The ARABIAN PENINSULA, simplified ARABIA (Arabic : شبه
الجزيرة العربية _Shubh al-jazīra al-ʿarabiyya_,
« Arabian island ») is a peninsula of
Western Asia situated
Africa on the
Arabian plate . From a geological
perspective, it is considered a subcontinent of
It is the largest peninsula in the world, at 3,237,500 km2 (1,250,000
sq mi). The Arabian
Peninsula consists of the countries
Saudi Arabia and the
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates ,
and parts of
Iraq . The peninsula formed as a result of
the rifting of the
Red Sea between 56 and 23 million years ago, and is
bordered by the
Red Sea to the west and southwest, the
Persian Gulf to
the northeast, the
Levant to the north and the
Indian Ocean to the
southeast. The Arabian
Peninsula plays a critical geopolitical role in
Middle East and the
Arab world due to its vast reserves of oil and
natural gas .
Before the modern era, it was divided into four distinct regions:
Southern Arabia (
Hadhramaut ) and
Eastern Arabia .
Najd make up most of Saudi Arabia.
Southern Arabia consists
Yemen and some parts of
Saudi Arabia (Najran , Jizan ,
Asir ) and
Eastern Arabia consists of the entire coastal strip of
the Persian Gulf.
* 1 Geography
* 1.1 Political boundaries
* 1.2 Population
* 1.2.1 Y-chromosome
* 1.3 Landscape
* 1.4 Land and sea
* 2 Etymology
* 3 History
* 3.2 Rise of
* 3.3 The Middle Ages
* 3.4 Modern history
* 3.4.1 Late Ottoman rule and the
* 3.4.2 The
Arab Revolt and the unification of
* 3.4.3 Oil reserves
* 3.4.4 Civil war in
* 4 Transport and industry
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links
See also: Geography of
Saudi Arabia Africa, Arabian
subcontinent (Asia), and Eurasia.
Peninsula is located in the continent of
Asia and bounded
by (clockwise) the
Persian Gulf on the northeast, the Strait of Hormuz
and the Gulf of
Oman on the east, the
Arabian Sea on the southeast and
Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden on the south, the
Bab-el-Mandeb strait on the
southwest and the
Red Sea , which is located on the southwest and
west. The northern portion of the peninsula merges with the Syrian
Desert with no clear border line, although the northern boundary of
Peninsula is generally considered to be the northern
Saudi Arabia and
The most prominent feature of the peninsula is desert , but in the
southwest there are mountain ranges, which receive greater rainfall
than the rest of the Arabian Peninsula.
Harrat ash Shaam is a large
volcanic field that extends from the northwestern Arabian Peninsula
Jordan and southern
The Arabian Peninsula.
The peninsula's constituent countries are (clockwise north to south)
Qatar , and the
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates (UAE) on the
Oman on the southeast,
Yemen on the south and
Saudi Arabia at
the center. The island nation of
Bahrain lies off the east coast of
Six countries (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab
Emirates and Oman) form the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). However,
this is a disputed term. Iranians assert that it is a historical and
internationally recognized convention to name it the
Persian Gulf ,
while Arab States, and most notably the six GCC member countries, have
been claiming that the Gulf is Arabian since its shallow marine depths
are a geological continuity of the Arabian peninsula's Eastern
low-lying coasts, from
Kuwait to the
UAE 's Northern Emirates.
The Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia covers the greater part of the peninsula.
The majority of the population of the peninsula live in Saudi Arabia
and in Yemen. The peninsula contains the world's largest reserves of
Saudi Arabia and the
UAE are economically the wealthiest in the
Qatar , a small peninsula in the
Persian Gulf on the larger
peninsula, is home of the Arabic-language television station Al
Jazeera and its English-language subsidiary
Al Jazeera English .
