The Info List - Arabic Alphabet

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v t e

This article contains Arabic
text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

Countries that utilise the Arabic
script:   as the sole official script   as a co-official script.

The Arabic
alphabet (Arabic: الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة‎ al-abjadīyah al-ʻarabīyah, or الحُرُو ف العَرَبِيَّة al-ḥurūf al-ʻarabīyah) or Arabic
abjad is the Arabic script
Arabic script
as it is codified for writing the Arabic
language. It is written from right to left in a cursive style and includes 28 letters. Originally, the alphabet was an abjad, with only consonants, but it is now considered an "impure abjad". As with other abjads, such as the Hebrew alphabet, scribes later devised means of indicating vowel sounds by separate vowel points.


1 Consonants

1.1 Alphabetical order

1.1.1 Abjadī 1.1.2 Hijā’ī

1.2 Letter forms

1.2.1 Table of basic letters 1.2.2 Alif 1.2.3 Modified letters 1.2.4 Ligatures 1.2.5 Gemination 1.2.6 Nunation

2 Vowels

2.1 Short vowels 2.2 Long vowels 2.3 Diphthongs 2.4 Vowel

3 Additional letters

3.1 Regional variations 3.2 Non-native letters to Standard Arabic 3.3 Used in languages other than Arabic

4 Numerals

4.1 Letters as numerals

5 History

5.1 Arabic
printing presses

6 Computers

6.1 Unicode 6.2 Keyboards 6.3 Handwriting recognition

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Consonants[edit] The basic Arabic
alphabet contains 28 letters. Adaptations of the Arabic script
Arabic script
for other languages added and removed some letters, as for Kurdish, Persian, Ottoman Turkish, Sindhi, Urdu, Malay, Pashto, Arwi
and Malayalam
(Arabi Malayalam), all of which have additional letters as shown below. There are no distinct upper and lower case letter forms. Many letters look similar but are distinguished from one another by dots (i‘jām) above or below their central part (rasm). These dots are an integral part of a letter, since they distinguish between letters that represent different sounds. For example, the Arabic letters ب
(b), ت (t), and ث
(th) have the same basic shape, but have one dot below, two dots above, and three dots above; the letter ن (n) also has the same form in initial and medial forms, with one dot above, though it is somewhat different in isolated and final form. Both printed and written Arabic
are cursive, with most of the letters within a word directly connected to the adjacent letters. Alphabetical order[edit] There are two main collating sequences for the Arabic
alphabet: abjad and hija. The original abjadī order (أَبْجَدِي), used for lettering, derives from the order of the Phoenician alphabet, and is therefore similar to the order of other Phoenician-derived alphabets, such as the Hebrew alphabet. In this order, letters are also used as numbers, Abjad
numerals, and possess the same alphanumeric code/cipher as Hebrew gematria and Greek isopsephy. The hijā’ī (هِجَائِي) or alifbā’ī (أَلِفْبَائِي) order, used where lists of names and words are sorted, as in phonebooks, classroom lists, and dictionaries, groups letters by similarity of shape. Abjadī[edit] The abjadī order is not a simple historical continuation of the earlier north Semitic alphabetic order, since it has a position corresponding to the Aramaic letter samekh / semkat ס, yet no letter of the Arabic
alphabet historically derives from that letter. Loss of sameḵ was compensated for by the split of shin ש into two independent Arabic
letters, ش
(shīn) and ﺱ (sīn) which moved up to take the place of sameḵ. The six other letters that do not correspond to any north Semitic letter are placed at the end.

Common abjadī sequence

غ ظ ض ذ خ ث ت ش ر ق ص ف ع س ن م ل ك ي ط ح ز و هـ د ج ب ا

gh ẓ ḍ dh kh th t sh r q ṣ f ‘ s n m l k y ṭ ḥ z w h d j b ā

28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01

This is commonly vocalized as follows:

abjad hawwaz ḥuṭṭī kalaman sa‘faṣ qarashat thakhadh ḍaẓagh.

Another vocalization is:

abujadin hawazin ḥuṭiya kalman sa‘faṣ qurishat thakhudh ḍaẓugh[citation needed]

Maghrebian abjadī sequence (probably older)[1]

ش غ ظ ذ خ ث ت س ر ق ض ف ع ص ن م ل ك ي ط ح ز و هـ د ج ب ا

sh gh ẓ dh kh th t s r q ḍ f ‘ ṣ n m l k y ṭ ḥ z w h d j b ā

28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01

This can be vocalized as:

abujadin hawazin ḥuṭiya kalman ṣa‘faḍ qurisat thakhudh ẓaghush

Hijā’ī[edit] Modern dictionaries and other reference books do not use the abjadī order to sort alphabetically; instead, the newer hijā’ī order is used wherein letters are partially grouped together by similarity of shape. The hijā’ī order is never used as numerals.

Common hijā’ī order

ي و هـ ن م ل ك ق ف غ ع ظ ط ض ص ش س ز ر ذ د خ ح ج ث ت ب ا

y w h n m l k q f gh ‘ ẓ ṭ ḍ ṣ sh s z r dh d kh ḥ j th t b ā

Another kind of hijā’ī order was used widely in the Maghreb
until recently[when?] when it was replaced by the Mashriqi order.[1]

Maghrebian hijā’ī order

ي و هـ ش س ق ف غ ع ض ص ن م ل ك ظ ط ز ر ذ د خ ح ج ث ت ب ا

y w h sh s q f gh ‘ ḍ ṣ n m l k ẓ ṭ z r dh d kh ḥ j th t b ā

Letter forms[edit]


Arabic Chinese Georgian Indian Islamic Japanese Korean Mongolian Persian Tibetan Western

