between Eastern and Western. Beginning in the mid-1980s, Lydia Canaan , musical pioneer widely regarded as the first rock star of the Middle East
Middle East

SPIRITUALITY

Main article: Arabian mythology Al-‘Uzzá was one of the three chief goddesses of Arabian religion.

Arab
Arab
polytheism , the dominant form of religion in pre-Islamic Arabia , was based on veneration of deities and other rituals. Gods and goddesses , including Hubal
Hubal
and the goddesses al-Lāt , Al-‘Uzzá and Manāt , were worshipped at local shrines, such as the Kaaba
Kaaba
in Mecca
Mecca
. Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah
Allah
in Meccan religion. Many of the physical descriptions of the pre-Islamic gods are traced to idols , especially near the Kaaba, which is said to have contained up to 360 of them. Until about the fourth century, almost all Arabs
Arabs
practised polytheistic religions. Although significant Jewish and Christian
Christian
minorities developed, polytheism remained the dominant belief system in pre-Islamic Arabia.

The religious beliefs and practices of the nomadic bedouin were distinct from those of the settled tribes of towns such as Mecca
Mecca
. Nomadic religious belief systems and practices are believed to have included fetishism , totemism and veneration of the dead but were connected principally with immediate concerns and problems and did not consider larger philosophical questions such as the afterlife. Settled urban Arabs, on the other hand, are thought to have believed in a more complex pantheon of deities. While the Meccans and the other settled inhabitants of the Hejaz
Hejaz
worshipped their gods at permanent shrines in towns and oases, the bedouin practised their religion on the move.

PHILOSOPHY

Main article: Arabic
Arabic
philosophy Averroes
Averroes
, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe
Europe
. Andalusian mystic and philosopher Ibn Arabi .

Arabic
Arabic
philosophy refers to philosophical thought in the Arab
Arab
world. Schools of Arabic
Arabic
thought include Avicennism and Averroism . The first great Arab
Arab
thinker is widely regarded to be al-Kindi (801–873 A.D.), a Neo-Platonic philosopher, mathematician and scientist who lived in Kufa and Baghdad
Baghdad
(modern day Iraq
Iraq
). After being appointed by the Abbasid Caliphs to translate Greek scientific and philosophical texts into Arabic
Arabic
, he wrote a number of original treatises of his own on a range of subjects, from metaphysics and ethics to mathematics and pharmacology .

Much of his philosophical output focuses on theological subjects such as the nature of God
God
, the soul and prophetic knowledge. Doctrines of the Arabic
Arabic
philosophers of the 9th–12th century who influenced medieval Scholasticism in Europe. The Arabic
Arabic
tradition combines Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam
Islam
. Influential thinkers include the Persians al-Farabi and Avicenna . The Arabic
Arabic
philosophic literature was translated into Hebrew
Hebrew
and Latin
Latin
, this contributed to the development of modern European philosophy. The Arabic
Arabic
tradition was developed by Moses Maimonides and Ibn Khaldun .

SCIENCE

Main article: Arabic
Arabic
science The Tabula Rogeriana
Tabula Rogeriana
, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps . Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas.

Arabic
Arabic
science underwent remarkable development during the 8th to 13th centuries C.E., a flowering of knowledge and intellect that later spread throughout Europe
Europe
and greatly influenced both medical practice and education. The scientific glory of the Arabic
Arabic
nation originated on the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century C.E., where the preaching of the prophet Mohammed united the Arab
Arab
tribes and inaugurated the Muslim religion. _ Albategnius 's Kitāb az-Zīj_ was one of the most influential books in medieval astronomy.

Within a century after his death (632 C.E.), an empire ruled by Arabs was formed and it encompassed a large part of the planet, from southern Europe
Europe
throughout North Africa
North Africa
to Central Asia and on to India
India
. In 711 C.E., Arab Muslims invaded southern Spain
Spain
and a center of flourishing civilization (al-Andalus ) was created. Another center emerged in Baghdad
Baghdad
from the Abbasids , who ruled part of the Islamic world during a historic period later characterized as the "Golden Age " (∼750 to 1258 C.E.).