Kuwait , on the border with Iraq, is an important country
strategically, forming one of the main staging grounds for coalition
forces mounting the invasion of
Iraq in 2003. Distribution of J1
Political Definition: Gulf Cooperation Council and Yemen
4 smallest states (area) of Gulf Cooperation Council with entire
coastline in Persian Gulf: UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait
Though historically lightly populated, political Arabia is noted for
a high population growth rate - as the result of both very strong
inflows of migrant labor as well as sustained high birth rates. The
population tends to be relatively young and heavily skewed gender
ratio dominated by males. In many states, the number of South Asians
exceeds that of the local citizenry. The four smallest states (by
area), which have their entire coastlines on the Persian Gulf, exhibit
the world's most extreme population growth, roughly tripling every 20
In 2014, the estimated population of the Arabian
77,983,936 (including expatriates).
Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Arabia
(Yemen, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait,
Saudi Arabia and the United Arab
Haplogroup J is the most abundant component in the Arabian peninsula,
embracing more than 50% of its Y-chromosomes. Its two main subclades
(J1-M267 and J2-M172 ), show opposite latitudinal gradients in the
Middle East. J1-M267 is more abundant in the southern areas, reaching
a frequency around 73% in Yemen, whereas J2-M172 is more common in the
J (L222.2) Accounts for the majority of (L147.1) in
Saudi Arabia . It
seems to be an exclusively Adnani marker. Haplogroup J 54.8%
Haplogroup E 17.5% R 11.6%
Haplogroup T-M184 5.1%
A caravan crossing the ad-
Desert in central Saudi Arabia.
Ras Aljinz, southeastern Arabia (Oman) also known as the 'Turtle
Beach'. AR-Arabian Plate, velocities with respect to
millimeters per year.
Salalah is a famous tourist destination
in Arabia for its annual khareef season.
Geologically, this region is perhaps more appropriately called the
_Arabian subcontinent_ because it lies on a tectonic plate of its own,
Arabian Plate , which has been moving incrementally away from the
Africa (forming the Red Sea) and north, toward Asia, into the
Eurasian plate (forming the
Zagros mountains ). The rocks exposed vary
systematically across Arabia, with the oldest rocks exposed in the
Arabian-Nubian Shield near the Red Sea, overlain by earlier sediments
that become younger towards the Persian Gulf. Perhaps the
best-preserved ophiolite on Earth, the Semail
Ophiolite , lies exposed
in the mountains of the
UAE and northern Oman.
The peninsula consists of:
* A central plateau, the
Najd , with fertile valleys and pastures
used for the grazing of sheep and other livestock
* A range of deserts: the
Nefud in the north, which is stony; the
Rub\' al Khali or Great Arabian
Desert in the south, with sand
estimated to extend 600 ft (180 m) below the surface; between them,
Hejaz , ranges of mountains, paralleling the
Red Sea coast on
the west (e.g.
Asir province) but also at the southeastern end of the
peninsula (Oman). The mountains show a steady increase in altitude
westward as they get nearer to Yemen, and the highest peaks and ranges
are all located in
Yemen The highest, Jabal an Nabi Shu\'ayb in Yemen,
is 3666 m high
* Stretches of dry or marshy coastland with coral reefs on the Red
Sea side (
Oases and marshy coast-land in
Eastern Arabia on the Persian Gulf
Arabia has few lakes or permanent rivers. Most areas are drained by
ephemeral watercourses called wadis , which are dry except during the
rainy season. Plentiful ancient aquifers exist beneath much of the
peninsula, however, and where this water surfaces, oases form (e.g.
Qatif , two of the world's largest oases ) and permit
agriculture, especially palm trees , which allowed the peninsula to
produce more dates than any other region in the world. In general, the
climate is extremely hot and arid , although there are exceptions.
Higher elevations are made temperate by their altitude, and the
Arabian Sea coastline can receive surprisingly cool, humid breezes in
summer due to cold upwelling offshore. The peninsula has no thick
forests. Desert-adapted wildlife is present throughout the region.