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The Arabic
alphabet is always cursive and letters vary in shape depending on their position within a word. Letters can exhibit up to four distinct forms corresponding to an initial, medial (middle), final, or isolated position (IMFI). While some letters show considerable variations, others remain almost identical across all four positions. Generally, letters in the same word are linked together on both sides by short horizontal lines, but six letters (و ز ر ذ
ا) can only be linked to their preceding letter. For example, أرارا ت (Ararat) has only isolated forms because each letter cannot be connected to its following one. In addition, some letter combinations are written as ligatures (special shapes), notably lām-alif.[2] Table of basic letters[edit] For other uses, see Arabic

letters usage in Literary Arabic

Common Maghrebian Letter name Letter name in Arabic
script Trans- literation Value in Literary Arabic
Literary Arabic
(IPA) Closest English equivalent in pronunciation Contextual forms Isolated form

Abjadī Hijā'ī Abjadī Hijā'ī Final Medial Initial


1. 1. 1. 1. ’alif أَلِفْ ā / ’ (also ʾ )

various, including /aː/[a] up, father ـا ا

2. 2. 2. 2. bā’ بَاء b /b/[b] barn ـب ـبـ بـ ب

22. 3. 22. 3. tā’ تَاء t /t/ stick ـت ـتـ تـ ت

23. 4. 23. 4. thā’ ثَاء th (also ṯ )

/θ/ think, thumb ـث ـثـ ثـ ث

3. 5. 3. 5. jīm جِيمْ j (also ǧ )

/d͡ʒ/[b][c] Jim, gym ـج ـجـ جـ ج

8. 6. 8. 6. ḥā’ حَاء ḥ (also ḩ )

/ħ/ no equivalent ("guttural" h, may be approximated as heart)

ـح ـحـ حـ ح

24. 7. 24. 7. khā’ خَاء kh (also ḫ, ḵ, ẖ )

/x/ loch; German Bach ـخ ـخـ خـ خ

4. 8. 4. 8. dāl دَالْ d /d/ dear ـد د

25. 9. 25. 9. dhāl ذَال dh (also ḏ )

/ð/ that, them, though ـذ ذ

20. 10. 20. 10. rā’ رَاء r /r/ rap ـر ر

7. 11. 7. 11. zayn / zāy زَاي z /z/ zebra ـز ز

15. 12. 21. 24. sīn ِسِينْ s /s/ sin ـس ـسـ سـ س

21. 13. 28. 25. shīn شِينْ sh (also š )

/ʃ/ shin ـش ـشـ شـ ش

18. 14. 15. 18. ṣād صَادْ ṣ (also ş )

/sˤ/ swarm, bass ـص ـصـ صـ ص

26. 15. 18. 19. ḍād ضَاد ḍ (also ḑ )

/dˤ/ dwarf ـض ـضـ ضـ ض

9. 16. 9. 12. ṭā’ طَاء ṭ (also ţ )

/tˤ/ star ـط ـطـ طـ ط

27. 17. 26. 13. ẓā’ ظَاء ẓ (also z̧ )

/ðˤ/ buzzword ـظ ـظـ ظـ ظ

16. 18. 16. 20. ‘ayn عَين  ‘  (also ʿ )

/ʕ/ no equivalent ("guttural" voiced h; similar to ḥā’ above)

ـع ـعـ عـ ع

28. 19. 27. 21. ghayn غَين gh (also ġ, ḡ )

/ɣ/[b] Spanish higo ـغ ـغـ غـ غ

17. 20. 17. 22. fā’ فَاء f /f/[b] far ـف ـفـ فـ ف[d]

19. 21. 19. 23. qāf قَاف q /q/[b] scar ـق ـقـ قـ ق[d]

11. 22. 11. 14. kāf كَاف k /k/[b] key, cap ـك ـكـ كـ ك

12. 23. 12. 15. lām لاَمْ l /l/ lamp ـل ـلـ لـ ل

13. 24. 13. 16. mīm مِيمْ m /m/ me ـم ـمـ مـ م

14. 25. 14. 17. nūn نُون n /n/ nun ـن ـنـ نـ ن

5. 26. 5. 26. hā’ هَاء h /h/ hat ـه ـهـ هـ ه

6. 27. 6. 27. wāw وَاو w / ū /w/, /uː/[b] we ـو و

10. 28. 10. 28. yā’ يَاء y / ī /j/, /iː/[b] yacht ـي ـيـ يـ ي[d]

(not counted as alphabet but plays an important role in Arabic
grammar and lexicon, including indication [denoting most irregular female nouns] and spelling) hamzah هَمْزة ’ (also ʾ )

/ʔ/  uh–oh (aka "glottal stop")

ء (used mainly in medial and final position, which is an unlinked letter)

ʼalīf hamzah أَلِفْ هَمْزة ـأ أ

ـإ إ

wāw hamzah وَا و
هَمْزة ـؤ ؤ

yāʼ hamzah يَاء هَمْزة ـئ ـئـ ئـ ئ

ʼalīf maddah أَلِفْ مَدَّة ʾā /ʔaː/

ـآ آ


^ Alif can represent many phonemes. See the section on alif. ^ a b c d e f g h See the section on non-native letters and sounds; the letters ⟨ك⟩ ,⟨ق⟩ ,⟨غ⟩ ,⟨ج⟩ are sometimes used to transcribe the phoneme /g/ in loanwords, ⟨ب⟩ to transcribe /p/ and ⟨ف⟩ to transcribe /v/. Likewise the letters ⟨و⟩ and ⟨ي⟩ are used to transcribe the vowels /oː/ and /eː/ respectively in loanwords and dialects. ^ ج
is pronounced differently depending on the region. See Arabic phonology#Consonants. ^ a b c See the section on regional variations in letter form.

