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The Arabic
Arabic
script is the writing system used for writing Arabic language and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.[1] Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish and prior to the Turkish language
Turkish language
reform was written in Perso- Arabic
Arabic
script.[2] It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after Latin and Chinese characters.[3] The Arabic
Arabic
script is written from right to left in a cursive style. In most cases the letters transcribe consonants, or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic
Arabic
alphabets are abjads.[citation needed] The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Qurʼān, the holy book of Islam. With the spread of Islam, it came to be used to write languages of many language families, leading to the addition of new letters and other symbols, with some versions, such as Kurdish, Uyghur, and old Bosnian being abugidas or true alphabets. It is also the basis for the tradition of Arabic
Arabic
calligraphy.[citation needed]

Contents

1 History 2 Languages written with the Arabic
Arabic
script

2.1 Languages currently written with the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet

2.1.1 Middle East and Central Asia 2.1.2 East Asia 2.1.3 South Asia 2.1.4 Southeast Asia 2.1.5 Africa

2.2 Languages formerly written with the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet

2.2.1 Africa 2.2.2 Europe 2.2.3 Central Asia
Central Asia
and Caucasus 2.2.4 Southeast Asia 2.2.5 Middle East

3 Special
Special
letters 4 Unicode 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Further information: History of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Languages written with the Arabic
Arabic
script[edit]

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Arabic
Arabic
alphabet

خ ح ج ث ت ب ا

ḫāʾ ḥāʾ ǧīm ṯāʾ tāʾ bāʾ ʾalif

ص ش س ز ر ذ د

ṣād šīn sīn zāy/zayn rāʾ ḏāl dāl

ق ف غ ع ظ ط ض

qāf fāʾ ġayn ʿayn ẓāʾ ṭāʾ ḍaad

ي و ه ن م ل ك

yāʾ wāw hāʾ nūn mīm lām kāf

in Arabic
Arabic
script of five languages

Worldwide use of the Arabic
Arabic
script

Countries where the Arabic
Arabic
script:

 →  is the only official script

 →  is the only official script, but other scripts are recognized for national or regional languages

 →  is official alongside other scripts

 →  is official at a sub-national level (China, India) or is a recognized alternative script (Malaysia)

The Arabic
Arabic
script has been adapted for use in a wide variety of languages besides Arabic, including Persian, Malay and Urdu, which are not Semitic. Such adaptations may feature altered or new characters to represent phonemes that do not appear in Arabic
Arabic
phonology. For example, the Arabic language
Arabic language
lacks a voiceless bilabial plosive (the [p] sound), so many languages add their own letter to represent [p] in the script, though the specific letter used varies from language to language. These modifications tend to fall into groups: all the Indian and Turkic languages
Turkic languages
written in the Arabic
Arabic
script tend to use the Persian modified letters, whereas the languages of Indonesia
Indonesia
tend to imitate those of Jawi. The modified version of the Arabic
Arabic
script originally devised for use with Persian is known as the Perso-Arabic script by scholars.[citation needed] In the cases of Bosnian, Kurdish, Kashmiri, and Uyghur writing systems, vowels are mandatory. The Arabic
Arabic
script can therefore be used in both abugida and abjad, although it is often strongly if erroneously connected to the latter.[citation needed] Use of the Arabic
Arabic
script in West African languages, especially in the Sahel, developed with the spread of Islam. To a certain degree the style and usage tends to follow those of the Maghreb
Maghreb
(for instance the position of the dots in the letters fāʼ and qāf). Additional diacritics have come into use to facilitate writing of sounds not represented in the Arabic
Arabic
language. The term ʻAjamī, which comes from the Arabic
Arabic
root for "foreign", has been applied to Arabic-based orthographies of African languages.[citation needed] Languages currently written with the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet[edit] Today Afghanistan, Iran, India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and China are the main non- Arabic
Arabic
speaking states using the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
to write one or more official national languages, including Azerbaijani, Baluchi, Brahui, Persian, Pashto, Central Kurdish, Urdu, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Punjabi and Uyghur.[citation needed] An Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
is currently used for the following languages:[citation needed] Middle East and Central Asia[edit]

Calligraphy

Arabic Chinese Georgian Indian Islamic Japanese Korean Mongolian Persian Tibetan Western

v t e

See also: Perso- Arabic
Arabic
alphabet

Arabic
Arabic
language Garshuni
Garshuni
(or Karshuni) originated in the 7th century, when Arabic
Arabic
was becoming the dominant spoken language in the Fertile Crescent, but Arabic
Arabic
script was not yet fully developed or widely read, and so the Syriac alphabet
Syriac alphabet
was used. There is evidence that writing Arabic
Arabic
in this other set of letters (known as Garshuni) influenced the style of modern Arabic
Arabic
script. After this initial period, Garshuni
Garshuni
writing has continued to the present day among some Syriac Christian communities in the Arabic-speaking regions of the Levant
Levant
and Mesopotamia. Kazakh in China, Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan Kurdish in Northern Iraq
Iraq
and Northwest Iran. (In Turkey
Turkey
and Syria, the Latin script
Latin script
is used for Kurdish) Kyrgyz by its 150,000 speakers in the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwestern China, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan Turkmen in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iran Uzbek in Afghanistan Somali in Somalia, and a minority in Kenya, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Dijbouti Official Persian in Iran
Iran
and its dialects, like Dari in Afghanistan Baluchi in Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Oman[4] An academy for the protection of the Baluchi Language was established in Iran
Iran
in 2009[5] Southwestern Iranian languages as Lori dialects
Lori dialects
and Bakhtiari language[6][7] Pashto in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan Uyghur changed to Latin script
Latin script
in 1969 and back to a simplified, fully voweled, Arabic
Arabic
script in 1983 Judeo- Arabic
Arabic
languages