According to NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)
satellite data (2003 - 2013) analysed in a University of California,
Irvine (UCI) -led study published in
Water Resources Research on 16
June 2015, the most over-stressed aquifer system in the world is the
Arabian Aquifer System , upon which more than 60 million people depend
for water. Twenty-one of the thirty seven largest aquifers "have
exceeded sustainability tipping points and are being depleted" and
thirteen of them are "considered significantly distressed."
A plateau more than 2,500 feet (760 m) high extends across much of
the Arabian Peninsula. The plateau slopes eastwards from the massive,
rifted escarpment along the coast of the Red Sea, to the shallow
waters of the Persian Gulf. The interior is characterised by _cuestas_
and valleys, drained by a system of _wadis_. A crescent of sand and
gravel deserts lies to the east.
LAND AND SEA
Coconut palms line corniches of
Oman (Al Hafa). Red sea
Most of the Arabian
Peninsula is unsuited to agriculture, making
irrigation and land reclamation projects essential. The narrow coastal
plain and isolated oases, amounting to less than 1% of the land area,
are used to cultivate grains, coffee and tropical fruits . Goat,
sheep, and camel husbandry is widespread elsewhere throughout the rest
of the Peninsula. Some areas have a summer humid tropical monsoon
climate , in particular the
Al Mahrah areas of
Yemen. These areas allow for large scale coconut plantations. Much of
Yemen has a tropical monsoon rain influenced mountain climate. The
plains usually have either a tropical or subtropical arid desert
climate or arid steppe climate . The sea surrounding the Arabian
Peninsula is generally tropical sea with a very rich tropical sea life
and some of the world's largest, undestroyed and most pristine coral
reefs. In addition, the organisms living in symbiosis with the Red Sea
coral, the protozoa and zooxanthellae , have a unique hot weather
adaptation to sudden rise (and fall) in sea water temperature. Hence,
these coral reefs are not affected by coral bleaching caused by rise
in temperature as elsewhere in the indopacific coral sea. The reefs
are also unaffected by mass tourism and diving or other large scale
human interference. However, some reefs were destroyed in the Persian
Gulf , mostly caused by phosphate water pollution and resultant
increase in algae growth as well as oil pollution from ships and
pipeline leakage. Terraced fields in Yemen.
The fertile soils of
Yemen have encouraged settlement of almost all
of the land from sea level up to the mountains at 10,000 feet (3,000
m). In the higher reaches, elaborate terraces have been constructed to
facilitate grain, fruit, coffee, ginger and khat cultivation.
The Arabian peninsula is known for its rich oil, i.e. petroleum
production due to its geographical location.
Hellenistic period, the area was known as _Arabia_ or
_Aravia_ (Greek : _Αραβία_). The Romans named three regions with
the prefix "Arabia", encompassing a larger area than the current term
Arabia Petraea : for the area that is today southern modern Syria
Jordan , the Sinai
Peninsula and northwestern
Saudi Arabia . It was
the only one that became a province , with
Petra as its capital.
Arabia Deserta ("
Desert Arabia"): signified the desert interior of
the Arabian peninsula. As a name for the region, it remained popular
into the 19th and 20th centuries, and was used in Charles M. Doughty
's _Travels in
Arabia Deserta _ (1888).
Arabia Felix ("Fortunate Arabia"): was used by geographers to
describe what is now
Yemen , which enjoys more rainfall, is much
greener than the rest of the peninsula and has long enjoyed much more
The Arab inhabitants used a north-south division of Arabia: Al
Sham-Al Yaman, or Arabia Deserta-Arabia Felix.
Arabia Felix had
originally been used for the whole peninsula, and at other times only
for the southern region. Because its use became limited to the south,
the whole peninsula was simply called Arabia.
Arabia Deserta was the
entire desert region extending north from
Arabia Felix to Palmyra and
the Euphrates, including all the area between Pelusium on the Nile and
Babylon. This area was also called Arabia and not sharply
distinguished from the peninsula.
