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The ARABIC SCRIPT is the writing system used for writing Arabic
Arabic
and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Persian , Urdu
Urdu
, Azerbaijani , Pashto , Central Kurdish , Luri , dialects of Mandinka , and others. Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish . It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after Latin and Chinese characters
Chinese characters
.

The Arabic
Arabic
script is written from right to left in a cursive style. In most cases the letters transcribe consonants, or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic
Arabic
alphabets are abjads .

The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Qurʼān , the holy book of Islam
Islam
. With the spread of Islam, it came to be used to write languages of many language families, leading to the addition of new letters and other symbols, with some versions, such as Kurdish , Uyghur , and old Bosnian being abugidas or true alphabets . It is also the basis for the tradition of Arabic calligraphy .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Languages written with the Arabic
Arabic
script

* 2.1 Languages currently written with the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet

* 2.1.1 Middle East and Central Asia
Central Asia
* 2.1.2 East Asia * 2.1.3 South Asia * 2.1.4 Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
* 2.1.5 Africa

* 2.2 Languages formerly written with the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet

* 2.2.1 Africa * 2.2.2 Europe * 2.2.3 Central Asia
Central Asia
and Caucasus
Caucasus
* 2.2.4 Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
* 2.2.5 Middle East

* 3 Special
Special
letters * 4 Unicode
Unicode
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY

Further information: History of the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet

LANGUAGES WRITTEN WITH THE ARABIC SCRIPT

Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
خ ح ج ث ت ب ﺁ

kha’ h’aa’ jiim thaa’ taa’ baa’ alif

ص ش س ز ر ذ د

saad shiin siin zaay raa’ dhaal daal

ق ف غ ع ظ ط ض

qaaf feh’ ghayn ‘ayn thaa Taa’ daad

ي و ه ن م ل ك

yaa’ waaw haa nuun miim laam kaaf

in Arabic
Arabic
script of five languages

WORLDWIDE USE OF THE ARABIC SCRIPT

Countries where the Arabic
Arabic
script:

→ is the only official script

→ is the only official script, but other scripts are recognized for national or regional languages

→ is official alongside other scripts

→ is official at a sub-national level (China, India) or is a recognized alternative script (Malaysia)

The Arabic
Arabic
script has been adapted for use in a wide variety of languages besides Arabic, including Persian , Malay and Urdu
Urdu
, which are not Semitic . Such adaptations may feature altered or new characters to represent phonemes that do not appear in Arabic phonology . For example, the Arabic language
Arabic language
lacks a voiceless bilabial plosive (the sound), so many languages add their own letter to represent in the script, though the specific letter used varies from language to language. These modifications tend to fall into groups: all the Indian and Turkic languages
Turkic languages
written in the Arabic script tend to use the Persian modified letters , whereas the languages of Indonesia
Indonesia
tend to imitate those of Jawi . The modified version of the Arabic
Arabic
script originally devised for use with Persian is known as the Perso- Arabic
Arabic
script by scholars.

In the cases of Bosnian , Kurdish , Kashmiri , and Uyghur writing systems , vowels are mandatory. The Arabic
Arabic
script can therefore be used in both abugida and abjad , although it is often strongly, erroneously connected to the latter.

Use of the Arabic
Arabic
script in West African languages, especially in the Sahel
Sahel
, developed with the spread of Islam
Islam
. To a certain degree the style and usage tends to follow those of the Maghreb
Maghreb
(for instance the position of the dots in the letters fāʼ and qāf ). Additional diacritics have come into use to facilitate writing of sounds not represented in the Arabic
Arabic
language. The term ʻAjamī , which comes from the Arabic
Arabic
root for "foreign," has been applied to Arabic-based orthographies of African languages.

LANGUAGES CURRENTLY WRITTEN WITH THE ARABIC ALPHABET

Today Afghanistan, Iran, India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and China are the main non- Arabic
Arabic
speaking states using the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
to write one or more official national languages, including Azerbaijani , Baluchi , Brahui , Persian , Pashto , Central Kurdish , Urdu
Urdu
, Sindhi , Kashmiri , Punjabi and Uyghur .

An Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
is currently used for the following languages:

Middle East And Central Asia

CALLIGRAPHY

* Arabic
Arabic
* Chinese * Georgian * Indian * Islamic * Japanese * Korean * Mongolian * Persian * Tibetan * Western

* v * t * e

See also: Perso- Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet

* Arabic
Arabic
language * Garshuni (or Karshuni) originated in the 7th century, when Arabic was becoming the dominant spoken language in the Fertile Crescent, but Arabic
Arabic
script was not yet fully developed or widely read, and so the Syriac alphabet was used. There is evidence that writing Arabic
Arabic
in this other set of letters (known as Garshuni) influenced the style of modern Arabic
Arabic
script. After this initial period, Garshuni writing has continued to the present day among some Syriac Christian communities in the Arabic-speaking regions of the Levant
Levant
and Mesopotamia . * Kazakh in China, Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Kurdish in Northern Iraq
Iraq
and Northwest Iran
Iran
. (In Turkey
Turkey
and Syria , the Latin script
Latin script
is used for Kurdish) * Kyrgyz by its 150,000 speakers in the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwestern China , Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Turkmen in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iran * Uzbek in Afghanistan * Somali in Somalia, and a minority in Kenya, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Dijbouti * Official Persian in Iran
Iran
and its dialects, like Dari in Afghanistan * Baluchi in Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Oman An academy for the protection of the Baluchi Language was established in Iran
Iran
in 2009

* Southwestern Iranian languages as Lori dialects and Bakhtiari language * Pashto in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan * Uyghur changed to Latin script
Latin script
in 1969 and back to a simplified, fully voweled, Arabic
Arabic
script in 1983

* Judeo- Arabic
Arabic
languages

* Judeo-Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
* Karaim language

* Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani language
in Iran * Talysh language in Iran

East Asia

* The Chinese language
Chinese language
is written by some Hui in the Arabic-derived Xiao\'erjing alphabet (see also Sini (script)
Sini (script)
) * The Turkic Salar language is written by some Salar in the Arabic alphabet * Uyghur alphabet

South Asia

* Official language Urdu
Urdu
and regional languages including

* Balochi in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iran
Iran
* Dari in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Kashmiri in India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
(Also written in Devanagari
Devanagari
in India) * Pashto in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan * Khowar in Northern Pakistan, which also uses the Latin script * Punjabi (where the script is known as Shahmukhi ) in Pakistan, Punjabi is written with the Brahmic Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
script in India * Saraiki is written with a modified Arabic
Arabic
script that has 45 letters * Sindhi in Arabic
Arabic
script; British commissioner in Sindh on August 29, 1857 ordered to change Arabic
Arabic
script, Sindhi is often written with the Devanagari
Devanagari
script in India * Aer language * Bhadrawahi language * Ladakhi language although it is more commonly written using the Tibetan script * Balti (a Sino-Tibetan language), which is sometimes, albeit more rarely written in the Tibetan script * Brahui language of Brahui people of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Burushaski or Burusho language, a language isolate in Pakistan
Pakistan

* Urdu
Urdu
(and historically several other Hindustani languages ). Urdu is one of several official languages in the states of Jammu and Kashmir , Delhi
Delhi
, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
, Bihar
Bihar
, and Telangana
Telangana
; Kashmiri also uses Devanagari
Devanagari
script , and more rarely the Sharada script

* Dogri language
Dogri language
(डोगरी or ڈوگرى) spoken by about five million people in India
India
and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
and in Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, although Dogri is more commonly written in Devanagari

* The Arwi language (a mixture of Arabic
Arabic
and Tamil) uses the Arabic script together with the addition of 13 letters. It is mainly used in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
for religious purposes. Arwi language is the language of Tamil Muslims. * Malayalam
Malayalam
language represented by Arabic
Arabic
script variant is known as Arabi Malayalam
Malayalam
. The script has particular letters to represent the peculiar sounds of Malayalam. This script is mainly used in madrasas of the South Indian state of Kerala
Kerala
and of Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
to teach Malayalam. In everyday life, Malayalam
Malayalam
is written with the Malayalam
Malayalam
script * Chittagonian language , spoken by the people of Chittagong, in Bangladesh, although it is far more common to write this language in the Bengali script * Rohingya language (Ruáingga) is a language spoken by the Rohingya people of Rakhine State, formerly known as Arakan (Rakhine), Burma (Myanmar). It is similar to Chittagonian language in neighboring Bangladesh and sometimes written using the Roman script, or an Arabic-derived script known as Hanifi .

Southeast Asia

* Malay in the Arabic
Arabic
script known as Jawi . In some cases it can be seen in the signboards of shops or market stalls. Particularly in Brunei, Jawi is used in terms of writing or reading for Islamic religious educational programs in primary school, secondary school, college, or even higher educational institutes such as universities. In addition, some television programming uses Jawi, such as announcements, advertisements, news, social programs, or Islamic programs.

