HOME
TheInfoList



The Arabian Sea ( ar, بحر العرب ''Bahr al-Arab'') is a region of the northern
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water on Earth's surface. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia to the east. To the south it is bounded by the Sou ...

Indian Ocean
bounded on the north by
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million, and has the wor ...
,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
, and the
Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (Gulf of Makran or Sea of Makran) ( ar, خليج عمان ، خلیج مکران ''khalīj ʿumān , khalīj makrān''; fa, دریای عمان ، دریای مکران ''daryâ-ye omân ,daryâ-ye'' makrān) is ...
, on the west by the
Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, خليج عدن, so, Gacanka Cadmeed 𐒌𐒖𐒋𐒖𐒒𐒏𐒖 𐒋𐒖𐒆𐒑𐒜𐒆) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera'' is a deepwater gulf between Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea to the east, Djibouti to the wes ...
,
Guardafui Channel , native_name_lang = , other_name = , image = Socotra Archipelago MODIS.jpg , alt = , caption = The Guardafui Channel, between the Puntland region of Somalia and Socotra island. , image_bathymetry =Guardafui Channel map.svg , alt_bathymetry = , c ...
and the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the A ...
, on the southeast by the
Laccadive Sea The Laccadive Sea or Lakshadweep Sea is a body of water bordering India (including its Lakshadweep islands), the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. It is located to the southwest of Karnataka, to the west of Kerala and to the south of Tamil Nadu. This warm ...
, on the southwest by the Somali Sea, and on the east by
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Oce ...

India
. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 (1,491,000 sq mi) and its maximum depth is 4,652 meters (15,262 ft). The Gulf of Aden in the west connects the Arabian Sea to the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر ''Al Baḥr al aḥmar''; Hebrew: ''Yam Soof'' ים סוף or ''Hayam Haadom'' הים האדום; Coptic: ⲫⲓⲟⲙ `ⲛϩⲁϩ ''Phiom Enhah'' or ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ̀ⲛϣⲁⲣⲓ ''Phiom ̀nšari''; Tigr ...
through the strait of
Bab-el-Mandeb The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: ,  'Gate of Tears') is a strait between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa. It connects the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden. Name The strait derives its name from th ...
, and the
Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (Gulf of Makran or Sea of Makran) ( ar, خليج عمان ، خلیج مکران ''khalīj ʿumān , khalīj makrān''; fa, دریای عمان ، دریای مکران ''daryâ-ye omân ,daryâ-ye'' makrān) is ...
is in the northwest, connecting it to the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=Xalij-e Fârs, lit=Gulf of Fars, ) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean (Gulf of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz and lies between Iran ...
. The Arabian Sea has been crossed by many important marine trade routes since the 3rd or 2nd millennium BCE. Major seaports include
Kandla Port ''For the village in Estonia see Kandla, Estonia''. Kandla is a seaport and town in Kutch District of Gujarat state in Western India, near the city of Gandhidham. Located on the Gulf of Kutch, it is one of major ports on the west coast. Kandla Po ...
,
Okha Port Okha port is a census town in Devbhumi Dwarka in the Indian state of Gujarat. Demographics India census, Okha port had a population of 18,847. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Okha port has an average literacy rate of 60%, ...
,
Mumbai Port Mumbai Port Trust (also known as the Bombay Port Trust) is a port which lies midway on the West coast of India, on the natural deep-water harbour of Mumbai (Bombay) in Maharashtra.The harbour spread over is protected by the mainland of Konkan to ...
, Nhava Sheva Port (Navi Mumbai), Mormugão Port (Goa),
New Mangalore Port New Mangalore Port is a small water af, all-weather port at Panambur, Mangalore in Karnataka state in India, which is the deepest inner harbour on the west coast. It is the only major port of Karnataka and the seventh largest port in India. It ...
, Vizhinjam International Seaport and Cochin Port, Kochi Port in India, the Port of Karachi, Port Qasim, and the Gwadar Port in Pakistan, Chabahar Port in Iran and the Port of Salalah in Salalah, Oman. The largest islands in the Arabian Sea include Socotra (Yemen), Masirah Island (Oman), Lakshadweep (India) and Astola Island (Pakistan).


Geography

The Arabian Sea's surface area is about .Arabian Sea
Encyclopædia Britannica
The maximum width of the sea is approximately , and its maximum depth is . The biggest river flowing into the sea is the Indus River. The Arabian Sea has two important branches — the Gulf of Aden in the southwest, connecting with the Red Sea through the strait of
Bab-el-Mandeb The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: ,  'Gate of Tears') is a strait between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa. It connects the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden. Name The strait derives its name from th ...
; and the Gulf of Oman to the northwest, connecting with the Persian Gulf. There are also the gulfs of Gulf of Khambhat, Khambhat and Gulf of Kutch, Kutch on the Coastal South West India, Indian Coast. The countries with coastlines on the Arabian Sea are Yemen, Oman, Pakistan, Iran, India and the Maldives.