See the article Romanization of Arabic for details on various transliteration schemes; however, Arabic language
Arabic language
speakers may usually not follow a standardized scheme when transcribing names. Also names are regularly transcribed as pronounced locally, not as pronounced in Literary Arabic
Literary Arabic
(if they were of Arabic
origin). Regarding pronunciation, the phonemic values given are those of Modern Standard Arabic, which is taught in schools and universities. In practice, pronunciation may vary considerably from region to region. For more details concerning the pronunciation of Arabic, consult the articles Arabic phonology
Arabic phonology
and varieties of Arabic. The names of the Arabic
letters can be thought of as abstractions of an older version where they were meaningful words in the Proto-Semitic language. Names of Arabic
letters may have quite different names popularly. Six letters ( و
ز ر ذ
ا) don't have a distinct medial form and have to be written with their final form without being connected to the next letter. Their initial form matches the isolated form. The letter alif originated in the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
as a consonant-sign indicating a glottal stop. Today it has lost its function as a consonant, and, together with ya’ and wāw, is a mater lectionis, a consonant sign standing in for a long vowel (see below), or as support for certain diacritics (maddah and hamzah). Arabic
currently uses a diacritic sign, ء, called hamzah, to denote the glottal stop [ʔ], written alone or with a carrier:

alone: ء with a carrier: إ أ (above or under a alif), ؤ (above a wāw), ئ (above a dotless yā’ or yā’ hamzah).

In academic work, the hamzah (ء) is transliterated with the modifier letter right half ring (ʾ), while the modifier letter left half ring (ʿ) transliterates the letter ‘ayn (ع), which represents a different sound, not found in English.

Letters lacking an initial or medial version are never linked to the letter that follows, even within a word. The hamzah has a single form, since it is never linked to a preceding or following letter. However, it is sometimes combined with a wāw, yā’, or alif, and in that case the carrier behaves like an ordinary wāw, yā’, or alif.


Context Form Value Closest English Equivalent

Without diacritics ا

initially: a, i   /a, i/ or sometimes silent in the definite article ا ل (a)l- medially or finally: ā   /aː/

Initial position: a - up; i - hip Medial/ Final position: a - up

With hamzah over أ

Initial/ medial/ final: followed by fat·ḥah - ʾa, or ḍammah - ʾu Isolated or on its own without a vowel (usually followed by a sukūn): /ʾ/, pronounced as a glottal stop like "uh" in "uh-oh"

Initial/ Medial/ Final position: ʾa - heart; ʾu - pour Isolated or on its own without a vowel usually appearing in this case, the medial and final position (usually followed by a sukūn): /ʾ/, pronounced as a glottal stop like "uh" in "uh-oh"

With hamzah under إ

initially: ʾi   /ʔi/ does not appear medially or finally (see hamza)

Initial position: ʾi - inn

With maddah آ ʾā   /ʔaː/ Initial/ Medial/ Final position: aardvark

Modified letters[edit] The following are not individual letters, but rather different contextual variants of some of the Arabic

Conditional forms Name Translit. Phonemic Value (IPA)

Isolated Final Medial Initial

آ ـآ آ alif maddah ā /ʔaː/

ة ـة

tā’ marbūṭah h or t / h / ẗ used in final position only and for denoting the feminine noun/word or to make the noun/word feminine; however, in rare irregular noun/word cases, it appears to denote the "masculine"; singular nouns: 1. /ah/ 2. if the case is, tā’ marbūṭah followed by the definite article "al" [ال] transforms into /at ’ul/ usually in the nominative case; plural nouns: /āt/ (a preceding letter followed by a fatḥah alif + tā’ = ـَات‬)

ى ـى

alif maqṣūrah ā / á / ỳ used in the final position only and in some special cases, denoting the feminine aspect of the noun/word which acts similar to tā’ marbūṭah; /aː/ (aka "shortened ’alīf" - thus the Arabic
name, its purpose is for writing purposes mostly used in classical texts and in some dialects like Egyptian Arabic


Components of a ligature for "Allah": 1. alif 2. hamzat waṣl (همزة وصل) 3. lām 4. lām 5. shadda (شدة) 6. dagger alif (أل ف خنجرية) 7. hāʾ

The use of ligature in Arabic
is common. There is one compulsory ligature, that for lām + alif, which exists in two forms. All other ligatures (yā’ + mīm, etc.) are optional.

Contextual forms Name Trans. Value

Final Medial Initial Isolated

ﻼ ﻻ lām + alif laa /lā/

A more complex ligature that combines as many as seven distinct components is commonly used to represent the word Allāh. The only ligature within the primary range of Arabic script
Arabic script
in Unicode (U+06xx) is lām + alif. This is the only one compulsory for fonts and word-processing. Other ranges are for compatibility to older standards and contain other ligatures, which are optional.

lām + alif


Note: Unicode
also has in its Presentation Form B FExx range a code for this ligature. If your browser and font are configured correctly for Arabic, the ligature displayed above should be identical to this one, U+FEFB ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH ALEF ISOLATED FORM:

U+0640 ARABIC TATWEEL + lām + alif


Note: Unicode
also has in its Presentation Form B U+FExx range a code for this ligature. If your browser and font are configured correctly for Arabic, the ligature displayed above should be identical to this one:


Another ligature in the Unicode
Presentation Form A range U+FB50 to U+FDxx is the special code for glyph for the ligature Allāh

This is a work-around for the shortcomings of most text processors, which are incapable of displaying the correct vowel marks for the word Allāh
in Koran. Because Arabic script
Arabic script
is used to write other texts rather than Koran
only, rendering lām + lām + hā’ as the previous ligature is considered faulty:[3] If one of a number of fonts (Noto Naskh Arabic, mry_KacstQurn, KacstOne, DejaVu Sans, Harmattan, Scheherazade, Lateef, Iranian Sans) is installed on a computer (Iranian Sans is supported by Wikimedia web-fonts), the word will appear without diacritics.

lām + lām + hā’ = LILLĀH (meaning "to Allāh
[only to Allah])

لله  or   لله

alif + lām + lām + hā’ = ALLĀH (the Islamic name for "God")