Judeo-Tunisian Arabic[8] Karaim language

Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani language
in Iran Talysh language
Talysh language
in Iran

East Asia[edit]

The Chinese language
Chinese language
is written by some Hui in the Arabic-derived Xiao'erjing
Xiao'erjing
alphabet (see also Sini (script)) The Turkic Salar language is written by some Salar in the Arabic alphabet Uyghur alphabet

South Asia[edit]

Official language Urdu
Urdu
and regional languages including

Balochi in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iran Dari in Afghanistan Kashmiri in India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
(Also written in Devanagari
Devanagari
in India) Pashto in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan Khowar in Northern Pakistan, which also uses the Latin script Punjabi (where the script is known as Shahmukhi) in Pakistan, Punjabi is written with the Brahmic Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
script in India Saraiki is written with a modified Arabic
Arabic
script that has 45 letters Sindhi in Arabic
Arabic
script; British commissioner in Sindh on August 29, 1857 ordered to change Arabic
Arabic
script,[9] Sindhi is often written with the Devanagari
Devanagari
script in India Aer language[10] Bhadrawahi language[11] Ladakhi language although it is more commonly written using the Tibetan script Balti[12] (a Sino-Tibetan language), which is sometimes, albeit more rarely written in the Tibetan script Brahui language
Brahui language
of Brahui people of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan[13] Burushaski
Burushaski
or Burusho language, a language isolate in Pakistan[14]

Urdu
Urdu
(and historically several other Hindustani languages). Urdu
Urdu
is one of several official languages in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Telangana; Kashmiri also uses Devanagari
Devanagari
script, and more rarely the Sharada script

Dogri language
Dogri language
(डोगरी or ڈوگرى) spoken by about five million people in India
India
and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
and in Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, although Dogri is more commonly written in Devanagari

The Arwi language
Arwi language
(a mixture of Arabic
Arabic
and Tamil) uses the Arabic script together with the addition of 13 letters. It is mainly used in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
for religious purposes. Arwi language
Arwi language
is the language of Tamil Muslims. Malayalam
Malayalam
language represented by Arabic
Arabic
script variant is known as Arabi Malayalam. The script has particular letters to represent the peculiar sounds of Malayalam. This script is mainly used in madrasas of the South Indian state of Kerala
Kerala
and of Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
to teach Malayalam. In everyday life, Malayalam
Malayalam
is written with the Malayalam script Chittagonian language, spoken by the people of Chittagong, in Bangladesh,[15][citation not found] although it is far more common to write this language in the Bengali script Rohingya language
Rohingya language
(Ruáingga) is a language spoken by the Rohingya people of Rakhine State, formerly known as Arakan (Rakhine), Burma (Myanmar). It is similar to Chittagonian language
Chittagonian language
in neighboring Bangladesh[16] and sometimes written using the Roman script, or an Arabic-derived script known as Hanifi.

Southeast Asia[edit]

Malay in the Arabic
Arabic
script known as Jawi. In some cases it can be seen in the signboards of shops or market stalls. Particularly in Brunei, Jawi is used in terms of writing or reading for Islamic religious educational programs in primary school, secondary school, college, or even higher educational institutes such as universities. In addition, some television programming uses Jawi, such as announcements, advertisements, news, social programs, or Islamic programs.

co-official in Brunei Malaysia
Malaysia
but co-official in Kelantan, an Islamic state in Malaysia Indonesia, Jawi script
Jawi script
is co-used with Latin in provinces of Riau
Riau
and Riau
Riau
Islands. The Javanese and Sundanese also use another Arabic variant, the Pegon in Islamic writings and pesantren community. Southern Thailand Singapore Predominantly Muslim areas of the Philippines
Philippines
(especially Tausug language) Ida'an language
Ida'an language
(also Idahan) a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Ida'an people of Sabah, Malaysia[17]

Cham language in Cambodia[18]

Africa[edit]

North Africa

Arabic
Arabic
language Maghrebi Arabic
Maghrebi Arabic
uses a modified Arabic
Arabic
script, with additional letters, in order to support /g/ (ڨ/ڭ), /v/ (ڥ) and /p/ (پ) along with the older /f/ (ڢ) and /q/ (ڧ).[19][20] Berber languages
Berber languages
have often been written in an adaptation of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet. The use of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet, as well as the competing Latin and Tifinagh
Tifinagh
scripts, has political connotations. Tuareg language
Tuareg language
(also Tamasheq) Coptic language
Coptic language
of Egyptian Coptics as Coptic text written in Arabic letters[21]

Northeast Africa

Bedawi or Beja, mainly in northeastern Sudan Wadaad writing, used in Somalia Nubian languages

Dongolawi language or Andaandi language of Nubia, in the Nile Vale of northern Sudan Nobiin language, the largest Nubian language (previously known by the geographic terms Mahas and Fadicca/Fiadicca) is not yet standardized, being written variously, in both Latinized and Arabic
Arabic
scripts; also, recently there have been efforts to revive the Old Nubian alphabet.[22][23]

Fur language
Fur language
of Darfur, Sudan

Southeast Africa

Comorian, in the Comoros, currently side by side with the Latin alphabet (neither is official) Swahili, was originally written in Arabic
Arabic
alphabet, Swahili orthography is now based on the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
that was introduced by Christian missionaries and colonial administrators.

