ARABIC NUMERALS, also called HINDU–ARABIC NUMERALS are the ten digits : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system , the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today. In this numeral system , a sequence of digits such as "975" is read as a single number, using the position of the digit in the sequence to interpret its value. The symbol for zero is the key to the effectiveness of the system, which was developed by ancient mathematicians in the Indian subcontinent around AD 500. The system was adopted by
The term _
Although the phrase "
CONTENTS * 1 History * 1.1 Origins * 1.1.1 Popular myths * 1.2 Adoption in Europe * 1.3 Adoption in Russia * 1.4 Adoption in China * 2 Evolution of symbols * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORY ORIGINS Main article: History of the
The decimal
The glyphs most commonly used in conjunction with the Latin script
since early modern times are 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . The first
universally accepted inscription containing the use of the 0 glyph in
India is first recorded in the 9th century, in an inscription at
The numeral system came to be known to both the Persian mathematician
Al-Khwarizmi , whose book _On the Calculation with
In the 10th century, Middle-Eastern mathematicians extended the
decimal numeral system to include fractions , as recorded in a
treatise by
A distinctive West
Popular Myths Some popular myths have argued that the original forms of these symbols indicated their numeric value through the number of angles they contained, but no evidence exists of any such origin. ADOPTION IN EUROPE Adoption of the
In 825 Al-Khwārizmī wrote a treatise in Arabic, _On the Calculation
with
The first mentions of the numerals in the West are found in the
_
From the 980s, Gerbert of
Leonardo
When my father, who had been appointed by his country as public notary in the customs at Bugia acting for the Pisan merchants going there, was in charge, he summoned me to him while I was still a child, and having an eye to usefulness and future convenience, desired me to stay there and receive instruction in the school of accounting. There, when I had been introduced to the art of the Indians' nine symbols through remarkable teaching, knowledge of the art very soon pleased me above all else and I came to understand it. The numerals are arranged with their lowest value digit to the right,
with higher value positions added to the left. This arrangement was
adopted identically into the numerals as used in Europe. Languages
written in the Latin alphabet run from left-to-right, unlike languages
written in the
The reason the digits are more commonly known as "
The European acceptance of the numerals was accelerated by the
invention of the printing press , and they became widely known during
the 15th century. Early evidence of their use in Britain includes: an
equal hour horary quadrant from 1396, in England, a 1445 inscription
on the tower of Heathfield Church,
Today,
ADOPTION IN RUSSIA
ADOPTION IN CHINA Iron plate with an order 6 magic square in Persian/ Arabic
numbers from China, dating to the
EVOLUTION OF SYMBOLS Main article:
The numeral system employed, known as algorism , is positional
decimal notation. Various symbol sets are used to represent numbers in
the Hindu–
* The widespread Western
The evolution of the numerals in early Europe is shown on a table
created by the French scholar
The
BINARY OCTAL DECIMAL HEXADECIMAL GLYPH 0011 0000 060 48 30 0 0011 0001 061 49 31 1 0011 0010 062 50 32 2 0011 0011 063 51 33 3 0011 0100 064 52 34 4 0011 0101 065 53 35 5 0011 0110 066 54 36 6 0011 0111 067 55 37 7 0011 1000 070 56 38 8 0011 1001 071 57 39 9 SEE ALSO *
REFERENCES * ^ Schipp, Bernhard; Krämer, Walter (2008), _Statistical
Inference, Econometric Analysis and Matrix Algebra: Festschrift in
Honour of Götz Trenkler_, Springer , p. 387, ISBN 9783790821208
* ^ Lumpkin, Beatrice; Strong, Dorothy (1995), _Multicultural
science and math connections: middle school projects and activities_,
Walch Publishing, p. 118, ISBN 9780825126598
* ^ _A_ _B_ Bulliet, Richard; Crossley, Pamela; Headrick,, Daniel;
Hirsch, Steven; Johnson, Lyman (2010). _The Earth and Its Peoples: A
Global History, Volume 1_. Cengage Learning. p. 192. ISBN 1439084742 .
Indian mathematicians invented the concept of zero and developed the
"Arabic" numerals and system of place-value notation used in most
parts of the world today
* ^ On the Origin of
* ^ Meuleman, Johan H. (23 August 2002). _Islam in the era of globalization: Muslim attitudes towards modernity and identity_. Psychology Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-7007-1691-3 . Retrieved 3 March 2012. * ^ Peng Yoke Ho (16 October 2000). _Li, Qi and Shu: An Introduction to Science and Civilization in China_. Courier Dover Publications. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-486-41445-4 . Retrieved 3 March 2012. SOURCES * Plofker, Kim (2009), _Mathematics in India_, Princeton University Pres, ISBN 978-0-691-12067-6 FURTHER READING * Ore, Oystein (1988), "Hindu-
EXTERNAL LINKS _
* Development of Hindu |