This era can be identified as the years between 692 and 945, and ended when the caliphate was marginalized by local Muslim
Muslim
rulers in Baghdad
Baghdad
– its traditional seat of power. From 945 onward until the sacking of Baghdad
Baghdad
by the Mongols in 1258, the Caliph
Caliph
continued on as a figurehead, with power devolving more to local amirs . The pious scholars of Islam, men and women collectively known as the ulama , were the most influential element of society in the fields of Sharia law, speculative thought and theology. Arabic
Arabic
scientific achievement is not as yet fully understood, but is very large. These achievements encompass a wide range of subject areas, especially mathematics , astronomy , and medicine . Other subjects of scientific inquiry included physics , alchemy and chemistry , cosmology , ophthalmology , geography and cartography , sociology , and psychology . Also the birth of the University institution can be traced to this development.

WEDDING AND MARRIAGE

Main article: Arabic
Arabic
wedding Henna
Henna
tattoo in Morocco
Morocco
.

Arabic
Arabic
weddings have changed greatly in the past 100 years. Original traditional Arabic
Arabic
weddings are supposed to be very similar to modern-day Bedouin weddings and rural weddings, and they are in some cases unique from one region to another, even within the same country . it must be mentioned that what some people today call "Bedouin" wedding is in fact the original true traditional Arab
Arab
Islamic wedding without foreign influence. The practice of marrying of relatives is a common feature of Arab culture . Among Arabs
Arabs
the practice of marrying of relatives is a common feature.

In the Arab world today between 40% and 50% of all marriages are consanguineous or between close family members, though these figures may vary among Arab
Arab
nations. In Egypt
Egypt
, around 40% of the population marry a cousin . A 1992 survey in Jordan
Jordan
found that 32% were married to a first cousin; a further 17.3% were married to more distant relatives. 67% of marriages in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
are between close relatives as are 54% of all marriages in Kuwait
Kuwait
, whereas 18% of all Lebanese were between blood relatives. Due to the actions of the Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Rightly Guided Caliphs , marriage between cousins is explicitly allowed in Islam
Islam
and the Qur\'an itself does not discourage or forbid the practice. Nevertheless, opinions vary on whether the phenomenon should be seen as exclusively based on Islamic practices as a 1992 study among Arabs
Arabs
in Jordan
Jordan
did not show significant differences between Christian
Christian
Arabs
Arabs
or Muslim
Muslim
Arabs
Arabs
when comparing the occurrence of consanguinity .

GENETICS

Main articles: Genetic studies on Arabs , Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of the Near East
Near East
, and Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of North Africa
North Africa

Genetic studies on Arabs are part of the population genetics discipline and are used to better understand the chronology of migration provided by research in other fields, such as history, archaeology, and linguistics. These studies investigate the origins of various Arab
Arab
populations today. In particular, they investigate whether there is a common Arabian genetic heritage among different groups which today self-identify or are indentified as Arab.

Studies of AtDNA (autosomal DNA ), which looks at the non-sex chromosomes, show that the Arabian genetic component in Arab populations ranges widely from one Arab country to another. As opposed to Y-DNA and mtDNA , both of which look only at the single direct paternal or maternal lineage, AtDNA can give information about both lineages and its effectiveness is limited to fewer number of generations.

In 2017, the largest scale genetic research undertaken into the AtDNA of different Arab
Arab
groups by National Geographic
National Geographic
's Genographic Project showed results indicating that Egyptian Arabs
Arabs
have 17% of their AtDNA which is Arabian, the AtDNA of Kuwaiti Arabs
Arabs
is 84% Arabian, the AtDNA of Lebanese Arabs
Arabs
is 44% Arabian, and the AtDNA of Tunisian Arabs
Arabs
is only 4% Arabian.

In regards to the Y-DNA and mtDNA, which as mentioned above only looks at the single direct paternal or maternal lineage respectively, various studies have shown Haplogroup
Haplogroup
J and E1b1b are the most frequent Y-DNA haplogroups in the Arab
Arab
world.

