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The Arabic language
Arabic language
family consists of all of the descendants of Proto-Arabic, including:

Old Arabic, the language of northwestern Arabia in the pre-Islamic period and its varieties:

Northern Old Arabic
Old Arabic
(including Safaitic and Hismaic)

Nabataean Arabic

Old Hejazi

Classical Arabic, the liturgical language of Islam which emerged in the 7th century AD, Neo-Arabic, the descendants of spoken Old Arabic, including:

Maltese Colloquial Arabic

Western Arabic Eastern Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic, the standardized variety of Arabic used since the 19th century and modernized version of the liturgical language of Islam

See also[edit]

Arab (other) Arab (etymology)

Notes[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Arabian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 

Literature[edit]

Cantineau, Jean (1955). "La dialectologie arabe", Orbis 4:149–169. Fischer, Wolfdietrich, & Otto Jastrow (ed) (1980). Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte, Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz. Kaye, Alan S., & Judith Rosenhouse (1997). "Arabic Dialects and Maltese", The Semitic Languages. Ed. Robert Hetzron. New York: Routledge. Pages 263–311. Lozachmeur, H., (ed.), (1995). Presence arabe dans le croissant fertile avant l'Hegire (Actes de la table ronde internationale Paris, 13 Novembre 1993) Paris: Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations. ISBN 2-86538-254-0 Macdonald, M.C.A., (2000). "Reflections on the linguistic map of pre-Islamic Arabia" Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 11(1), 28–79 Scagliarini, F., (1999). "The Dedanitic inscriptions from Jabal 'Ikma in north-western Hejaz" Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 29, 143–150 ISBN 2-503-50829-4 Sobelman, H., (ed.) (1962). Arabic Dialect Studies, Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics and the Middle East
Middle East
Institute. Winnett, F.V. & Reed, W.L. (1970). Ancient Records from North Arabia, Toronto: University of Toronto

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Bathari Harsusi Hobyot Mehri Shehri Soqotri

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LCCN: sh85006306 BNF:

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