The Arabs and the
Ottoman Empire considered the west of the Arabian
Peninsula region where the Arabs lived 'the land of the Arabs' –
Bilad al-Arab (Arabia), and its major divisions were the bilad al-Sham
(Syria), bilad al-Yaman (the Land of the southern Peninsula), and
Iraq and modern-day
Kuwait (the Land of the River Banks).
The Ottomans used the term Arabistan in a broad sense for the
subcontinent itself starting from
Cilicia , where the Euphrates river
makes its descent into
Syria , through Palestine , and on through the
remainder of the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas.
_The provinces of Arabia were:_ Al Tih, the Sinai peninsula, Hedjaz,
Asir, Yemen, Hadramaut, Mahra and Shilu, Oman, Hasa, Bahrain, Dahna,
Nufud, the Hammad, which included the deserts of Syria, Mesopotamia
Ancient coins from
Failaka Island ,
The history of the Arabian
Peninsula goes back to the beginnings of
human habitation in Arabia up to 130,000 years ago. The region has
twice in world history had a global impact. The first was in the 7th
century when it became the cradle of
Islam . The second was from the
mid-20th century when the discovery of vast oil deposits propelled it
into a key economic and geo-political role. At other times, the region
existed in relative obscurity and isolation, although from the 7th
century the cities of
Medina had the highest spiritual
significance for the
Islamic world ,
Mecca being the destination for
Hajj annual pilgrimage.
Pre-Islamic Arabia Sabaean inscription addressed
to the god
Almaqah , mentioning five Ancient Yemeni gods, two reigning
sovereigns and two governors, 7th century BC. The old city of
There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula
dates back to about 106,000 to 130,000 years ago. However, the harsh
climate historically prevented much settlement in pre-Islamic Arabian
peninsula, apart from a small number of urban trading settlements,
Medina , located in the
Hejaz in the west of the
However, archaeology has revealed the existence of many civilizations
in pre-Islamic Arabia (such as
Thamud ), especially in
South Arabia .
South Arabian civilizations include
Himyarite Kingdom ,
Kingdom of Awsan , Kingdom of Ma\'īn and
Sabaean Kingdom . Central
Arabia was the location of kingdom of Kinda in the 4th, 5th and early
6th centuries AD.
Eastern Arabia was home to the
Dilmun civilization .
The earliest known events in Arabian history are migrations from the
Peninsula into neighbouring areas.
The Arabian peninsula has long been accepted as the original
Urheimat _ of the
Semitic languages by a majority of scholars.
"Shamir of Dhu-Raydan and Himyar had called in the help of the clans
of Habashat for against the kings of Saba; but Ilmuqah granted... the
submission of Shamir of Dhu-Raydan and the clans of Habashat."
RISE OF ISLAM
Early Muslim conquests and
Islamic Golden Age
Age of the Caliphs Expansion under
Muhammad , 622–632/A.H. 1–11
Rashidun Caliphate , 632–661/A.H. 11–40
Expansion during the
Caliphate , 661–750/A.H. 40–129
Approximate locations of some of the important tribes and Empire of
Peninsula at the dawn of
Islam (approximately 600 CE / 50
The seventh century saw the introduction of
Islam to the Arabian
Muhammad , was born in
Mecca in about
570 and first began preaching in the city in 610, but migrated to
Medina in 622. From there he and his companions united the tribes of
Arabia under the banner of
Islam and created a single Arab Muslim
religious polity in the Arabian peninsula.
He established a new unified polity in the Arabian peninsula which
under the subsequent
Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of
rapid expansion of Arab power well beyond the Arabian peninsula in the
form of a vast Muslim Arab Empire with an area of influence that
stretched from the northwest
Indian subcontinent , across Central Asia
, the Middle East, North Africa, southern Italy, and the Iberian
Peninsula , to the
Muhammad began preaching
Mecca before migrating to
from where he united the tribes of Arabia into a singular Arab Muslim
religious polity. With Muhammad's death in 632 AD, disagreement broke
out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Umar
ibn al-Khattab , a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr
, who was Muhammad's intimate friend and collaborator. Others added
their support and
Abu Bakr was made the first caliph . This choice was
disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi
Talib , his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated his successor.
Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge a recent defeat by Byzantine
Eastern Roman Empire ) forces, although he first had to put down a
rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the
Ridda wars , or
"Wars of Apostasy".
Following Muhammad's death in 632,
Abu Bakr became leader of the
Muslims as the first
Caliph . After putting down a rebellion by the
Arab tribes (known as the
Ridda wars , or "Wars of Apostasy"), Abu
Bakr attacked the
Byzantine Empire . On his death in 634, he was
Umar as caliph, followed by
Uthman ibn al-Affan and Ali
ibn Abi Talib . The period of these first four caliphs is known as
_al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn_: the
Rashidun or "rightly guided"
Caliphate . Under the
Rashidun Caliphs, and, from 661, their Umayyad
successors , the Arabs rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim
control outside of Arabia. In a matter of decades Muslim armies
decisively defeated the
Byzantine army and destroyed the Persian
Empire , conquering huge swathes of territory from the Iberian
peninsula to India. The political focus of the
Muslim world then
shifted to the newly conquered territories.
Medina remained the spiritually most
important places in the
Muslim world . The Qur\'an requires every
able-bodied Muslim who can afford it, as one of the five pillars of
Islam , to make a pilgrimage, or
Hajj , to
Mecca during the Islamic
Dhu al-Hijjah at least once in his or her lifetime. The
Masjid al-Haram (the Grand Mosque) in
Mecca is the location of the
Kaaba , Islam's holiest site, and the
Masjid al-Nabawi (the Prophet's
Medina is the location of
Muhammad tomb; as a result, from
the 7th century,
Medina became the pilgrimage destinations
for large numbers of Muslims from across the
Islamic world .
THE MIDDLE AGES
Despite its spiritual importance, in political terms Arabia soon
became a peripheral region of the
Islamic world , in which the most
important medieval Islamic states were based at various times in such
far away cities as
Baghdad , and
However, from the 10th century (and, in fact, until the 20th century)
Hashemite Sharifs of
Mecca maintained a state in the most
developed part of the region, the
Hejaz . Their domain originally
comprised only the holy cities of
Medina but in the 13th
century it was extended to include the rest of the
Hejaz . Although,
the Sharifs exercised at most times independent authority in the Hejaz
, they were usually subject to the suzerainty of one of the major
Islamic empires of the time. In the Middle Ages, these included the
Baghdad , and the
Ottoman territories acquired between 1481 and 1683 (See: list of
The provincial Ottoman Army for Arabia (Arabistan Ordusu) was
headquartered in Syria, which included Palestine, the Transjordan
region in addition to Lebanon (Mount Lebanon was however a
semi-autonomous mutasarrifate ). It was put in charge of Syria,
Cilicia, Iraq, and the remainder of the Arabian Peninsula. The
Ottomans never had any control over central Arabia, also known as the
Damascus Protocol of 1914 provides an illustration of the
regional relationships. Arabs living in one of the existing districts
of the Arabian peninsula, the Emirate of
Hejaz , asked for a British
guarantee of independence. Their proposal included all Arab lands
south of a line roughly corresponding to the northern frontiers of
Syria and Iraq. They envisioned a new Arab state, or
confederation of states, adjoining the southern Arabian Peninsula. It
would have comprised
Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate
Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate ,
Jordan , and Palestine
In the modern era, the term bilad al-Yaman came to refer specifically
to the southwestern parts of the peninsula. Arab geographers started
to refer to the whole peninsula as 'jazirat al-Arab', or the peninsula
of the Arabs.
Late Ottoman Rule And The
Peninsula in 1914.
In the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottomans embarked on an
ambitious project: the construction of a railway connecting
the capital of the
Ottoman Empire and the seat of the Islamic
Caliphate , and
Hejaz with its holiest shrines of
Islam which are the
yearly pilgrimage destination of the
Hajj . Another important goal was
to improve the economic and political integration of the distant
Arabian provinces into the Ottoman state, and to facilitate the
transportation of military troops in case of need.
