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The ARABIC language family consists of all of the descendants of Proto-Arabic , including:

* Old Arabic
Old Arabic
, the language of northwestern Arabia in the pre-Islamic period and its varieties:

* Northern Old Arabic
Old Arabic
(including Safaitic and Hismaic) * Old Hejazi

* Classical Arabic , the liturgical language of Islam which emerged in the 7th century AD,

* Neo-Arabic, the descendants of spoken Old Arabic, including:

* Maltese

* Colloquial Arabic

* Western Arabic * Eastern Arabic

* Modern Standard Arabic , the standardized variety of Arabic used since the 19th century and modernized version of the liturgical language of Islam

NOTES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Arabian". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

LITERATURE

* Cantineau, Jean (1955). "La dialectologie arabe", Orbis 4:149–169. * Fischer, Wolfdietrich, & Otto Jastrow (ed) (1980). Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte, Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz. * Kaye, Alan S., & Judith Rosenhouse (1997). "Arabic Dialects and Maltese", The Semitic Languages. Ed. Robert Hetzron. New York: Routledge. Pages 263–311. * Lozachmeur, H., (ed.), (1995). Presence arabe dans le croissant fertile avant l'Hegire (Actes de la table ronde internationale Paris, 13 Novembre 1993) Paris: Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations. ISBN 2-86538-254-0 * Macdonald, M.C.A., (2000). "Reflections on the linguistic map of pre-Islamic Arabia" Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 11(1), 28–79 * Scagliarini, F., (1999). "The Dedanitic inscriptions from Jabal 'Ikma in north-western Hejaz" Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 29, 143–150 ISBN 2-503-50829-4 * Sobelman, H., (ed.) (1962). Arabic Dialect Studies, Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics and the Middle East
Middle East
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* t * e

Semitic languages
Semitic languages

EAST SEMITIC LANGUAGES

* Akkadian
Akkadian
* Eblaite

WEST SEMITIC AND CENTRAL SEMITIC LANGUAGES

NORTHWEST

CANAANITE

HEBREW

* Biblical * Mishnaic * Medieval * Mizrahi * Yemenite * Sephardi * Ashkenazi * Samaritan * Modern

PHOENICIAN

* Punic

OTHERS

* Ammonite * Moabite * Edomite

ARAMAIC

WESTERN

* Jewish Palestinian * Samaritan * Christian Palestinian * Nabataean * Western Neo-Aramaic

EASTERN

* Biblical * Hatran * Syriac * Jewish Babylonian Aramaic * Chaldean Neo-Aramaic * Assyrian Neo-Aramaic * Senaya * Koy Sanjaq Surat * Hértevin * Turoyo * Mlahsô * Mandaic * Judeo-Aramaic * Syriac Malayalam

OTHERS

* Amorite * Eteocypriot * Ugaritic
Ugaritic

ARABIC

LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard

DIALECTS

MASHRIQI (EASTERN)

ARABIAN PENINSULAR

* Dhofari

* Gulf

* Bahrani * Shihhi

* Hejazi * Najdi * Omani

* Yemeni

* Judeo-Yemeni

BEDOUIN

* Eastern Egyptian and Peninsular Bedawi

OTHERS

* Egyptian

* Sa\'idi Arabic

* Levantine

* Cypriot * Lebanese * Palestinian

* Mesopotamian

* North Mesopotamian * Judeo-Iraqi

* Sudanese

* Central Asian

* Tajiki * Uzbeki

* Shirvani

MAGHREBI (WESTERN)

* Algerian * Saharan * Shuwa * Hassānīya * Andalusian

* Libyan Arabic
Libyan Arabic

* Judeo-Tripolitanian

* Sicilian

* Maltese

* Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic

* Judeo-Moroccan

* Tunisian Arabic

* Judeo-Tunisian

OTHERS

* Old Arabic
Old Arabic
* Nabataean Arabic

SOUTH SEMITIC LANGUAGES

WESTERN SOUTH

OLD SOUTH

* Sabaean * Minaean * Qatabanian * Hadramautic * Awsānian

ETHIOPIAN

NORTH

* Ge\'ez * Tigrinya * Tigre * Dahalik

SOUTH

AMHARIC

* Argobba

HARARI

* Silt\'e (Wolane, Ulbareg, Inneqor) * Zay

OUTER

N-GROUP

* Gafat * Soddo

TT-GROUP

* Mesmes * Muher

* West Gurage

* Mesqan * Ezha * Chaha * Gura * Gumer * Gyeto * Ennemor * Endegen

MODERN SOUTH ARABIAN

* Bathari * Harsusi * Hobyot * Mehri * Shehri * Soqotri

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* LCCN : sh85006306 * BNF : cb11930928b (data)

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