West Africa

Zarma language
Zarma language
of the Songhay family. It is the language of the southwestern lobe of the West African nation of Niger, and it is the second leading language of Niger, after Hausa, which is spoken in south central Niger.[24] Tadaksahak
Tadaksahak
is a Songhay language spoken by the pastoralist Idaksahak of the Ménaka area of Mali.[25] Hausa language
Hausa language
uses an adaptation of the Arabic
Arabic
script known as Ajami, for many purposes, especially religious, but including newspapers, mass mobilization posters, and public information[26] Dyula language is a Mandé language spoken in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire and Mali.[27] Jola-Fonyi language
Jola-Fonyi language
of the Casamance
Casamance
region of Senegal[28] Balanta language a Bak language of west Africa spoken by the Balanta people and Balanta-Ganja dialect in Senegal Mandinka, widely but unofficially (known as Ajami), (another non-Latin script used is the N'Ko script) Fula, especially the Pular of Guinea (known as Ajami) Wolof (at zaouia schools), known as Wolofal.

Arabic
Arabic
script outside Africa

In writings of African American slaves

Writings of by Omar Ibn Said
Omar Ibn Said
(1770–1864) of Sengal[29] The Bilali Document also known as Bilali Muhammad Document is a handwritten, Arabic
Arabic
manuscript[30] on West African Islamic law. It was written by Bilali Mohammet in the 19th century. The document is currently housed in the library at the University of Georgia. Letter written by Ayuba Suleiman Diallo
Ayuba Suleiman Diallo
(1701–1773) Arabic
Arabic
Text From 1768[31] Letter written by Abdulrahman Ibrahim Ibn Sori
Abdulrahman Ibrahim Ibn Sori
(1762–1829)

Languages formerly written with the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet[edit] Speakers of languages that were previously unwritten used Arabic script as a basis to design writing systems for their mother languages. This choice could be influenced by Arabic
Arabic
being their second language, the language of scripture of their faith, or the only written language they came in contact with. Additionally, since most education was once religious, choice of script was determined by the writer's religion; which meant that Muslims would use Arabic
Arabic
script to write whatever language they spoke. This led to Arabic
Arabic
script being the most widely used script during the Middle Ages. In the 20th century, the Arabic
Arabic
script was generally replaced by the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
in the Balkans,[dubious – discuss] parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia, while in the Soviet Union, after a brief period of Latinisation,[32] use of Cyrillic was mandated. Turkey
Turkey
changed to the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
in 1928 as part of an internal Westernizing revolution. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, many of the Turkic languages
Turkic languages
of the ex- USSR
USSR
attempted to follow Turkey's lead and convert to a Turkish-style Latin alphabet. However, renewed use of the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
has occurred to a limited extent in Tajikistan, whose language's close resemblance to Persian allows direct use of publications from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iran.[33] Most languages of the Iranian languages
Iranian languages
family continue to use Arabic script, as well as the Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
of Pakistan
Pakistan
and of Muslim populations in India, but the Bengali language
Bengali language
of India
India
and Bangladesh is written in the Bengali alphabet.[citation needed] Africa[edit]

Afrikaans (as it was first written among the "Cape Malays", see Arabic Afrikaans); Berber in North Africa, particularly Shilha in Morocco
Morocco
(still being considered, along with Tifinagh
Tifinagh
and Latin, for Central Atlas Tamazight); French by the Arabs
Arabs
and Berbers in Algeria and other parts of North Africa during the French colonial period. Harari, by the Harari people
Harari people
of the Harari Region
Harari Region
in Ethiopia. Now uses the Geʻez and Latin alphabets. For the West African languages—Hausa, Fula, Mandinka, Wolof and some more—the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
has officially replaced Arabic transcriptions for use in literacy and education; Malagasy in Madagascar
Madagascar
(script known as Sorabe); Nubian; Somali (see wadaad Arabic) has mostly used the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
since 1972; Songhay in West Africa, particularly in Timbuktu; Swahili (has used the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
since the 19th century); Yoruba in West Africa
West Africa
(this was probably limited, but still notable)

Europe[edit]

Albanian called Elifbaja shqip Aljamiado
Aljamiado
(Mozarabic, Berber, Aragonese, Portuguese[citation needed], Ladino, and Spanish, during and residually after the Muslim rule in the Iberian peninsula Belarusian (among ethnic Tatars; see Belarusian Arabic
Arabic
alphabet) Bosnian (only for literary purposes; currently written in the Latin alphabet; Text example: مۉلٖىم ۉ
ۉ
سه ته‌بٖى بۉژه‬ = Molimo se tebi, Bože (We pray to you, O God); see Arebica) Crimean Tatar Greek in certain areas in Greece
Greece
and Anatolia. In particular, Cappadocian Greek
Cappadocian Greek
written in Perso-Arabic Polish (among ethnic Lipka Tatars)