الله  or   الله

alif + lām + lām + U+0651 ARABIC SHADDA + U+0670 ARABIC LETTER SUPERSCRIPT ALEF + hā’

اللّٰ ه
  (DejaVu Sans and KacstOne don't show the added superscript Alef)

An attempt to show them on the faulty fonts without automatically adding the gemination mark and the superscript alif, although may not display as desired on all browsers, is by adding the U+200d (Zero width joiner) after the first or second lām

(alif +) lām + lām + U+200d ZERO WIDTH JOINER + hā’

الل‍ ه
  ‎   لل‍ه

Gemination[edit] Further information: Shadda Gemination is the doubling of a consonant. Instead of writing the letter twice, Arabic
places a W-shaped sign called shaddah, above it. Note that if a vowel occurs between the two consonants the letter will simply be written twice. The diacritic only appears where the consonant at the end of one syllable is identical to the initial consonant of the following syllable. (The generic term for such diacritical signs is ḥarakāt).

General Unicode Name Name in Arabic
script Transliteration

0651  ّ‬ shaddah شَدَّة (consonant doubled)

Nunation[edit] Main article: Nunation Nunation (Arabic: تنوين‎ tanwīn) is the addition of a final -n  to a noun or adjective. The vowel before it indicates grammatical case. In written Arabic
nunation is indicated by doubling the vowel diacritic at the end of the word. Vowels[edit] Users of Arabic
usually write long vowels but omit short ones, so readers must utilize their knowledge of the language in order to supply the missing vowels. However, in the education system and particularly in classes on Arabic
grammar these vowels are used since they are crucial to the grammar. An Arabic
sentence can have a completely different meaning by a subtle change of the vowels. This is why in an important text such as the Qur’ān
the three basic vowel signs (see below) are mandated, like the ḥarakāt and all the other diacritics or other types of marks, for example the cantillation signs. Short vowels[edit] Further information: Arabic
diacritics In the Arabic
handwriting of everyday use, in general publications, and on street signs, short vowels are typically not written. On the other hand, copies of the Qur’ān
cannot be endorsed by the religious institutes that review them unless the diacritics are included. Children's books, elementary school texts, and Arabic-language grammars in general will include diacritics to some degree. These are known as "vocalized" texts. Short vowels may be written with diacritics placed above or below the consonant that precedes them in the syllable, called ḥarakāt. All Arabic
vowels, long and short, follow a consonant; in Arabic, words like "Ali" or "alif", for example, start with a consonant: ‘Aliyy, alif.

Short vowels (fully vocalized text) Code Name Name in Arabic
script Trans. Value

 َ‬ 064E fat·ḥah فَتْحَة a /a/

 ُ‬ 064F ḍammah ضَمَّة u /u/

 ِ‬ 0650 kasrah كَسْرَة i /i/

Long vowels[edit] In the fully vocalized Arabic
text found in texts such as Quran, a long ā following a consonant other than a hamzah is written with a short a sign (fatḥah) on the consonant plus an alif after it; long ī is written as a sign for short i (kasrah) plus a yā’; and long ū as a sign for short u (ḍammah) plus a wāw. Briefly, ᵃa = ā, ⁱy = ī and ᵘw = ū. Long ā following a hamzah may be represented by an alif maddah or by a free hamzah followed by an alif. The table below shows vowels placed above or below a dotted circle replacing a primary consonant letter or a shaddah sign. For clarity in the table, the primary letters on the left used to mark these long vowels are shown only in their isolated form. Please note that most consonants do connect to the left with alif, wāw and yā’ written then with their medial or final form. Additionally, the letter yā’ in the last row may connect to the letter on its left, and then will use a medial or initial form. Use the table of primary letters to look at their actual glyph and joining types.

Long vowels (fully vocalized text) Name Trans. Value

064E 0627 ـَا‬ fatḥah alif ā /aː/

064E 0649 ـَى‬ fatḥah alif maqṣūrah ā / á / ỳ

064F 0648 ـُو‬ ḍammah wāw ū /uː/

0650 064A ـِي‬ kasrah yā’ ī /iː/

In unvocalized text (one in which the short vowels are not marked), the long vowels are represented by the vowel in question: alif ṭawīlah/maqṣūrah, wāw, or yā’. Long vowels written in the middle of a word of unvocalized text are treated like consonants with a sukūn (see below) in a text that has full diacritics. Here also, the table shows long vowel letters only in isolated form for clarity. Combinations و ا
and ي ا
are always pronounced wā and yā respectively. The exception is when و ا
is the verb ending, where alif is silent, resulting in ū, or even aw.

Long vowels (unvocalized text) Name Trans. Value

0627 ا (implied fatḥah) alif ā /aː/

0649 ى (implied fatḥah) alif maqṣūrah ā / á / ỳ

0648 و (implied ḍammah) wāw ū / uw /uː/

064A ي (implied kasrah) yā’ ī / iy /iː/

In addition, when transliterating names and loanwords, Arabic
language speakers write out most or all the vowels as long (ā with ا
alif, ē and ī with ي ya’, and ō and ū with و
wāw), meaning it approaches a true alphabet. Diphthongs[edit] The diphthongs /aj/ and /aw/ are represented in vocalized text as follows:

Diphthongs (fully vocalized text) Name Trans. Value

064A 064E ـَي‬ fatḥah yā’ ay /aj/

0648 064E ـَو‬ fatḥah wāw aw /aw/

omission[edit] An Arabic
syllable can be open (ending with a vowel) or closed (ending with a consonant):

open: CV [consonant-vowel] (long or short vowel) closed: CVC (short vowel only)