Limits

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Arabian Sea as follows: *On the west: the eastern limit of the Gulf of Aden. *On the north: a line joining Ras al Hadd, Ràs al Hadd, east point of the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the A ...
(22°32'N) and Jiwani, Ràs Jiyùni (61°43'E) on the coast of Pakistan. *On the south: a line running from the southern extremity of Addu Atoll in the Maldives, to the eastern extremity of Ras Hafun, Ràs Hafun (the easternmost point of Africa, 10°26'N). *On the east: the western limit of the Laccadive Sea a line running from Sadashivgad on the west coast of India () to Cora Divh () and thence down the west side of the Lakshadweep, Laccadive and Maldive archipelagos to the most southerly point of Addu Atoll in the Maldives.


Border and Basin countries

Border and Basin countries: # - 2,500 km coastline # - 1,050 km coastline # # # # #


Alternative names

The Arabian Sea historically and geographically has been referred to with many different names by Arabian and European geographers and travelers, including Indian Sea, Sindhu Sagar, Darya, Sindhu Sagar, and Arab Samudra, Erythraean Sea, Sindh Sea, and Akhzar Sea. In Indian folklore, it is referred to as Darya, Sindhu Sagar, and Arab Samudra. # Indian Sea # Sindhu Sagar # Darya # Arab Samudra # Erythraean Sea # Sindh Sea #Behera Arab # Akhzar Sea # Mare di Persia # Persian Sea Ibn Khordadbeh, Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi, Muhammad al-Idrisi, Istakhri, Mahmud al-Kashgari, Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad and Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi had mentioned the sea as Persian sea and sea of Mokran. some of the midival map including the map by Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, 1693 had mentioned the Persian sea and also Makran. Cornelius Le Brun's Year 1718 Map. On this map, the name of the Oman Sea is recorded as "Gulf of Hormuz". The name "Arabian Sea" has been informed of a sea off the coast of Yemen, and you can rename it the Arabian Sea, as the "Indian Sea" church. Map of Iran in the 16th century by Abraham Ortelius in which the name of the Persian Sea and the Indian Sea appear. Arab sailors and nomads used to call this sea by different names, including the green sea, the ocean sea, the Hindu sea, the Makran Sea, the Gulf of Oman, and among them the Zakariya al-Qazwini, Al-Masudi and Ibn Hawqal. They wrote: “The green sea in the east and the sea of darkness in the west is the sea of strange creatures (Zakariya al-Qazwini) And the enchanted islands (Al-Masudi) (Hafiz-i Abru). Abdullah bin Lotf bin Abdul Rashid, a geographic historian and tourist mentioned in the book History of Islam and Iran, explains the Green Sea and says: “It is also called the Sea of India and it connects with the Persian Sea.” There is a lot of attribution until the name proves this sea, which is the Arabian Sea or the Arabian Sea. File:Dugong.jpg, Dugong mother and her offspring in shallow waters. File:Basra-ps64.JPG, Basora-Persian Sea. File:Soulier, E.; Andriveau-Goujon, J. Anciens Empires Jusqua Alexandre. 1838.jpg, Soulier, E.; Andriveau-Goujon, MER ERYTHREE 1838. File:The-Worlds-Most-Isolated-and-Distinct-Whale-Population-Humpback-Whales-of-the-Arabian-Sea-pone.0114162.s001.tif, Critically endangered Arabian humpback whales off Dhofar Governorate, Dhofar, Oman. File:Nakhl-Minoo.jpg, Arecaceae, Palm and sunset in Minoo Island, Iran. File:A horizontal Malabar Coast miniature, a reprint by Petrus Bertius, 1630.jpg, A horizontal Malabar Coast miniature, a reprint by Petrus Bertius, 1630 File:Periplous of the Erythraean Sea.svg, upright=1.8, Names, routes and locations of the ''Periplus of the Erythraean Sea'' File:1658 Jansson Map of the Indian Ocean (Erythrean Sea) in Antiquity - Geographicus - ErythraeanSea-jansson-1658.jpg, 1658 Jansson Map of the Indian Ocean (Erythrean Sea) File:The western part of the Indian Ocean, by Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, 1693, from his system of global gores the south.jpg, The western part of the Indian Ocean, by Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, 1693, from his system of global gores the south File:The western part of the Indian Ocean, by Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, 1693 from his system of global gores the Makran coast.jpg, The western part of the Indian Ocean, by Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, 1693 from his system of global gores the Makran coast