Central Asia
Central Asia
and Caucasus[edit]

Adyghe language
Adyghe language
also known as West Circassian, is an official languages of the Republic of Adygea
Adygea
in the Russian Federation. It used Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
before 1927 Avar as well as other languages of Daghestan: Nogai, Kumyk, Lezgian, Lak, Dargwa Azeri in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(now written in the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and Cyrillic script in Azerbaijan) Bashkir (officially for some years from the October Revolution
October Revolution
of 1917 until 1928, changed to Latin, now uses the Cyrillic script) Chaghatay across Central Asia; Chechen (sporadically from the adoption of Islam; officially from 1917 until 1928)[34] Circassian and some other members of the Abkhaz–Adyghe family in the western Caucasus
Caucasus
and sporadically – in the countries of Middle East, like Syria Ingush Karachay-Balkar in the central Caucasus; Karakalpak Kazakh in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(until the 1930s, changed to Latin, currently using Cyrillic, phasing in Latin) Kyrgyz in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(until the 1930s, changed to Latin, now uses the Cyrillic script) Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
and Dungan, among the Hui people
Hui people
(script known as Xiao'erjing) Ottoman Turkish Tat in South-Eastern Caucasus Tatar before 1928 (changed to Latin Yañalif), reformed in the 1880s (İske imlâ), 1918 ( Yaña imlâ
Yaña imlâ
– with the omission of some letters) Turkmen in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(changed to Latin in 1929, then to the Cyrillic script, then back to Latin in 1991) Uzbek in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(changed to Latin, then to the Cyrillic script, then back to Latin in 1991) Some Northeast Caucasian languages
Northeast Caucasian languages
of the Muslim peoples of the USSR between 1918 and 1928 (many also earlier), including Chechen, Lak, etc. After 1928, their script became Latin, then later[when?] Cyrillic.[citation needed]

Southeast Asia[edit]

Acehnese in Sumatra, Indonesia Banjarese in Kalimantan, Indonesia Maguindanaon in the Philippines Malay in Malaysia, Singapore
Singapore
and Indonesia. Although Malay speakers in Brunei
Brunei
and Southern Thailand
Southern Thailand
still use the script on a daily basis. Minangkabau in Sumatra, Indonesia Pegon alphabet
Pegon alphabet
of Javanese, Madurese and Sundanese in Indonesia, used only in Islamic schools and institutions. Tausug in the Philippines Maranao in the Philippines

Middle East[edit]

Hebrew was written in Arabic
Arabic
letters in a number of places in the past.[35][36] Northern Kurdish
Northern Kurdish
in Turkey
Turkey
and Syria
Syria
was written in Arabic
Arabic
script until 1932, when a modified Kurdish Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
was introduced by Jaladat Ali Badirkhan in Syria Turkish in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was written in Arabic
Arabic
script until Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
declared the change to Latin script
Latin script
in 1928. This form of Turkish is now known as Ottoman Turkish and is held by many to be a different language, due to its much higher percentage of Persian and Arabic
Arabic
loanwords (Ottoman Turkish alphabet)

Special
Special
letters[edit]

Most Common Non-Classical Arabic
Arabic
Consonant Phonemes/Graphemes

Language Family Austron. Dravid Turkic Indic (Indo-European) Iranian (Indo-European)

Arabic
Arabic
(Semitic)

Language/Script Jawi Arwi Uyghur Sindhi Punjabi Urdu Persian Balochi Kurdish Pashto Moroccan Tunisian Algerian Hejazi Najdi Egyptian Palestinian Iraqi Gulf