A normal text is composed only of a series of consonants plus vowel-lengthening letters; thus, the word qalb, "heart", is written qlb, and the word qalab "he turned around", is also written qlb. To write qalab without this ambiguity, we could indicate that the l is followed by a short a by writing a fatḥah above it. To write qalb, we would instead indicate that the l is followed by no vowel by marking it with a diacritic called sukūn ( ْ‬), like this: قلْبْ. This is one step down from full vocalization, where the vowel after the q would also be indicated by a fatḥah: قَلْبْ. The Qur’ān
is traditionally written in full vocalization. The long i sound in some editions of the Qur’ān
is written with a kasrah followed by a diacritic-less y, and long u by a ḍammah followed by a bare w. In others, these y and w carry a sukūn. Outside of the Qur’ān, the latter convention is extremely rare, to the point that y with sukūn will be unambiguously read as the diphthong /aj/, and w with sukūn will be read /aw/. For example, the letters m-y-l can be read like English meel or mail, or (theoretically) also like mayyal or mayil. But if a sukūn is added on the y then the m cannot have a sukūn (because two letters in a row cannot be sukūnated), cannot have a ḍammah (because there is never an uy sound in Arabic
unless there is another vowel after the y), and cannot have a kasrah (because kasrah before sukūnated y is never found outside the Qur’ān), so it must have a fatḥah and the only possible pronunciation is /majl/ (meaning mile, or even e-mail). By the same token, m-y-t with a sukūn over the y can be mayt but not mayyit or meet, and m-w-t with a sukūn on the w can only be mawt, not moot (iw is impossible when the w closes the syllable). Vowel
marks are always written as if the i‘rāb vowels were in fact pronounced, even when they must be skipped in actual pronunciation. So, when writing the name Aḥmad, it is optional to place a sukūn on the ḥ, but a sukūn is forbidden on the d, because it would carry a ḍammah if any other word followed, as in Aḥmadu zawjī "Ahmad is my husband". Another example: the sentence that in correct literary Arabic
must be pronounced Aḥmadu zawjun sharrīr "Ahmad is a wicked husband", is usually mispronounced (due to influence from vernacular Arabic varieties) as Aḥmad zawj sharrīr. Yet, for the purposes of Arabic grammar and orthography, is treated as if it were not mispronounced and as if yet another word followed it, i.e., if adding any vowel marks, they must be added as if the pronunciation were Aḥmadu zawjun sharrīrun with a tanwīn 'un' at the end. So, it is correct to add an un tanwīn sign on the final r, but actually pronouncing it would be a hypercorrection. Also, it is never correct to write a sukūn on that r, even though in actual pronunciation it is (and in correct Arabic MUST be) sukūned. Of course, if the correct i‘rāb is a sukūn, it may be optionally written.

General Unicode Name Name in Arabic
script Translit. Phonemic Value (IPA)

0652  ْ‬ sukūn سُكُون (no vowel with this consonant letter or diphthong with this long vowel letter) ∅

0670  ٰ‬ alīf khanjariyyah [dagger ’alīf - smaller ’alīf written above consonant] أَلِي ف خَنْجَرِيَّة ā /aː/

The sukūn is also used for transliterating words into the Arabic script. The Persian word ماسک (mâsk, from the English word "mask"), for example, might be written with a sukūn above the ﺱ to signify that there is no vowel sound between that letter and the ک. Additional letters[edit] Regional variations[edit] Some letters take a traditionally different form in specific regions:

Letter Explanation

Isolated Final Medial Initial

ڛ‬ ـڛ‬ ـڛـ‬ ڛـ‬ A traditional form to denotate the sīn س
letter, rarely used in areas influenced by Persian script and former Ottoman script.[4]

ڢ‬ ـڢ‬ ـڢـ‬ ڢـ‬ A traditional Maghrebi variant (except for Libya and Algeria) of fā’ ف.

ڧ/ٯ‬ ـڧ/ـٯ‬ ـڧـ‬ ڧـ‬ A traditional Maghrebi variant (except for Libya and Algeria) of qāf ق. Generally dotless in isolated and final positions and dotted in the initial and medial forms.

ک‬ ـک‬ ـکـ‬ کـ‬ An alternative version of kāf ك used especially in Maghrebi under the influence of the Ottoman script or in Gulf script under the influence of the Persian script.

ی‬ ـی‬ ـیـ‬ یـ‬ Notably in Egypt, Sudan (Nile Valley) and sometimes Maghreb, yā’ ي is dotless in the isolated and final position. Visually identical to alif maqṣūrah ى. The use in handwriting resembles the Perso-Arabic letter یـ ـیـ ـ ی ی which was also used in Ottoman Turkish.

Non-native letters to Standard Arabic[edit] See also Arabic script#Special letters
Arabic script#Special letters
for languages other than Arabic. Some modified letters are used to represent non-native sounds of Modern Standard Arabic. These letters are used in transliterated names, loanwords and dialectal words.

Letter Value Note

Foreign letters

ڤ /v/ Used in loanwords and dialectal words instead of fā’ ف.[5] Not to be confused with ڨ.

ڥ Used in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.

پ /p/ Sometimes used when transliterating foreign names and loanwords. Can be substituted with bā’ ب
and pronounced as such.

Dialectal / Foreign letters

ڜ /t͡ʃ/1 Used in Morocco.

چ Sometimes used when transliterating foreign names and loanwords and in the Gulf and Arabic
dialects. The sequence ت ش
tāʼ-shīn is usually preferred (e.g. تشا د
for "Chad").

/ʒ/2 Used in Egypt
and can be a reduction of /d͡ʒ/, where ج
is pronounced /ɡ/.

/ɡ/3 Used in Israel, for example on road signs.

گ Used in northwest Africa and west Asia.

ڨ Used in Tunisia and in Algeria for loanwords and for the dialectal pronunciation of qāf ق
in some words. Not to be confused with ڤ.

ڭ Used in Morocco.

ڠ Rarely used in Persian Gulf.