* co-official in Brunei
Brunei
* Malaysia
Malaysia
but co-official in Kelantan , an Islamic state in Malaysia * Indonesia
Indonesia
, Jawi script is co-used with Latin in provinces of Riau and Riau Islands . The Javanese and Sundanese also use another Arabic variant, the Pegon in Islamic writings and pesantren community. * Southern Thailand * Singapore
Singapore
* Predominantly Muslim areas of the Philippines
Philippines
(especially Tausug language ) * Ida\'an language (also Idahan) a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Ida'an people of Sabah
Sabah
, Malaysia
Malaysia

* Cham language in Cambodia

Africa

* North Africa
North Africa

* Arabic
Arabic
language * Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
uses a modified Arabic
Arabic
script, with additional letters, in order to support /g/ (ڨ/ڭ), /v/ (ڥ) and /p/ (پ) along with the older /f/ (ڢ) and /q/ (ڧ). * Berber languages have often been written in an adaptation of the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
. The use of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet, as well as the competing Latin and Tifinagh
Tifinagh
scripts, has political connotations. * Tuareg language (also Tamasheq) * Coptic language
Coptic language
of Egyptian Coptics as Coptic text written in Arabic
Arabic
letters

* Northeast Africa

* Bedawi or Beja , mainly in northeastern Sudan
Sudan
* Wadaad writing , used in Somalia
Somalia

* Nubian languages

* Dongolawi language or Andaandi language of Nubia, in the Nile Vale of northern Sudan * Nobiin language , the largest Nubian language (previously known by the geographic terms Mahas and Fadicca/Fiadicca) is not yet standardized, being written variously, in both Latinized and Arabic scripts; also, recently there have been efforts to revive the Old Nubian alphabet.

* Fur language of Darfur, Sudan

* Southeast Africa

* Comorian , in the Comoros
Comoros
, currently side by side with the Latin alphabet (neither is official) * Swahili , was originally written in Arabic
Arabic
alphabet, Swahili orthography is now based on the Latin alphabet that was introduced by Christian missionaries and colonial administrators.

* West Africa
West Africa

* Zarma language of the Songhay family . It is the language of the southwestern lobe of the West African nation of Niger, and it is the second leading language of Niger, after Hausa, which is spoken in south central Niger. * Tadaksahak is a Songhay language spoken by the pastoralist Idaksahak of the Ménaka area of Mali
Mali
. * Hausa language
Hausa language
uses an adaptation of the Arabic
Arabic
script known as Ajami , for many purposes, especially religious, but including newspapers, mass mobilization posters, and public information * Dyula language is a Mandé language spoken in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire and Mali. * Jola-Fonyi language of the Casamance region of Senegal
Senegal
* Balanta language a Bak language of west Africa spoken by the Balanta people and Balanta-Ganja dialect in Senegal * Mandinka , widely but unofficially (known as Ajami), (another non- Latin script
Latin script
used is the N\'Ko script ) * Fula , especially the Pular of Guinea (known as Ajami) * Wolof (at zaouia schools), known as Wolofal .

* Arabic
Arabic
script outside Africa

* In writings of African American slaves

* Writings of by Omar Ibn Said (1770–1864) of Sengal * The Bilali Document also known as Bilali Muhammad Document is a handwritten, Arabic
Arabic
manuscript on West African Islamic law. It was written by Bilali Mohammet in the 19th century. The document is currently housed in the library at the University of Georgia. * Letter written by Ayuba Suleiman Diallo (1701–1773) * Arabic
Arabic
Text From 1768 * Letter written by Abdulrahman Ibrahim Ibn Sori (1762–1829)

LANGUAGES FORMERLY WRITTEN WITH THE ARABIC ALPHABET

Speakers of languages that were previously unwritten used Arabic script as a basis to design writing systems for their mother languages. This choice could be influenced by Arabic
Arabic
being their second language, the language of scripture of their faith, or the only written language they came in contact with. Additionally, since most education was once religious, choice of script was determined by the writer's religion; which meant that Muslims would use Arabic
Arabic
script to write whatever language they spoke. This led to Arabic
Arabic
script being the most widely used script during the Middle Ages.

In the 20th century, the Arabic
Arabic
script was generally replaced by the Latin alphabet in the Balkans
Balkans
, parts of Sub-Saharan Africa , and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, while in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, after a brief period of Latinisation , use of Cyrillic was mandated. Turkey
Turkey
changed to the Latin alphabet in 1928 as part of an internal Westernizing revolution. After the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, many of the Turkic languages of the ex- USSR
USSR
attempted to follow Turkey's lead and convert to a Turkish-style Latin alphabet. However, renewed use of the Arabic alphabet has occurred to a limited extent in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
, whose language's close resemblance to Persian allows direct use of publications from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iran.

Most languages of the Iranian languages
Iranian languages
family continue to use Arabic script, as well as the Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
of Pakistan
Pakistan
and of Muslim populations in India
India
, but the Bengali language
Bengali language
of Bangladesh is written in the Bengali alphabet .