Hejaz Railway was a narrow gauge railway (1050 mm) that ran from
Medina , through the
Hejaz region of Arabia. It was
originally planned to reach the holy city of
Mecca , but due to the
interruption of the construction works caused by the outbreak of World
War I, it eventually only reached Medina. It was a part of the Ottoman
railway network and was built in order to extend the previously
existing line between
Damascus (which began from the
Haydarpaşa Terminal ).
The railway was started in 1900 at the behest of the Ottoman Sultan
Abdul Hamid II and was built largely by the Turks , with German advice
and support. A public subscription was opened throughout the Islamic
world to fund the construction. The railway was to be a waqf , an
inalienable religious endowment or charitable trust.
Arab Revolt And The Unification Of Saudi Arabia
The major developments of the early 20th century were the Arab Revolt
during World War I and the subsequent collapse and partitioning of the
Ottoman Empire . The
Arab Revolt (1916–1918) was initiated by the
Sherif Hussein ibn Ali with the aim of securing independence from the
Ottoman Empire and creating a single unified Arab state
Aden in Yemen. During World War I,
the Sharif Hussein entered into an alliance with the United Kingdom
and France against the Ottomans in June 1916.
These events were followed by the unification of
Saudi Arabia under
King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud . In 1902, Ibn Saud had captured
Continuing his conquests, Abdulaziz subdued
Jabal Shammar ,
Hejaz between 1913 and 1926 founded the modern state of
Saudi Arabia .
The Saudis absorbed the Emirate of
Asir , with their expansion only
ending in 1934 after a war with
Yemen . Two Saudi states were formed
and controlled much of Arabia before Ibn Saud was even born. Ibn Saud,
however, established the third Saudi state.
The second major development has been the discovery of vast reserves
of oil in the 1930s. Its production brought great wealth to all
countries of the region, with the exception of
Civil War In Yemen
Yemen Civil War was fought in North
Yemen between royalists
of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of
Yemen and factions of the
Republic from 1962 to 1970. The war began with a coup d\'état carried
out by the republican leader,
Abdullah as-Sallal , which dethroned the
Muhammad al-Badr and declared
Yemen a republic under his
presidency. The Imam escaped to the Saudi Arabian border and rallied
The royalist side received support from Saudi Arabia, while the
republicans were supported by
Egypt and the Soviet Union. Both foreign
irregular and conventional forces were also involved. The Egyptian
Gamal Abdel Nasser , supported the republicans with as
many as 70,000 troops. Despite several military moves and peace
conferences, the war sank into a stalemate. Egypt's commitment to the
war is considered to have been detrimental to its performance in the
Six-Day War of June 1967, after which Nasser found it increasingly
difficult to maintain his army's involvement and began to pull his
forces out of Yemen.
By 1970, King Faisal of
Saudi Arabia recognized the republic and a
truce was signed. Egyptian military historians refer to the war in
Yemen as their Vietnam.
Iraq invaded Kuwait. The invasion of
Kuwait by Iraqi forces
led to the 1990–91
Gulf War .
Syria and Saudi Arabia
joined a multinational coalition that opposed Iraq. Displays of
Jordan and Palestine resulted in strained
relations between many of the Arab states. After the war, a so-called
Damascus Declaration" formalized an alliance for future joint Arab
defensive actions between Egypt, Syria, and the GCC member states.
TRANSPORT AND INDUSTRY
The extraction and refining of oil and gas are the major industrial
activities in the Arabian Peninsula. The region also has an active
construction sector, with many cities reflecting the wealth generated
by the oil industry. The service sector is dominated by financial and
technical institutions, which, like the construction sector, mainly
serve the oil industry. Traditional handicrafts such as carpet-weaving
are found in rural areas of Arabia.
* Ancient history of
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Iram of the Pillars
Kingdom of Aksum
List of Arabian cities by population
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Rowman & Littlefield. p. 319. ISBN 0810855283 .