/t͡ʃ/ is considered a native phoneme/allophone in some dialects, e.g. Kuwaiti and Iraqi dialects. /ʒ/ is considered a native phoneme in Levantine and North African dialects and as an allophone in others. /ɡ/ is considered a native phoneme/allophone in most modern Arabic dialects.

Used in languages other than Arabic[edit] Main article: Arabic

Most common non-Classical Arabic
consonant phonemes/graphemes

Language family Austron. Dravid. Turkic Indic (Indo-European) Iranian (Indo-European)


Language/Script Jawi Arwi Uyghur Sindhi Punjabi Urdu Persian Balochi Kurdish Pashto Iraqi Hejazi Egyptian Algerian Tunisian Moroccan

/p/ ڤ‬ ڣ‬ پ‬ پ‬

/g/ ݢ‬ ࢴ‬ گ‬ ګ‬ گ‬ ق‬ ج‬ ڨ‬ ڭ‬

/t͡ʃ/ چ‬ چ‬ تش‬ ڜ‬

/ʒ/ Ø ژ‬ Ø ژ‬ Ø چ‬ Ø ج‬

/v/ ۏ‬ و‬ ۋ‬ و‬ Ø ڤ‬ Ø ڤ‬ ڥ‬

/ŋ/ ڠ‬ ࢳ‬ ڭ‬ ڱ‬ ں‬ ن‬ Ø Ø

/ɳ/ Ø ڹ‬ Ø ڻ‬ Ø ڼ‬ Ø

/ɲ/ ڽ‬ ݧ‬ Ø ڃ Ø Ø


Western (Maghreb, Europe) Central (Mideast) Eastern (Persian, Urdu)

0 ٠ ۰

1 ١ ۱

2 ٢ ۲

3 ٣ ۳

4 ٤ ۴

5 ٥ ۵

6 ٦ ۶

7 ٧ ۷

8 ٨ ۸

9 ٩ ۹

10 ١٠ ۱۰

Main articles: Western Arabic numerals
Western Arabic numerals
and Eastern Arabic
numerals There are two main kinds of numerals used along with Arabic
text; Western Arabic numerals
Western Arabic numerals
and Eastern Arabic
numerals. In most of present-day North Africa, the usual Western Arabic numerals
Western Arabic numerals
are used. Like Western Arabic
numerals, in Eastern Arabic
numerals, the units are always right-most, and the highest value left-most. Letters as numerals[edit] Main article: Abjad
numerals In addition, the Arabic
alphabet can be used to represent numbers ( Abjad
numerals). This usage is based on the abjadī order of the alphabet. ا
alif is 1, ب
bā’ is 2, ج
jīm is 3, and so on until ي yā’ = 10, ك kāf = 20, ل lām = 30, …, ر rā’ = 200, …, غ ghayn = 1000. This is sometimes used to produce chronograms. History[edit] Main article: History of the Arabic

Evolution of early Arabic calligraphy
Arabic calligraphy
(9th–11th century). The Basmala
is taken as an example, from Kufic
manuscripts. (1) Early 9th century script used no dots or diacritic marks;[6] (2) and (3) in the 9th–10th century during the Abbasid dynasty, Abu al-Aswad's system used red dots with each arrangement or position indicating a different short vowel. Later, a second system of black dots was used to differentiate between letters like fā’ and qāf;[7][7] (4) in the 11th century (al-Farāhīdī's system) dots were changed into shapes resembling the letters to transcribe the corresponding long vowels. This system is the one used today.[8]

The Arabic
alphabet can be traced back to the Nabataean alphabet
Nabataean alphabet
used to write the Nabataean. The first known text in the Arabic
alphabet is a late 4th-century inscription from Jabal Ramm
Jabal Ramm
(50 km east of ‘Aqabah) in Jordan, but the first dated one is a trilingual inscription at Zebed in Syria
from 512.[citation needed] However, the epigraphic record is extremely sparse, with only five certainly pre-Islamic Arabic
inscriptions surviving, though some others may be pre-Islamic. Later, dots were added above and below the letters to differentiate them. (The Aramaic language had fewer phonemes than the Arabic, and some originally distinct Aramaic letters had become indistinguishable in shape, so that in the early writings 15 distinct letter-shapes had to do duty for 28 sounds; cf. the similarly ambiguous Pahlavi alphabet.) The first surviving document that definitely uses these dots is also the first surviving Arabic
papyrus (PERF 558), dated April 643, although they did not become obligatory until much later. Important texts were and still are frequently memorized, especially in Qur'an memorization, a practice which probably arose partially from a desire to avoid the great ambiguity of the script.[citation needed] Later still, vowel marks and the hamzah were introduced, beginning some time in the latter half of the 7th century, preceding the first invention of Syriac and Hebrew vocalization. Initially, this was done by a system of red dots, said to have been commissioned in the Umayyad era by Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali a dot above = a, a dot below = i, a dot on the line = u, and doubled dots indicated nunation. However, this was cumbersome and easily confusable with the letter-distinguishing dots, so about 100 years later, the modern system was adopted. The system was finalized around 786 by al-Farāhīdī. Arabic
printing presses[edit] Although Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
generally receives credit for introducing the printing press to Egypt
during his invasion of that country in 1798, and though he did indeed bring printing presses and Arabic script presses to print the French occupation's official newspaper Al-Tanbiyyah ("The Courier"), printing in the Arabic language
Arabic language
started several centuries earlier. In 1514, following Gutenberg's invention of the printing press in 1450, Gregorio de Gregorii, a Venetian, published an entire prayer-book in Arabic
script; it was entitled Kitab Salat al-Sawa'i and was intended for eastern Christian communities[9] Between 1580 and 1586, type designer Robert Granjon
Robert Granjon
designed Arabic typefaces for Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici, and the Medici press published many Christian prayer and scholarly Arabic
texts in the late 16th century.[citation needed] Maronite
monks at the Maar Quzhayy Monastery in Mount Lebanon published the first Arabic
books to use movable type in the Middle East. The monks transliterated the Arabic language
Arabic language
using Syriac script. A goldsmith (like Gutenberg) designed and implemented an Arabic-script movable-type printing-press in the Middle East. The Greek Orthodox monk Abd Allah Zakhir set up an Arabic language
Arabic language
printing press using movable type at the monastery of Saint John at the town of Dhour El Shuwayr in Mount Lebanon, the first homemade press in Lebanon using Arabic
script. He personally cut the type molds and did the founding of the typeface. The first book came off his press in 1734; this press continued in use until 1899.[10] Computers[edit] The Arabic
alphabet can be encoded using several character sets, including ISO-8859-6, Windows-1256 and Unicode
(see links in Infobox above), latter thanks to the " Arabic
segment", entries U+0600 to U+06FF. However, none of the sets indicates the form that each character should take in context. It is left to the rendering engine to select the proper glyph to display for each character. Each letter has a position-independent encoding in Unicode, and the rendering software can infer the correct glyph form (initial, medial, final or isolated) from its joining context. That is the current recommendation. However, for compatibility with previous standards, the initial, medial, final and isolated forms can also be encoded separately. Unicode[edit] Main article: Arabic
characters in Unicode As of Unicode
7.0, the following ranges encode Arabic