E1b1b is the most frequent paternal clade among the populations in the western part of the Arab world (Maghreb, Nile
Nile
Valley and Horn of Africa), whereas haplogroup J is the most frequent paternal clade toward the east ( Arabian peninsula and Near East). Other less common haplogroups are R1a , R1b , G , I , L and T . J-M172 J-M267 E-M215

Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Arabian peninsula , Mashriq
Mashriq
/ Levant
Levant
, Maghreb
Maghreb
and Nile
Nile
Valley . Yemeni Arabs
Arabs
J (82.3%), E1b1b (12.9%) and E1b1a (3.2%). Saudi Arabs
Arabs
J1 (58%), E1b1b (7.6%), E1b1a (7.6%), R1a (5.1%), T (5.1%), G (3.2%) and L (1.9%). Emirati Arabs
Arabs
J (45.1%), E1b1b (11.6%), R1a (7.3%), E1b1a (5.5%), T (4.9%), R1b (4.3%) and L (3%). Omani Arabs
Arabs
J (47.9%), E1b1b (15.7%), R1a (9.1%), T (8.3%), E1b1a (7.4%), R1b (1.7%), G (1.7%) and L (0.8%). Qatari Arabs
Arabs
J (66.7%), R1a (6.9%), E1b1b (5.6%), E1b1a (2.8%), G (2.8%) and L (2.8%). Lebanese Arabs
Arabs
J (45.2%), E1b1b (25.8%), R1a (9.7%), R1b (6.4%), G , I and I (3.2%), (3.2%), (3.2%). Syrian Arabs
Arabs
J (58.3%), E1b1b (12.0%), I (5.0%), R1a (10.0%) and R1b 15.0%. Palestinian Arabs
Arabs
J (55.2%), E1b1b (20.3%), R1b (8.4%), I (6.3%), G (7%), R1a and T (1.4%), (1.4%). Jordanian Arabs
Arabs
J (43.8%), E1b1b (26%), R1b (17.8%), G (4.1%), I (3.4%) and R1a (1.4%). Iraqi Arabs
Arabs
J (50.6%), E1b1b (10.8%), R1b (10.8%), R1a (6.9%) and T (5.9%). Egyptian Arabs
Arabs
E1b1b (36.7%) and J (32%), G (8.8%), T (8.2% R1b (4.1%), E1b1a (2.8%) and I (0.7%). Sudanese Arabs J (47.1%), E1b1b (16.3%), R1b (15.7%) and I (3.13%). Moroccan Arabs
Arabs
E1b1b (75.5%) and J1 (20.4%). Tunisian Arabs
Arabs
E1b1b (49.3%), J1 (35.8%), R1b (6.8%) and E1b1a (1.4%). Algerian Arabs
Arabs
E1b1b (54%), J1 (35%), R1b (13%). Libyan Arabs
Arabs
E1b1b (35.88%), J (30.53%), E1b1a (8.78%), G (4.20%), R1a/R1b (3.43%) and E (1.53%).

The mtDNA haplogroup J has been observed at notable frequencies among overall populations in the Arab
Arab
world. The maternal clade R0 reaches its highest frequency in the Arabian peninsula, while K and T (specifically subclade T2) is more common in the Levant
Levant
. In the Nile Valley and Horn of Africa, haplogroups N1 and M1 ; in the Maghreb, haplogroups H1 and U6 are more significant.

There are four principal West Eurasian autosomal DNA components that characterize the populations in the Arab
Arab
world: the Arabian, Levantine, Coptic and Maghrebi components.

The Arabian component is the main autosomal element in the Persian Gulf region. It is most closely associated with local Arabic-speaking populations. The Arabian component is also found at significant frequencies in parts of the Levant
Levant
and Northeast Africa. The geographical distribution pattern of this component correlates with the pattern of the Islamic expansion, but its presence in Lebanese Christians, Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews, Cypriots and Armenians
Armenians
might suggest that its spread to the Levant
Levant
could also represent an earlier event.

The Levantine component is the main autosomal element in the Near East and Caucasus
Caucasus
. It peaks among Druze
Druze
populations in the Levant. The Levantine component diverged from the Arabian component about 15,500–23,700 ypb.

The Coptic component is the main autosomal element in Northeast Africa
Africa
. It peaks among Egyptian Copts in Sudan
Sudan
, and is also found at high frequencies among other Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations in the Nile
Nile
Valley and Horn of Africa . The Coptic component is roughly equivalent with the Ethio-Somali component.

The Maghrebi component is the main autosomal element in the Maghreb. It peaks among the non-Arabized Berber populations in the region. The Maghrebi component diverged from the Coptic/Ethio-Somali, Arabian and Levantine components prior to the Holocene
Holocene
.