* ^ Kenneth Anderson Kitchen (2003). _On the Reliability of the Old
Testament_. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 116. ISBN 0802849601 .
* ^ Philip Khuri Hitti (2002), History of the Arabs, Revised: 10th
* ^ Gray, Louis Herbert (2006) _Introduction to Semitic Comparative
* ^ Courtenay, James John (2009) _The Language of Palestine and
* ^ Kienast, Burkhart. (2001). _Historische semitische
* ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995) _The International Standard Bible
* ^ Stuart Munro-Hay. _Aksum: A Civilization of Late Antiquity_.
Edinburgh: University Press. 1991. pp. 66.
* ^ See:
* Holt (1977a), p.57
* Hourani (2003), p.22
* Lapidus (2002), p.32
* Madelung (1996), p.43
* Tabatabaei (1979), p.30–50
* ^ See: Holt (1977a), p.57, Hourani (2003), p.22, Lapidus (2002),
p.32, Madelung (1996), p.43, Tabatabaei (1979), p.30–50
* ^ L. Gardet; J. Jomier. "Islam". _Encyclopaedia of
* ^ Farah, Caesar (1994). Islam: Beliefs and Observances (5th ed.),
pp.145–147 ISBN 978-0-8120-1853-0
* ^ Goldschmidt, Jr., Arthur; Lawrence Davidson (2005). A Concise
History of the
Middle East (8th ed.), p.48 ISBN 978-0-8133-4275-7
* ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online: History of Arabia retrieved 18
* ^ see History of the
Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Stanford
J. Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw, Cambridge University Press, 1977, ISBN
0-521-29166-6 , page 85
* ^ The Politics of Interventionism in Ottoman Lebanon,
1830–1861, by Caesar E. Farah, explains that Mount Lebanon was in
the jurisdiction of the Arabistan Army, and that its headquarters was
briefly moved to Beirut.
* ^ As cited by R, John and S. Hadawi's, Palestine Diary, pp.
30–31, the '
Damascus Protocol' stated: "The recognition by Great
Britain of the independence of the Arab countries lying within the
following frontiers: North: The Line Mersin_Adana to parallel 37N. and
thence along the line Birejek-Urga-Mardin-Kidiat-Jazirat (Ibn
'Unear)-Amadia to the Persian frontier; East: The Persian frontier
down to the Persian Gulf; South: The
Indian Ocean (with the exclusion
of Aden, whose status was to be maintained). West: The
Red Sea and the
Mediterranean Sea back to Mersin. The abolition of all exceptional
privileges granted to foreigners under the capitulations. The
conclusion of a defensive alliance between Great Britain _and the
future independent Arab State_. The grant of economic preference to
Great Britain." see _King Husain and the Kingdom of Hejaz_, By Randall
Baker, Oleander Press, 1979, ISBN 0-900891-48-3 , pages 64–65
* ^ Salibi, Kamal Suleiman (1988). _A House of Many Mansions: The
History of Lebanon Reconsidered,_. University of California Press. pp.
60–61. ISBN 0-520-07196-4 .
* ^ King Hussein And The Kingdom of Hejaz, Randall Baker, Oleander
Press 1979, ISBN 0-900891-48-3 , page 18
* ^ Aboul-Enein, Youssef (2004-01-01). "The Egyptian-
Egyptian perspectives on Guerrilla warfare". _Infantry Magazine_
(Jan–Feb, 2004). Retrieved October 3, 2008.
* ^ see Richard Schofield,
Kuwait and Iraq: Historical Claims and
Territorial. Disputes, London: Royal Institute of International
Affairs 1991, ISBN 0-905031-35-0 and The
Kuwait Crisis: Basic
Documents, By E. Lauterpacht, C. J. Greenwood, Marc Weller, Published
by Cambridge University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-521-46308-4
* ^ Egypt's Bid for Arab Leadership: Implications for U.S. Policy,
By Gregory L. Aftandilian, Published by Council on Foreign Relations,
1993, ISBN 0-87609-146-X , pages 6–8
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