(0600-06FF) Arabic Supplement (0750-077F) Arabic Extended-A (08A0-08FF) Arabic Presentation Forms-A (FB50-FDFF) Arabic Presentation Forms-B (FE70-FEFF) Arabic Mathematical Alphabetic Symbols 1EE00-1EEFF) Rumi Numeral Symbols (10E60-10E7F)

The basic Arabic
range encodes the standard letters and diacritics but does not encode contextual forms (U+0621-U+0652 being directly based on ISO 8859-6). It also includes the most common diacritics and Arabic-Indic digits. U+06D6 to U+06ED encode Qur'anic annotation signs such as "end of ayah" ۝ۖ and "start of rub el hizb" ۞. The Arabic supplement range encodes letter variants mostly used for writing African (non-Arabic) languages. The Arabic Extended-A range encodes additional Qur'anic annotations and letter variants used for various non- Arabic
languages. The Arabic Presentation Forms-A range encodes contextual forms and ligatures of letter variants needed for Persian, Urdu, Sindhi and Central Asian languages. The Arabic Presentation Forms-B range encodes spacing forms of Arabic
diacritics, and more contextual letter forms. The Arabic
Mathematical Alphabetical Symbols block encodes characters used in Arabic
mathematical expressions. See also the notes of the section on modified letters. Keyboards[edit] See also: Keyboard layout

Mac keyboard layout

PC keyboard layout

imposed on a QWERTY
keyboard layout.

Keyboards designed for different nations have different layouts so proficiency in one style of keyboard, such as Iraq's, does not transfer to proficiency in another, such as Saudi Arabia's. Differences can include the location of non-alphabetic characters. All Arabic
keyboards allow typing Roman characters, e.g., for the URL in a web browser. Thus, each Arabic
keyboard has both Arabic
and Roman characters marked on the keys. Usually the Roman characters of an Arabic
keyboard conform to the QWERTY
layout, but in North Africa, where French is the most common language typed using the Roman characters, the Arabic
keyboards are AZERTY. To encode a particular written form of a character, there are extra code points provided in Unicode
which can be used to express the exact written form desired. The range Arabic
presentation forms A (U+FB50 to U+FDFF) contain ligatures while the range Arabic
presentation forms B (U+FE70 to U+FEFF) contains the positional variants. These effects are better achieved in Unicode
by using the zero-width joiner and non-joiner, as these presentation forms are deprecated in Unicode, and should generally only be used within the internals of text-rendering software, when using Unicode
as an intermediate form for conversion between character encodings, or for backwards compatibility with implementations that rely on the hard-coding of glyph forms. Finally, the Unicode
encoding of Arabic
is in logical order, that is, the characters are entered, and stored in computer memory, in the order that they are written and pronounced without worrying about the direction in which they will be displayed on paper or on the screen. Again, it is left to the rendering engine to present the characters in the correct direction, using Unicode's bi-directional text features. In this regard, if the Arabic
words on this page are written left to right, it is an indication that the Unicode
rendering engine used to display them is out of date.[11][12] There are competing online tools, e.g. Yamli editor, which allow entry of Arabic
letters without having Arabic
support installed on a PC, and without knowledge of the layout of the Arabic
keyboard.[13] Handwriting recognition[edit] The first software program of its kind in the world that identifies Arabic
handwriting in real time was developed by researchers at Ben-Gurion University
Ben-Gurion University
(BGU). The prototype enables the user to write Arabic
words by hand on an electronic screen, which then analyzes the text and translates it into printed Arabic
letters in a thousandth of a second. The error rate is less than three percent, according to Dr. Jihad El-Sana, from BGU's department of computer sciences, who developed the system along with master's degree student Fadi Biadsy.[14] See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arabic

calligraphy Arabic diacritics
Arabic diacritics
(pointed vowels and consonants) Arabic
numerals Arabic script
Arabic script
about other languages written in Arabic
letters. Arabic
Unicode Arabic
Chat Alphabet ArabTeX
– provides Arabic
support for TeX
and LaTeX Rasm
(unpointed consonants) Romanization of Arabic South Arabian alphabet Perso- Arabic
script Arabic
braille Algerian braille ʿilm al-Ḥurouf