SEE ALSO

* North African Arabs * Arab world * Arab
Arab
Union * Lists of Arab
Arab
companies

REFERENCES

Notes

* ^ A 2008 IBGE study indicates that residents of Middle Eastern origin (Oriente médio) were distributed in the regions of Amazonas (0.3%), Paraíba (0.0%), São Paolo (0.5%), Rio Grande do Sol (0.5%), Mato Grosso (0.1%), and Distrito Federal (0.0%).

* ^ _A_ _B_ Margaret Kleffner Nydell Understanding Arabs: A Guide For Modern Times, Intercultural Press, 2005, ISBN 1931930252 , page xxiii, 14 * ^ total population 450 million, CIA Factbook estimates an Arab population of 450 million, see article text. * ^ "World Arabic
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Language
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UNHCR
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Arab
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as welcoming as they used to". _Public Radio International_. * ^ (in Spanish) En Chile
Chile
viven unas 700.000 personas de origen árabe y de ellas 500.000 son descendientes de emigrantes palestinos que llegaron a comienzos del siglo pasado y que constituyen la comunidad de ese origen más grande fuera del mundo árabe. * ^ _A_ _B_ Dati ISTAT 2016, counting only immigrants from the Arab world . "Cittadini stranieri in Italia - 2016". _tuttitalia.it_. * ^ "REPORT ON THE 2011 CENSUS – MAY 2013 – Arabs
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Arabs
who originated from different parts of the mainland (e.g., prominent Mahrî tribes10, and individuals from Hadramawt, and Aden)". Footnote 10: "Their neighbors in the West scarcely regarded them as Arabs, though they themselves consider they are of the pure stock of Himyar." * ^ _A_ _B_ Frishkopf, edited by Michael (2010). _ Music
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and media in the Arab
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world_ (1st ed.). Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 9774162935 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Myers, E. A. _The Ituraeans and the Roman Near East: Reassessing the Sources_. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 9781139484817 . * ^ Bowman, Alan K.; Champlin, Edward; Lintott, Andrew. _The Cambridge Ancient History_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521264303 . * ^ Jan, Retsö,. " Arabs
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Abraham
because of her own infertility; in accordance with Mesopotamian law, the offspring of such a union would be credited to Sarah (Gn. 16:2). The name Yishmaʿeʾl is known from various ancient Semitic cultures and means " God
God
has hearkened," suggesting that a child so named was regarded as the fulfillment of a divine promise. Ishmael
Ishmael
was circumcised at the age of thirteen by Abraham
Abraham
and expelled with his mother at the instigation of Sarah, who wanted to ensure that Isaac would be Abraham's heir (Gn. 21). In the New Testament, Paul uses this incident to symbolize the relationship between Judaism, the older but now rejected tradition, and Christianity
Christianity
(Gal. 4:21–31). In the Genesis account, God
God
blessed Ishmael, promising that he would be the founder of a great nation and a "wild ass of a man" always at odds with others (Gn. 16:12). He is credited with twelve sons, described as "princes according to their tribes" (Gn. 25:16), representing perhaps an ancient confederacy. The Ishmaelites, vagrant traders closely related to the Midianites, were apparently regarded as his descendants. The fact that Ishmael's wife and mother are both said to have been Egyptian suggests close ties between the Ishmaelites and Egypt. According to Genesis 25:17, Ishmael
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* ^ *Alshamali 2009 : 81% (84/104) −

* Malouf 2008 : 70% (28/40)

* Cadenas 2008 : 45/62=72.6% J-M267

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Bibliography

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .

* Ankerl, Guy (2000). Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western_. Geneva: INU PRESS. ISBN 2-88155-004-5 . * Retso, Jan (2002). _ Arabs
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FURTHER READING

Price-Jones, David. _The Closed Circle: an Interpretation of the Arabs_. Pbk. ed., with a new preface by the author. Chicago: I. R. Dee, 2002. xiv, 464 p. ISBN 1-56663-440-7

Ankerl, Guy. _Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western._ INU PRESS, Geneva, 2000. ISBN 2-88155-004-5 .

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Hyksos
* Iranian Arabs * Iraqis
Iraqis
* Ishmaelites

* Israelis

.