/p/ ڤ‬ ڣ‬ پ‬ پ‬ / ب‬

/g/ ݢ‬ ࢴ‬ گ‬ ګ‬ ڭ‬ / گ‬ ڨ‬ / ڧـ ـڧـ ـٯ‬ / ق‬ ق‬ ج‬ چ‬ / ج‬ گ‬ / ك‬ ق
ق
/ گ‬

/t͡ʃ/ چ‬ Ø چ‬ ڜ‬ تش‬ چ‬

/v/ ۏ‬ و‬ ۋ‬ و‬ Ø ڤ‬ Ø ڥ‬ / ڢ‬ / ف‬ ڤ‬ / ف‬

/ʒ/ Ø ژ‬ Ø ژ‬ its usage depends on the dialect

/ŋ/ ڠ‬ ࢳ‬ ڭ‬ ڱ‬ ں‬ ن‬ Ø Ø

/ɳ/ Ø ڹ‬ Ø ڻ‬ Ø ڼ‬ Ø

/ɲ/ ڽ‬ ݧ‬ Ø Ø Ø

ٻ‬ – B̤ē, used to represent a voiced bilabial implosive /ɓ/ in Hausa, Sindhi and Saraiki. پ‬ – Pe, used to represent the phoneme /p/ in Persian, Urdu, Pashto, Khowar, Sindhi, Kurdish; it is not used in most Arabic varieties (except Mesopotamian and Gulf) and it is normalized as /b/; e.g., pepsi > bibsi. ݐ‬ – used to represent the equivalent of the Latin letter Ƴ (palatalized glottal stop /ʔʲ/) in some African languages such as Fulfulde. ڀ‬ – represents an aspirated voiced bilabial plosive /bʱ/ in Sindhi. ٺ‬ – Ṭhē, represents the aspirated voiceless retroflex plosive /ʈʰ/ in Sindhi. ټ‬ – ṭē, used to represent the phoneme /ʈ/ in Pashto. ٽ‬ - Ṭe, used to represent the phoneme (a voiceless retroflex plosive /ʈ/) in Sindhi ﭦ‬ – Ṭe, used to represent Ṭ (a voiceless retroflex plosive /ʈ/) in Urdu. ٿ‬ – Teheh, used in Sindhi and Rajasthani (when written in Sindhi alphabet); used to represent the phoneme /t͡ɕʰ/ (pinyin q) in Chinese Xiao'erjing. ڄ‬ – represents the "ц" voiceless dental affricate /t͡s/ phoneme in Bosnian. ڃ‬ – represents the "ћ" voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate /t͡ɕ/ phoneme in Bosnian. چ‬ – Che, used to represent /t͡ʃ/ ("ch"). It is used in Persian, Urdu, and Kurdish. /ʒ/ in Egypt. څ‬ – Ce, used to represent the phoneme /t͡s/ in Pashto. ݗ‬ – represents the "ђ" voiced alveolo-palatal affricate /d͡ʑ/ phoneme in Bosnian. ځ‬ – źim, used to represent the phoneme /d͡z/ in Pashto. ݙ‬ – used in Saraiki to represent a Voiced alveolar implosive /ɗ̢/. ڊ‬ – used in Saraiki to represent a voiced retroflex implosive /ᶑ/. ڈ‬ – /ɖ/ in Urdu. ڌ‬ - Dhal used to represent the phoneme /d̪ʱ/ in Sindhi ډ‬ – Ḍal, used to represent the phoneme /ɖ/ in Pashto. ڑ‬ – Aṛ, represents a retroflex flap /ɽ/ in Urdu. ړ‬ – "ṛe" represents a retroflex lateral flap in Pashto. ݫ‬ – used in Ormuri
Ormuri
to represent a voiced alveolo-palatal fricative /ʑ/, as well as in Torwali. ژ‬ – Že/zhe, used to represent the voiced postalveolar fricative /ʒ/ in, Persian, Pashto, Kurdish, Urdu, Punjabi and Uyghur. ږ‬ – ǵe / ẓ̌e, used to represent the phoneme /ʐ/ /ɡ/ /ʝ/ in Pashto. ڕ‬ – used in Kurdish to represent rr /r/ in Soranî dialect. ݭ‬ – used in Kalami to represent a voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/, and in Ormuri
Ormuri
to represent a voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative /ɕ/. ݜ‬ – used in Shina to represent a voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/. ښ‬ – x̌īn /ṣ̌īn, used to represent the phoneme /x/ /ʂ/ /ç/ in Pashto. ڜ‬ — used to represent Spanish words with /t͡ʃ/ in Morocco. ڨ‬ – Ga, used to represent the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in Algerian and Tunisian. گ‬ – Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in Persian, Urdu, Kyrgyz, Kazakh, Kurdish, Uyghur, Mesopotamian, and Ottoman Turkish. ګ‬ – Gaf, used to represent the phoneme /ɡ/ in Pashto. ݢ‬ or ڬ‬ – Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in the Jawi script
Jawi script
of Malay. ڭ‬ – Ng, used to represent the /ŋ/ phone in Ottoman Turkish, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Uyghur, and to represent the /ɡ/ in Morocco
Morocco
and in many dialects of Algerian. أي‬ – Ee, used to represent the phoneme /eː/ in Somali. ﺉ‬ – E, used to represent the phoneme /e/ in Somali. ىٓ‬ – Ii, used to represent the phoneme /iː/ in Somali and Saraiki. ؤ‬ – O, used to represent the phoneme /o/ in Somali. ې‬ – Pasta Ye, used to represent the phoneme /e/ in Pashto and Uyghur. ی‬ – Nārīna Ye, used to represent the phoneme [ɑj] and phoneme /j/ in Pashto. ۍ‬ – x̌əźīna ye Ye, used to represent the phoneme [əi] in Pashto. ئ‬ – FāiliyaYe, used to represent the phoneme [əi] and /j/ in Pashto and Saraiki. أو‬ – Oo, used to represent the phoneme /oː/ in Somali. ﻭٓ‬ – Uu, used to represent the phoneme /uː/ in Somali. ڳ‬ – represents a voiced velar implosive /ɠ/ in Sindhi and Saraiki ڱ‬ – represents the Velar nasal
Velar nasal
/ŋ/ phoneme in Sindhi. ﮎ‬ – Khē, represents /kʰ/ in Sindhi. ݣ – used to represent the phoneme /ŋ/ (pinyin ng) in Chinese. ڼ‬ – represents the retroflex nasal /ɳ/ phoneme in Pashto. ڻ‬ – represents the retroflex nasal /ɳ/ phoneme in Sindhi. ݨ‬ – used in Saraiki to represent /ɲ/. ڽ‬ – Nya /ɲ/ in the Jawi script. ڠ‬ – Nga /ŋ/ in the Jawi script
Jawi script
and Gain /g/ in Khowar alphabet. ڵ‬ – used in Kurdish to represent ll /ɫ/ in Soranî dialect. ݪ‬ – used in Marwari to represent a retroflex lateral flap /ɺ̢/, and in Kalami to represent a voiceless lateral fricative /ɬ/. ڥ‬ – Vi, used in Algerian and Tunisian when written in Arabic script to represent the sound /v/. ڤ‬ – Ve, used in by some Arabic
Arabic
speakers to represent the phoneme /v/ in loanwords, and in the Kurdish language
Kurdish language
when written in Arabic script to represent the sound /v/. Also used as pa /p/ in the Jawi script. ۏ‬ – Va in the Jawi script. ۋ‬ – represents a voiced labiodental fricative /v/ in Kyrgyz, Uyghur, and Old Tatar; and /w, ʊw, ʉw/ in Kazakh; also formerly used in Nogai. ۆ‬ – represents "O" /o/ in Kurdish, and in Uyghur it represents the sound similar to the French eu andœu /ø/ sound. It represents the "у" close back rounded vowel /u/ phoneme in Bosnian. ێ‬ – represents Ê or É /e/ in Kurdish. ھ‬ – Dochashmi he (two-eyed hāʼ), used in combination to represent aspirated consonants /ʰ/ in Urdu. ے‬ – Baṛī ye ('big yāʼ'), represents "ai" or "e" in Urdu /ɛː/, /eː/ and Punjabi. ڞ – used to represent the phoneme /tsʰ/ (pinyin c) in Chinese. ط – used to represent the phoneme /t͡s/ (pinyin z) in Chinese. ۉ‬ – represents the "o" open-mid back rounded vowel /ɔ/ phoneme in Bosnian. ݩ‬ – represents the "њ" palatal nasal /ɲ/ phoneme in Bosnian. ڵ‬ – represents the "љ" palatal lateral approximant /ʎ/ phoneme in Bosnian. اٖى‬ – represents the "и" close front unrounded vowel /i/ phoneme in Bosnian.