Africa

* Afrikaans (as it was first written among the "Cape Malays ", see Arabic
Arabic
Afrikaans ); * Berber in North Africa, particularly Shilha in Morocco
Morocco
(still being considered, along with Tifinagh
Tifinagh
and Latin, for Central Atlas Tamazight ); * French by the Arabs
Arabs
and Berbers in Algeria and other parts of North Africa
North Africa
during the French colonial period. * Harari , by the Harari people of the Harari Region in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
. Now uses the Geʻez and Latin alphabets . * For the West African languages—Hausa , Fula , Mandinka , Wolof and some more—the Latin alphabet has officially replaced Arabic transcriptions for use in literacy and education; * Malagasy in Madagascar
Madagascar
(script known as Sorabe ); * Nubian ; * Somali (see wadaad Arabic
Arabic
) has mostly used the Latin alphabet since 1972; * Songhay in West Africa, particularly in Timbuktu
Timbuktu
; * Swahili (has used the Latin alphabet since the 19th century); * Yoruba in West Africa
West Africa
(this was probably limited, but still notable)

Europe

* Albanian called Elifbaja shqip * Aljamiado
Aljamiado
(Mozarabic , Berber , Aragonese , Portuguese , Ladino , and Spanish , during and residually after the Muslim rule in the Iberian peninsula * Belarusian (among ethnic Tatars
Tatars
; see Belarusian Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
) * Bosnian (only for literary purposes; currently written in the Latin alphabet ; Text example: مۉلٖىم ۉ سه ته‌بٖى بۉژه‬ = Molimo se tebi, Bože (We pray to you, O God); see Arebica
Arebica
) * Crimean Tatar * Greek in certain areas in Greece
Greece
and Anatolia
Anatolia
. In particular, Cappadocian Greek
Cappadocian Greek
written in Perso- Arabic
Arabic
* Polish (among ethnic Lipka Tatars
Tatars
)

Central Asia
Central Asia
And Caucasus

* Adyghe language also known as West Circassian, is an official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation. It used Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
before 1927 * Avar as well as other languages of Daghestan : Nogai , Kumyk , Lezgian , Lak , Dargwa * Azeri in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(now written in the Latin alphabet and Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
) * Bashkir (officially for some years from the October Revolution of 1917 until 1928, changed to Latin, now uses the Cyrillic script) * Chaghatay across Central Asia
Central Asia
; * Chechen (sporadically from the adoption of Islam; officially from 1917 until 1928) * Circassian and some other members of the Abkhaz–Adyghe family in the western Caucasus
Caucasus
and sporadically – in the countries of Middle East, like Syria * Ingush * Karachay-Balkar in the central Caucasus; * Karakalpak * Kazakh in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(until the 1930s, changed to Latin, currently using Cyrillic, phasing in Latin) * Kyrgyz in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(until the 1930s, changed to Latin, now uses the Cyrillic script) * Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
and Dungan , among the Hui people (script known as Xiao\'erjing ) * Ottoman Turkish * Tat in South-Eastern Caucasus * Tatar before 1928 (changed to Latin Yañalif
Yañalif
), reformed in the 1880s ( İske imlâ
İske imlâ
), 1918 ( Yaña imlâ
Yaña imlâ
– with the omission of some letters) * Turkmen in Turkmenistan (changed to Latin in 1929, then to the Cyrillic script, then back to Latin in 1991) * Uzbek in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(changed to Latin, then to the Cyrillic script, then back to Latin in 1991) * Some Northeast Caucasian languages
Northeast Caucasian languages
of the Muslim peoples of the USSR
USSR
between 1918 and 1928 (many also earlier), including Chechen , Lak etc. After 1928 their script became Latin, then later Cyrillic.

Southeast Asia

* Acehnese in Sumatra
Sumatra
, Indonesia
Indonesia
* Banjarese in Kalimantan
Kalimantan
, Indonesia * Maguindanaon in the Philippines
Philippines
* Malay in Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
and Indonesia
Indonesia
. Although Malay speakers in Brunei
Brunei
and Southern Thailand still use the script on a daily basis. * Minangkabau in Sumatra, Indonesia * Pegon alphabet of Javanese , Madurese and Sundanese in Indonesia, used only in Islamic schools and institutions. * Tausug in the Philippines
Philippines
* Maranao in the Philippines
Philippines

Middle East

* Hebrew was written in Arabic
Arabic
letters in a number of places in the past. * Northern Kurdish in Turkey
Turkey
and Syria
Syria
was written in Arabic
Arabic
script until 1932, when a modified Kurdish Latin alphabet was introduced by Jaladat Ali Badirkhan in Syria * Turkish in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was written in Arabic
Arabic
script until Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
declared the change to Latin script
Latin script
in 1928. This form of Turkish is now known as Ottoman Turkish and is held by many to be a different language, due to its much higher percentage of Persian and Arabic
Arabic
loanwords ( Ottoman Turkish alphabet )

SPECIAL LETTERS

Most Common Non-Classical Arabic
Arabic
Consonant Phonemes/Graphemes LANGUAGE FAMILY AUSTRON. DRAVID TURKIC INDIC (INDO-EUROPEAN) IRANIAN (INDO-EUROPEAN)