^ a b (in Arabic) Alyaseer.net ترتي ب
المداخل والبطاقا ت ف ي القوائ م والفهارس الموضوعية Ordering entries and cards in subject indexes Discussion thread (Accessed 2009-October–06) ^ Rogers, Henry (2005). Writing Systems: A Linguistic Approach. Blackwell Publishing. p. 135.  ^ SIL International: This simplified style is often preferred for clarity, especially in non- Arabic
languages ^ http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5824879v/f26.item.zoom ^ Arabic
Dialect Tutorial ^ File: Basmala
kufi.svg - Wikimedia Commons ^ a b File:Kufi.jpg - Wikimedia Commons ^ File:Qur'an folio 11th century kufic.jpg - Wikimedia Commons ^ "294° anniversario della Biblioteca Federiciana: ricerche e curiosità sul Kitab Salat al-Sawai". Retrieved 2017-01-31.  ^ Arabic
and the Art of Printing – A Special
Section, by Paul Lunde ^ For more information about encoding Arabic, consult the Unicode manual available at The Unicode
website ^ See also Multilingual Computing with Arabic
and Arabic Transliteration: Arabicizing Windows Applications to Read and Write Arabic
& Solutions for the Transliteration Quagmire Faced by Arabic-Script Languages and A PowerPoint Tutorial (with screen shots and an English voice-over) on how to add Arabic
to the Windows Operating System. Archived 11 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Yamli in the News ^ Israel 21c

External links[edit]

Shaalan, Khaled; Raza, Hafsa (August 2009). "NERA: Named entity recognition for Arabic". Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60 (8).  "Why the right side of your brain doesn't like Arabic". CNN. 9 September 2010.  Arabic
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

This article contains major sections of text from the very detailed article Arabic
alphabet from the French, which has been partially translated into English. Further translation of that page, and its incorporation into the text here, are welcomed.

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Aljamiado Arebica Azerbaijani Belarusian Kazakh Ottoman Turkish Tatar (İske imlâ Yaña imlâ)


Arabic Arabi Malayalam Arwi Azerbaijani Buri Wolio Jawi Kazakh Khowar Kurdish Kyrgyz Ottoman Turkish Pashto Pegon Persian Saraiki Sindhi Shahmukhī Tajik Turkmen Urdu Uyghur Uzbek Xiao'erjing


Afrikaans Ajami Berber Fula Sorabe Swahili Wadaad Wolof

v t e



Language Alphabet History Romanization Numerology Influence on other languages


alphabet Perso- Arabic
alphabet Ancient North Arabian Ancient South Arabian script

Zabūr script

numerals Eastern numerals Arabic



i‘jām Tashkil Harakat Tanwin Shaddah

Hamza Tāʾ marbūṭah


ʾAlif Bāʾ Tāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Ṯāʾ Ǧīm Ḥāʾ Ḫāʾ Dāl Ḏāl Rāʾ Zāy Sīn Šīn Ṣād Ḍād Ṭāʾ Ẓāʾ ʿAyn Ġayn Fāʾ Qāf Kāf Lām Mīm Nūn Hāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Wāw Yāʾ Hamza

Notable varieties


Proto-Arabic Old Arabic Ancient North Arabian Old South Arabian


Classical Modern Standard Maltese[a]


Nilo-Egyptian Levantine Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian dialects Hilalian dialects Moroccan Darija Tunisian Arabic Sa'idi Arabic

Mesopotamian Peninsular

Yemeni Arabic Tihamiyya Arabic

Sudanese Chadian Modern South Arabian

Ethnic / religious



Juba Arabic Nubi language Babalia Creole Arabic Maridi Arabic Maltese


Literature Names


Phonology Sun and moon letters ʾIʿrāb (inflection) Grammar Triliteral root Mater lectionis IPA Quranic Arabic

Calligraphy Script

Diwani Jawi script Kufic Rasm Mashq Hijazi script Muhaqqaq Thuluth Naskh (script) Ruqʿah script Taʿlīq script Nastaʿlīq script Shahmukhī script Sini (script)


keyboard Arabic script
Arabic script
in Unicode ISO/IEC 8859-6 Windows-1256 MS-DOS codepages

708 709 710 711 720 864

Mac Arabic

aSociolinguistically not Arabic

v t e

Types of writing systems


History of writing Grapheme


Writing systems

undeciphered inventors constructed

Languages by writing system / by first written accounts






Arabic Pitman shorthand Hebrew

Ashuri Cursive Rashi Solitreo

Tifinagh Manichaean Nabataean Old North Arabian Pahlavi Pegon Phoenician


Proto-Sinaitic Psalter Punic Samaritan South Arabian

Zabur Musnad

Sogdian Syriac

ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā

Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic




Asamiya (Ôxômiya) Bānglā Bhaikshuki Bhujinmol Brāhmī Devanāgarī Dogri Gujarati Gupta Gurmukhī Kaithi Kalinga Khojki Khotanese Khudawadi Laṇḍā Lepcha Limbu Mahajani Meitei Mayek Modi Multani Nāgarī Nandinagari Odia 'Phags-pa Newar Ranjana Sharada Saurashtra Siddhaṃ Soyombo Sylheti Nagari Takri Tibetan

Uchen Umê

Tirhuta Tocharian Zanabazar Square Zhang-Zhung

Drusha Marchen Marchung Pungs-chen Pungs-chung


Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana

Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu

Kolezhuthu Malayanma



Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics

Blackfoot Déné syllabics

Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand



Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand

Chinook writing

Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian

Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli

Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin

Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic

Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless

Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa


Braille Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore Moon type


Adinkra Aztec Blissymbol Dongba Ersu Shaba Emoji IConji Isotype Kaidā Míkmaq Mixtec New Epoch Notation Painting Nsibidi Ojibwe Hieroglyphs Siglas poveiras Testerian Yerkish Zapotec


Chinese family of scripts

Chinese Characters

Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang


Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut


Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian

Other logo-syllabic

Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)


Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs


Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman



Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom


Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao


ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation


Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

v t e



1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
braille patterns


French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille (obsolete)

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code


e-book Braille
embosser Braille
translator Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo


Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait


Institute of America Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Library National Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
literacy RoboBraille

v t e

Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

v t e

Internet slang
Internet slang

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary) SMS language

v t e

The Northwest Semitic abjad




















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