Writing systems

Alphabet #Chars Languages Region Derived from Comment

Arabic
Arabic
alphabet 28 Arabic North Africa, West Asia Aramaic alphabet, Syriac alphabet, Nabataean alphabet

Ajami script 33 Hausa language, Swahili West Africa Arabic Abjad

Arebica 30 Bosnian Southeastern Europe Perso-Arabic latest stage with full vowel marking

Arwi
Arwi
alphabet 41 Tamil Southern India, Sri Lanka Perso-Arabic

Belarusian Arabic
Arabic
alphabet 32 Belarusian Eastern Europe Perso-Arabic 15th/16th century

Berber Arabic
Arabic
alphabet(s)

various Berber languages North Africa Arabic

Chagatai alphabet(s) 32 Chagatai Central Asia Perso-Arabic

Galal alphabet 32 Somali Horn of Africa Arabic

Jawi script 40 Malay and others Malaysia Perso-Arabic

Kashmiri alphabet 44 Kashmiri South Asia Perso-Arabic

Kazakh Arabic
Arabic
alphabet 35 Kazakh Central Asia, China Perso-Arabic/Chagatai since 11th century, now official only in China

Khowar alphabet 60 Khowar South Asia Perso-Arabic

Kyrgyz Arabic
Arabic
alphabet 33 Kyrgyz

Perso-Arabic now official only in China

Nasta'liq script

Urdu
Urdu
and others

Perso-Arabic

Pashto alphabet 45 Pashto Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan Perso-Arabic

Pegon alphabet 35 Javanese, Sundanese Indonesia Perso-Arabic

Persian alphabet 32 Persian Iran Arabic

Saraiki alphabet 45 Saraiki Pakistan Perso-Arabic

Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi
script 37 Punjabi Pakistan Perso-Arabic

Sindhi alphabet 64 Sindhi Pakistan Perso-Arabic

Sorabe alphabet 33 Malagasy Madagascar Arabic

Soranî alphabet 33 Central Kurdish Perso-Arabic

Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugida

Swahili

İske imlâ
İske imlâ
alphabet 35 Tatar

Perso-Arabic/Chagatai before 1920

Ottoman Turkish alphabet 32 Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Empire Perso-Arabic Official until 1928

Urdu
Urdu
alphabet 58 Urdu South Asia Perso-Arabic

Uyghur Arabic
Arabic
alphabet 32 Uyghur China, Central Asia Perso-Arabic/Chagatai Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugida

Wolofal script 28 Wolof West Africa Arabic

Xiao'erjing 36 Sinitic languages China, Central Asia Perso-Arabic

Yaña imlâ
Yaña imlâ
alphabet 29 Tatar

Perso-Arabic/Chagatai 1920–1927

Unicode[edit] Main article: Arabic
Arabic
characters in Unicode As of Unicode
Unicode
10.0, the following ranges encode Arabic
Arabic
characters:

Arabic
Arabic
(0600–06FF) Arabic Supplement (0750–077F) Arabic Extended-A (08A0–08FF) Arabic Presentation Forms-A (FB50–FDFF) Arabic Presentation Forms-B (FE70–FEFF) Arabic Mathematical Alphabetic Symbols (1EE00–1EEFF) Rumi Numeral Symbols (10E60–10E7F)

See also[edit]

History of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Eastern Arabic numerals
Eastern Arabic numerals
(digit shapes commonly used with Arabic script) Arabic
Arabic
( Unicode
Unicode
block) Transliteration of Arabic Xiao'erjing

References[edit]