ARABIC (SEMITIC)

LANGUAGE/SCRIPT JAWI ARWI UYGHUR SINDHI PUNJABI URDU PERSIAN BALOCHI KURDISH PASHTO MOROCCAN TUNISIAN ALGERIAN HEJAZI NAJDI EGYPTIAN PALESTINIAN IRAQI GULF

/p / ڤ
ڤ
ڣ پ پ ‬ / ب
ب

/G / ݢ ‬ ࢴ ‬ گ ګ
ګ
ڭ ‬ / گ ڨ ‬ / ڧـ ـڧـ ـ ٯ ‬ / ق ق ج
ج
چ ‬ / ج
ج
گ ‬ / ك ق / گ

/T͡ʃ / چ ‬ Ø چ ڜ ‬ تش‬ چ

/V / ۏ و ۋ و ‬ Ø ڤ
ڤ
‬ Ø ڥ ‬ / ڢ ‬ / ف ڤ
ڤ
‬ / ف

/ʒ / Ø ژ ‬ Ø ژ ‬ ITS USAGE DEPENDS ON THE DIALECT

/ŋ / ڠ ڭ ڱ ں ن ‬ Ø Ø

/ɳ / Ø ڹ ‬ Ø ڻ ‬ Ø ڼ ‬ Ø

/ɲ / ڽ ‬ ݧ ‬ Ø Ø Ø

* ٻ ‬ – B̤ē, USED TO REPRESENT A VOICED BILABIAL IMPLOSIVE /ɓ / IN HAUSA , SINDHI AND SARAIKI . * پ ‬ – PE, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /P / IN PERSIAN , URDU , PASHTO , KHOWAR , SINDHI , KURDISH ; IT IS NOT USED IN ARABIC AND IT IS NORMALIZED AS /B/; E.G., PEPSI > BIBSI. * ݐ ‬ – USED TO REPRESENT THE EQUIVALENT OF THE LATIN LETTER Ƴ (PALATALIZED GLOTTAL STOP /ʔʲ/) IN SOME AFRICAN LANGUAGES SUCH AS FULFULDE . * ڀ ‬ – REPRESENTS AN ASPIRATED VOICED BILABIAL PLOSIVE /Bʱ / IN SINDHI . * ٺ ‬ – ṬHē, REPRESENTS THE ASPIRATED VOICELESS RETROFLEX PLOSIVE /ʈʰ / IN SINDHI . * ټ ‬ – ṭē, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /ʈ / IN PASHTO . * ٽ ‬ - ṬE, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME (A VOICELESS RETROFLEX PLOSIVE /ʈ /) IN SINDHI * ﭦ ‬ – ṬE, USED TO REPRESENT Ṭ (A VOICELESS RETROFLEX PLOSIVE /ʈ /) IN URDU . * ٿ‬ – TEHEH, USED IN SINDHI AND RAJASTHANI (WHEN WRITTEN IN SINDHI ALPHABET); USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /T͡ɕʰ / (PINYIN Q) IN CHINESE XIAO\\'ERJING . * ڄ ‬ – REPRESENTS THE "ц" VOICELESS DENTAL AFFRICATE /T͡S / PHONEME IN BOSNIAN . * ڃ ‬ – REPRESENTS THE "ћ" VOICELESS ALVEOLO-PALATAL AFFRICATE /T͡ɕ / PHONEME IN BOSNIAN . * چ ‬ – CHE, USED TO REPRESENT /T͡ʃ / ("CH"). IT IS USED IN PERSIAN , URDU , AND KURDISH . /ʒ / IN EGYPT. * څ ‬ – CE, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /T͡S / IN PASHTO . * ݗ ‬ – REPRESENTS THE "ђ" VOICED ALVEOLO-PALATAL AFFRICATE /D͡ʑ / PHONEME IN BOSNIAN . * ځ ‬ – źIM, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /D͡Z / IN PASHTO . * ݙ ‬ – USED IN SARAIKI TO REPRESENT A VOICED ALVEOLAR IMPLOSIVE /ɗ̢/. * ڊ ‬ – USED IN SARAIKI TO REPRESENT A VOICED RETROFLEX IMPLOSIVE /ᶑ /. * ڈ ‬ – /ɖ / IN URDU . * ڌ ‬ - DHAL USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /D̪ʱ / IN SINDHI * ډ ‬ – ḌAL, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /ɖ / IN PASHTO . * ڑ ‬ – Aṛ, REPRESENTS A RETROFLEX FLAP /ɽ / IN URDU . * ړ ‬ – "ṛE" REPRESENTS A RETROFLEX LATERAL FLAP IN PASHTO . * ݫ ‬ – USED IN ORMURI TO REPRESENT A VOICED ALVEOLO-PALATAL FRICATIVE /ʑ /, AS WELL AS IN TORWALI . * ژ ‬ – ŽE/ZHE, USED TO REPRESENT THE VOICED POSTALVEOLAR FRICATIVE /ʒ / IN, PERSIAN , PASHTO , KURDISH , URDU , PUNJABI AND UYGHUR . * ږ ‬ – ǵE / ẓ̌E, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /ʐ / /ɡ / /ʝ / IN PASHTO . * ڕ ‬ – USED IN KURDISH TO REPRESENT RR /R / IN SORANî DIALECT . * ݭ ‬ – USED IN KALAMI TO REPRESENT A VOICELESS RETROFLEX FRICATIVE /ʂ /, AND IN ORMURI TO REPRESENT A VOICELESS ALVEOLO-PALATAL FRICATIVE /ɕ /. * ݜ ‬ – USED IN SHINA TO REPRESENT A VOICELESS RETROFLEX FRICATIVE /ʂ /. * ښ ‬ – X̌īN /ṣ̌īN, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /X / /ʂ / /ç / IN PASHTO . * ڜ ‬ — USED TO REPRESENT SPANISH WORDS WITH /T͡ʃ / IN MOROCCO. * ڨ ‬ – GA, USED TO REPRESENT THE VOICED VELAR PLOSIVE /ɡ / IN ALGERIAN AND TUNISIAN . * گ ‬ – GAF, REPRESENTS A VOICED VELAR PLOSIVE /ɡ / IN PERSIAN , URDU , KYRGYZ , KAZAKH , KURDISH , UYGHUR , AND OTTOMAN TURKISH . * ګ