Trade routes

The Arabian Sea has been an important Marine (ocean), marine trade route since the era of the ''coastal sailing vessels'' from possibly as early as the 3rd millennium BCE, certainly the late 2nd millennium BCE through the later days known as the Age of Sail. By the time of Julius Caesar, several well-established combined land-sea trade routes depended upon water transport through the sea around the rough inland terrain features to its north. These routes usually began in the Far East or down river from Madhya Pradesh, India with transshipment via historic Bharuch (Bharakuccha), traversed past the inhospitable coast of modern-day Iran, then split around Hadhramaut, Yemen into two streams north into the Gulf of Aden and thence into the Levant, or south into Alexandria via Red Sea ports such as Axum. Each major route involved transhipping to camel train, pack animal caravan, travel through desert country and risk of bandits and extortionate tolls by local potentates. This southern coastal route past the rough country in the South Arabia, southern Arabian Peninsula was significant, and the Egyptian Pharaohs built several shallow canals to service the trade, one more or less along the route of today's Suez Canal, and another from the Red Sea to the Nile River, both shallow works that were swallowed up by huge sand storms in antiquity. Later the kingdom of Axum arose in Ethiopia to rule a mercantile empire rooted in the trade with Europe via Alexandria.


Major ports

Jawaharlal Nehru Port in Mumbai is the largest port in the Arabian Sea, and the largest container port in India. Major Indian ports in the Arabian Sea are Mundra Port, Kandla Port, Nava Sheva, Vizhinjam International Seaport The Vizhinjam International Deepwater Multipurpose Seaport, also known as the Vizhinjam International Seaport and the Port of Trivandrum . Kochi Port, Mumbai Port, and Mormugão. The Port of Karachi, Pakistan's largest and busiest seaport lies on the coast of the sea. It is located between the Karachi towns of Kiamari and Saddar. The Gwadar Port of Pakistan is a warm-water, deep-sea port situated at Gwadar in Balochistan at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, about 460 km west of Karachi and approximately 75 km (47 mi) east of Pakistan's border with Iran. The port is located on the eastern bay of a natural hammerhead-shaped peninsula jutting out into the Arabian Sea from the coastline. Port of Salalah in Salalah, Oman is also a major port in the area. The International Task Force often uses the port as a base. There is a significant number of warships of all nations coming in and out of the port, which makes it a very safe bubble. The port handled just under 3.5m Twenty-foot equivalent unit, teu in 2009.


Season names of shipping weather


Bat furan

The winter, when Siberian anticyclone makes monsoon winds favourable to shipping.


Bat hiddan

The summer, when off-shore winds from Somaliland causes storms and shipping decrease as the result of them.


Islands

There are several islands in the Arabian Sea, with the most important ones being Lakshadweep Islands (India), Socotra (Yemen), Masirah (Oman) and Astola Island (Pakistan). The Lakshadweep Islands (formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands) is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea region of Arabian Sea, 200 to 440 km (120 to 270 mi) off the southwestern coast of India. The archipelago is a union territory and is governed by the Union Government of India. The islands form the smallest union territory of India with their total surface area being just . The islands are the northernmost of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge, Lakshadweep-Maldives-Chagos group of islands. Astola Island, also known as ''Jezira Haft Talar'' in Balochi language, Balochi, or 'Island of the Seven Hills', is a small, uninhabited island in the northern tip of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan's territorial waters. Socotra, also spelled ''Soqotra'', is the largest island, being part of a small archipelago of four islands. It lies some east of the Horn of Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. Masirah is an island off the east coast of Oman.


Oxygen Minimum Zone

The Arabian Sea has one of the world's three largest oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZ), or “dead zones,” along with the eastern tropical North Pacific and the eastern tropical South Pacific. OMZs have very low levels of oxygen, sometimes undetectable by standard equipment. The Arabian Sea's OMZ has the lowest levels of oxygen in the world, especially in the Gulf of Oman. Causes of the OMZ may include untreated sewage as well as high temperatures on the Indian subcontinent, which increase winds blowing towards India, bringing up nutrients and reducing oxygen in the Arabian Sea's waters. In winter, phytoplankton suited to low-oxygen conditions turn the OMZ bright green.


See also

* Indian Ocean Rim Association * North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone * Piracy off the coast of Somalia


References


Sources

*Documents on the Persian Gulf's nam

*A book and Atla


External links


Arabian Sea (World Wildlife Fund)
{{Authority control Arabian Sea, Arabian Peninsula Marine ecoregions India–Pakistan border Oman–Yemen border Bodies of water of Pakistan Bodies of water of India Bodies of water of Oman Seas of Yemen Seas of Iran Bodies of water of Somalia Bodies of water of Iran Bodies of water of the Maldives Seas of the Indian Ocean Seas of Asia