^ Mahinnaz Mirdehghan. 2010. Persian, Urdu, and Pashto: A comparative orthographic analysis. Writing Systems Research Vol. 2, No. 1, 9–23. ^ "Exposición Virtual. Biblioteca Nacional de España". Bne.es. Retrieved 2012-04-06.  ^ " Arabic
Arabic
Alphabet". Encyclopædia Britannica online. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-16.  ^ "Sayad Zahoor Shah Hashmii". baask.com.  ^ Language Protection Academy ^ "Dictionary of the Bakhtiari dialect
Bakhtiari dialect
of Chahar-lang". google.com.eg.  ^ Bakhtiari Language Video ^ "Ethnologue". Ethnologue.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
should mind all of its languages!". tribune.com.pk.  ^ "Ethnologue". Ethnologue.  ^ "Ethnologue". Ethnologue.  ^ Khadim. "Balti to English". khadimskardu1.blogspot.com.  ^ "The Bible in Brahui". Worldscriptures.org. Retrieved August 5, 2013.  ^ "HUNZA DEVELOPMENT FORUM". hisamullahbeg.blogspot.com.  ^ "ScriptSource". scriptsource.org.  ^ "Rohingya Language Book A-Z". Scribd.  ^ "written with Arabic
Arabic
script". scriptsource.org.  ^ urangCam. "Bông Sứ". naipaleikaohkabuak.blogspot.com.  ^ Zribi, I., Boujelbane, R., Masmoudi, A., Ellouze, M., Belguith, L., & Habash, N. (2014). A Conventional Orthography for Tunisian Arabic. In Proceedings of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC), Reykjavík, Iceland. ^ Brustad, K. (2000). The syntax of spoken Arabic: A comparative study of Moroccan, Egyptian, Syrian, and Kuwaiti dialects. Georgetown University Press. ^ "The Coptic Studies' Corner". stshenouda.com.  ^ "--The Cradle of Nubian Civilisation--". thenubian.net.  ^ Nubian language lessons ^ "ScriptSource". scriptsource.org.  ^ "ScriptSource". scriptsource.org.  ^ "Lost Language — Bostonia Summer 2009". bu.edu.  ^ "ScriptSource". scriptsource.org.  ^ "ScriptSource". scriptsource.org.  ^ Ibn Sayyid manuscript ^ Muhammad Arabic
Arabic
letter ^ "Charno Letter". Muslims In America. Retrieved August 5, 2013.  ^ Alphabet
Alphabet
Transitions – The Latin Script: A New Chronology – Symbol
Symbol
of a New Azerbaijan, by Tamam Bayatly ^ Tajik Language: Farsi or Not Farsi? Archived June 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. by Sukhail Siddikzoda, reporter, Tajikistan. ^ [1] Archived December 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ p. 20, Samuel Noel Kramer. 1986. In the World of Sumer: An Autobiography. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ^ J. Blau. 2000. Hebrew written in Arabic
Arabic
characters: An instance of radical change in tradition. (In Hebrew, with English summary). In Heritage and Innovation in Judaeo- Arabic
Arabic
Culture: Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of the Society For Judaeo- Arabic
Arabic
Studies, p. 27-31. Ramat Gan.

External links[edit] Media related to Arabic
Arabic
script at Wikimedia Commons

Why the right side of your brain doesn't like Arabic Arabic
Arabic
fonts by SIL’s Non-Roman Script Initiative

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ISO 15924 script codes

Adlm Afak Aghb Ahom Arab Aran Armi Armn Avst Bali Bamu Bass Batk Beng Bhks Blis Bopo Brah Brai Bugi Buhd Cakm Cans Cari Cham Cher Cirt Copt Cpmn Cprt Cyrl Cyrs Deva Dogr Dsrt Dupl Egyd Egyh Egyp Elba Ethi Geok Geor Glag Gong Gonm Goth Gran Grek Gujr Guru Hanb Hang Hani Hano Hans Hant Hatr Hebr Hira Hluw Hmng Hmnp Hrkt Hung Inds Ital Jamo Java Jpan Jurc Kali Kana Khar Khmr Khoj Kitl Kits Knda Kore Kpel Kthi Lana Laoo Latf Latg Latn Leke Lepc Limb Lina Linb Lisu Loma Lyci Lydi Mahj Maka Mand Mani Marc Maya Medf Mend Merc Mero Mlym Modi Mong Moon Mroo Mtei Mult Mymr Narb Nbat Newa Nkdb Nkgb Nkoo Nshu Ogam Olck Orkh Orya Osge Osma Palm Pauc Perm Phag Phli Phlp Phlv Phnx Piqd Plrd Prti Qaaa—Qabx Rjng Rohg Roro Runr Samr Sara Sarb Saur Sgnw Shaw Shrd Shui Sidd Sind Sinh Sogd Sogo Sora Soyo Sund Sylo Syrc Syre Syrj Syrn Tagb Takr Tale Talu Taml Tang Tavt Telu Teng Tfng Tglg Thaa Thai Tibt Tirh Ugar Vaii Visp Wara Wcho Wole Xpeo Xsux Yiii Zanb Zinh Zmth Zsye Zsym Zxxx Zyyy Zzzz

As of 2017-11-21

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Arabic
Arabic
alphabets

Europe

Aljamiado Arebica Azerbaijani Belarusian Kazakh Ottoman Turkish Tatar (İske imlâ Yaña imlâ)