ګ
‬ – GAF, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /ɡ / IN PASHTO . * ݢ ‬ OR ڬ ‬ – GAF, REPRESENTS A VOICED VELAR PLOSIVE /ɡ / IN THE JAWI SCRIPT OF MALAY . * ڭ ‬ – NG, USED TO REPRESENT THE /ŋ / PHONE IN OTTOMAN TURKISH , KAZAKH , KYRGYZ , AND UYGHUR , AND TO REPRESENT THE /ɡ / IN MOROCCO AND IN MANY DIALECTS OF ALGERIAN . * أي‬ – EE, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /Eː / IN SOMALI . * ﺉ‬ – E, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /E / IN SOMALI . * ىٓ‬ – II, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /Iː / IN SOMALI AND SARAIKI . * ؤ‬ – O, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /O / IN SOMALI . * ې ‬ – PASTA YE, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /E / IN PASHTO AND UYGHUR . * ی ‬ – NāRīNA YE, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME AND PHONEME /J / IN PASHTO . * ۍ ‬ – X̌əźīNA YE YE, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME IN PASHTO . * ئ ‬ – FāILIYAYE, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME AND /J / IN PASHTO AND SARAIKI . * أو‬ – OO, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /Oː / IN SOMALI . * ﻭٓ‬ – UU, USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /Uː / IN SOMALI . * ڳ ‬ – REPRESENTS A VOICED VELAR IMPLOSIVE /ɠ/ IN SINDHI AND SARAIKI * ڱ ‬ – REPRESENTS THE VELAR NASAL /ŋ/ PHONEME IN SINDHI . * ﮎ ‬ – KHē, REPRESENTS /Kʰ / IN SINDHI . * ݣ – USED TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /ŋ / (PINYIN NG) IN CHINESE . * ڼ ‬ – REPRESENTS THE RETROFLEX NASAL /ɳ/ PHONEME IN PASHTO . * ڻ ‬ – REPRESENTS THE RETROFLEX NASAL /ɳ/ PHONEME IN SINDHI . * ݨ ‬ – USED IN SARAIKI TO REPRESENT /ɲ /. * ڽ ‬ – NYA /ɲ / IN THE JAWI SCRIPT . * ڠ ‬ – NGA /ŋ / IN THE JAWI SCRIPT AND GAIN /G / IN KHOWAR ALPHABET . * ڵ ‬ – USED IN KURDISH TO REPRESENT LL /ɫ / IN SORANî DIALECT . * ݪ ‬ – USED IN MARWARI TO REPRESENT A RETROFLEX LATERAL FLAP /ɺ̢ /, AND IN KALAMI TO REPRESENT A VOICELESS LATERAL FRICATIVE /ɬ /. * ڥ ‬ – VI, USED IN ALGERIAN AND TUNISIAN WHEN WRITTEN IN ARABIC SCRIPT TO REPRESENT THE SOUND /V /. * ڤ
ڤ
‬ – VE, USED IN BY SOME ARABIC SPEAKERS TO REPRESENT THE PHONEME /V/ IN LOANWORDS, AND IN THE KURDISH LANGUAGE WHEN WRITTEN IN ARABIC SCRIPT TO REPRESENT THE SOUND /V /. ALSO USED AS PA /P / IN THE JAWI SCRIPT . * ۏ ‬ – VA IN THE JAWI SCRIPT . * ۋ ‬ – REPRESENTS A VOICED LABIODENTAL FRICATIVE /V / IN KYRGYZ , UYGHUR, AND OLD TATAR; AND /W, ʊW, ʉW/ IN KAZAKH ; ALSO FORMERLY USED IN NOGAI . * ۆ
ۆ
‬ – REPRESENTS "O" /O / IN KURDISH , AND IN UYGHUR IT REPRESENTS THE SOUND SIMILAR TO THE FRENCH EU ANDœU /ø / SOUND. IT REPRESENTS THE "у" CLOSE BACK ROUNDED VOWEL /U / PHONEME IN BOSNIAN . * ێ ‬ – REPRESENTS Ê OR É /E / IN KURDISH . * ھ ‬ – Dochashmi he (two-eyed hāʼ), used in combination to represent aspirated consonants /ʰ / in Urdu
Urdu
. * ے ‬ – Baṛī ye ('big yāʼ'), represents "ai" or "e" in Urdu
Urdu
/ɛː /, /eː / and Punjabi . * ڞ – used to represent the phoneme /tsʰ / (pinyin c) in Chinese . * ط – used to represent the phoneme /t͡s / (pinyin z) in Chinese . * ۉ ‬ – represents the "o" open-mid back rounded vowel /ɔ / phoneme in Bosnian . * ݩ
ݩ
‬ – represents the "њ" palatal nasal /ɲ / phoneme in Bosnian . * ڵ ‬ – represents the "љ" palatal lateral approximant /ʎ / phoneme in Bosnian . * اٖى ‬ – represents the "и" close front unrounded vowel /i / phoneme in Bosnian .

Writing systems ALPHABET #CHARS LANGUAGES REGION DERIVED FROM COMMENT

Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
28 Arabic
Arabic
North Africa, West Asia Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
, Syriac alphabet , Nabataean alphabet

Ajami script 33 Hausa language
Hausa language
, Swahili West Africa Arabic Abjad

Arebica
Arebica
30 Bosnian Southeastern Europe Perso-Arabic latest stage with full vowel marking

Arwi alphabet 41 Tamil Southern India, Sri Lanka Perso-Arabic

Belarusian Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
32 Belarusian Eastern Europe Perso-Arabic 15th/16th century

Berber Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
(s)

various Berber languages North Africa Arabic

Chagatai alphabet (s) 32 Chagatai Central Asia Perso-Arabic

Galal alphabet 32 Somali Horn of Africa Arabic

Jawi script 40 Malay and others Malaysia Perso-Arabic

Kashmiri alphabet 44 Kashmiri South Asia Perso-Arabic

Kazakh Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
35 Kazakh Central Asia, China Perso-Arabic/Chagatai since 11th century, now official only in China

Khowar alphabet 60 Khowar South Asia Perso-Arabic

Kyrgyz Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
33 Kyrgyz

Perso-Arabic now official only in China

Nasta\'liq script

Urdu
Urdu
and others

Perso-Arabic

Pashto alphabet
Pashto alphabet
45 Pashto Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
Perso-Arabic

Pegon alphabet 35 Javanese , Sundanese Indonesia Perso-Arabic

Persian alphabet 32 Persian Iran Arabic

Saraiki alphabet 45 Saraiki Pakistan Perso-Arabic

Shahmukhi script 37 Punjabi Pakistan Perso-Arabic

Sindhi alphabet 64 Sindhi Pakistan Perso-Arabic

Sorabe alphabet 33 Malagasy Madagascar Arabic

Soranî alphabet 33 Central Kurdish Perso-Arabic

Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugida

Swahili

İske imlâ
İske imlâ
alphabet 35 Tatar

Perso-Arabic/Chagatai before 1920

Ottoman Turkish alphabet 32 Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
Perso-Arabic Official until 1928

Urdu
Urdu
alphabet 58 Urdu
Urdu
South Asia Perso-Arabic

Uyghur Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
32 Uyghur China, Central Asia Perso-Arabic/Chagatai Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugida

Wolofal script 28 Wolof West Africa Arabic

Xiao\'erjing 36 Sinitic languages China, Central Asia Perso-Arabic

Yaña imlâ
Yaña imlâ
alphabet 29 Tatar

Perso-Arabic/Chagatai 1920–1927

UNICODE

Main article: Arabic
Arabic
characters in Unicode
Unicode

As of Unicode
Unicode
10.0, the following ranges encode Arabic
Arabic
characters:

* Arabic
Arabic
(0600–06FF) * Arabic
Arabic
Supplement (0750–077F) * Arabic
Arabic
Extended-A (08A0–08FF) * Arabic
Arabic
Presentation Forms-A (FB50–FDFF) * Arabic
Arabic
Presentation Forms-B (FE70–FEFF) * Arabic
Arabic
Mathematical Alphabetic Symbols (1EE00–1EEFF) * Rumi Numeral Symbols (10E60–10E7F)

SEE ALSO

* History of the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
* Eastern Arabic
Arabic
numerals (digit shapes commonly used with Arabic script) * Arabic
Arabic
( Unicode
Unicode
block) * Transliteration of Arabic
Arabic
* Xiao\'erjing

REFERENCES

* ^ Mahinnaz Mirdehghan. 2010. Persian, Urdu, and Pashto: A comparative orthographic analysis. Writing Systems Research Vol. 2, No. 1, 9–23. * ^ "Exposición Virtual. Biblioteca Nacional de España". Bne.es. Retrieved 2012-04-06. * ^ " Arabic
Arabic
Alphabet". Encyclopædia Britannica online. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-16. * ^ "Sayad Zahoor Shah Hashmii". baask.com. * ^ Language Protection Academy * ^ "Dictionary of the Bakhtiari dialect of Chahar-lang". google.com.eg. * ^ Bakhtiari Language Video * ^ "Ethnologue". Ethnologue. * ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
should mind all of its languages!". tribune.com.pk. * ^ "Ethnologue". Ethnologue. * ^ "Ethnologue". Ethnologue. * ^ Khadim. "Balti to English". khadimskardu1.blogspot.com. * ^ "The Bible in Brahui". Worldscriptures.org. Retrieved August 5, 2013. * ^ "HUNZA DEVELOPMENT FORUM". hisamullahbeg.blogspot.com. * ^ "ScriptSource". scriptsource.org. * ^ "Rohingya Language Book A-Z". Scribd. * ^ "written with Arabic
Arabic
script". scriptsource.org. * ^ urangCam. "Bông Sứ". naipaleikaohkabuak.blogspot.com. * ^ Zribi, I., Boujelbane, R., Masmoudi, A., Ellouze, M., Belguith, L., & Habash, N. (2014). A Conventional Orthography for Tunisian Arabic. In Proceedings of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC), Reykjavík, Iceland. * ^ Brustad, K. (2000). The syntax of spoken Arabic: A comparative study of Moroccan, Egyptian, Syrian, and Kuwaiti dialects. Georgetown University Press. * ^ "The Coptic Studies\' Corner". stshenouda.com. * ^ "--The Cradle of Nubian Civilisation--". thenubian.net. * ^ Nubian language lessons * ^ "ScriptSource". scriptsource.org. * ^ "ScriptSource". scriptsource.org. * ^ "Lost Language — Bostonia Summer 2009". bu.edu. * ^ "ScriptSource". scriptsource.org. * ^ "ScriptSource". scriptsource.org. * ^ Ibn Sayyid manuscript * ^ Muhammad Arabic
Arabic
letter * ^ "Charno Letter". Muslims In America. Retrieved August 5, 2013. * ^ Alphabet
Alphabet
Transitions – The Latin Script: A New Chronology – Symbol
Symbol
of a New Azerbaijan, by Tamam Bayatly * ^ Tajik Language: Farsi or Not Farsi? Archived June 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. by Sukhail Siddikzoda, reporter, Tajikistan. * ^ Archived December 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ p. 20, Samuel Noel Kramer . 1986. In the World of Sumer: An Autobiography. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. * ^ J. Blau. 2000. Hebrew written in Arabic
Arabic
characters: An instance of radical change in tradition. (In Hebrew, with English summary). In Heritage and Innovation in Judaeo- Arabic
Arabic
Culture: Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of the Society For Judaeo- Arabic
Arabic
Studies, p. 27-31. Ramat Gan.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Media related to Arabic
Arabic
script at Wikimedia Commons

* Why the right side of your brain doesn\'t like Arabic * Arabic
Arabic
fonts by SIL’s Non-Roman Script Initiative

* v * t * e

ISO 15924 script codes

* Adlm * Afak * Aghb * Ahom * Arab * Aran * Armi * Armn * Avst * Bali * Bamu * Bass * Batk * Beng * Bhks * Blis * Bopo * Brah * Brai * Bugi * Buhd * Cakm * Cans * Cari * Cham * Cher * Cirt * Copt * Cpmn * Cprt * Cyrl * Cyrs * Deva * Dogr * Dsrt * Dupl * Egyd * Egyh * Egyp * Elba * Ethi * Geok * Geor * Glag * Gong * Gonm * Goth * Gran * Grek * Gujr * Guru * Hanb * Hang * Hani * Hano * Hans * Hant * Hatr * Hebr * Hira * Hluw

.