Asia

Arabic Arabi Malayalam Arwi Azerbaijani Buri Wolio Jawi Kazakh Khowar Kurdish Kyrgyz Ottoman Turkish Pashto Pegon Persian Saraiki Sindhi Shahmukhī Tajik Turkmen Urdu Uyghur Uzbek Xiao'erjing

Africa

Afrikaans Ajami Berber Fula Sorabe Swahili Wadaad Wolof

v t e

Arabic
Arabic
language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Romanization Numerology Influence on other languages

Alphabet

Nabataean alphabet Perso- Arabic
Arabic
alphabet Ancient North Arabian Ancient South Arabian script

Zabūr script

Arabic
Arabic
numerals Eastern numerals Arabic
Arabic
Braille

Algerian

Diacritics

i‘jām Tashkil Harakat Tanwin Shaddah

Hamza Tāʾ marbūṭah

Letters

ʾAlif Bāʾ Tāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Ṯāʾ Ǧīm Ḥāʾ Ḫāʾ Dāl Ḏāl Rāʾ Zāy Sīn Šīn Ṣād Ḍād Ṭāʾ Ẓāʾ ʿAyn Ġayn Fāʾ Qāf Kāf Lām Mīm Nūn Hāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Wāw Yāʾ Hamza

Notable varieties

Ancient

Proto-Arabic Old Arabic Ancient North Arabian Old South Arabian

Standardized

Classical Modern Standard Maltese[a]

Regional

Nilo-Egyptian Levantine Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian dialects Hilalian dialects Moroccan Darija Tunisian Arabic Sa'idi Arabic

Mesopotamian Peninsular

Yemeni Arabic Tihamiyya Arabic

Sudanese Chadian Modern South Arabian

Ethnic / religious

Judeo-Arabic

Pidgins/Creoles

Juba Arabic Nubi language Babalia Creole Arabic Maridi Arabic Maltese

Academic

Literature Names

Linguistics

Phonology Sun and moon letters ʾIʿrāb (inflection) Grammar Triliteral root Mater lectionis IPA Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

Calligraphy Script

Diwani Jawi script Kufic Rasm Mashq Hijazi script Muhaqqaq Thuluth Naskh (script) Ruqʿah script Taʿlīq script Nastaʿlīq script Shahmukhī script Sini (script)

Technical

Arabic
Arabic
keyboard Arabic
Arabic
script in Unicode ISO/IEC 8859-6 Windows-1256 MS-DOS codepages

708 709 710 711 720 864

Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

aSociolinguistically not Arabic

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Types of writing systems

Overview

History of writing Grapheme

Lists

Writing systems

undeciphered inventors constructed

Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

Types

Abjads

Numerals

Aramaic

Hatran

Arabic Pitman shorthand Hebrew

Ashuri Cursive Rashi Solitreo

Tifinagh Manichaean Nabataean Old North Arabian Pahlavi Pegon Phoenician

Paleo-Hebrew

Proto-Sinaitic Psalter Punic Samaritan South Arabian

Zabur Musnad

Sogdian Syriac

ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā

Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic

Abugidas

Brahmic

Northern

Asamiya (Ôxômiya) Bānglā Bhaikshuki Bhujinmol Brāhmī Devanāgarī Dogri Gujarati Gupta Gurmukhī Kaithi Kalinga Khojki Khotanese Khudawadi Laṇḍā Lepcha Limbu Mahajani Meitei Mayek Modi Multani Nāgarī Nandinagari Odia 'Phags-pa Newar Ranjana Sharada Saurashtra Siddhaṃ Soyombo Sylheti Nagari Takri Tibetan

Uchen Umê

Tirhuta Tocharian Zanabazar Square Zhang-Zhung

Drusha Marchen Marchung Pungs-chen Pungs-chung

Southern

Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana

Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu

Kolezhuthu Malayanma

Visayan

Others

Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics

Blackfoot Déné syllabics

Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand

Alphabets

Linear

Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand

Chinook writing

Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian

Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli

Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin

Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic

Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless

Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa

Non-linear

Braille Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore Moon type

Ideograms/Pictograms

Adinkra Aztec Blissymbol Dongba Ersu Shaba Emoji IConji Isotype Kaidā Míkmaq Mixtec New Epoch Notation Painting Nsibidi Ojibwe Hieroglyphs Siglas poveiras Testerian Yerkish Zapotec

Logograms

Chinese family of scripts

Chinese Characters

Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang

Chinese-influenced

Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut

Cuneiform

Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian

Other logo-syllabic

Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)

Logo-consonantal

Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs

Numerals

Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman

Semi-syllabaries

Full

Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom

Redundant

Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao

Somacheirograms

ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation

Syllabaries

Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

v t e

Braille
Braille
 ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

Braille
Braille
cell

1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
Unicode
braille patterns

Braille
Braille
scripts

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

Devanagari
Devanagari
(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

Braille
Braille
music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code

Braille
Braille
technology

Braille
Braille
e-book Braille
Braille
embosser Braille
Braille
translator Braille
Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo

Persons

Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait

Organisations

Braille
Braille
Institute of America Braille
Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Braille
Library National Braille
Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
Braille
literacy RoboBraille

v t e

Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

v t e

Internet slang
Internet slang
dialects

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktio

.