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Arab-Berber
Arab-Berber
(Arabic: العرب والبربر‎; French: Arabo-berbères) is a term to denote a Maghrebis
Maghrebis
inhabitant of the North African Maghreb
Maghreb
who is of mixed Berber and Arab
Arab
origin and whose native language is a variant of Maghrebi Arabic
Maghrebi Arabic
and who also identifies as an Arab.[5][6][7][8][9][10] While some Arab-Berbers claim West Asian descent, genetic studies there have determined that Arab
Arab
and non- Arab
Arab
Berbers
Berbers
are genetically nearly identical. This suggest that the processes of "Arabization" in the Maghreb
Maghreb
was entirely cultural rather than genetic.[11] The Arab-Berber
Arab-Berber
identity came into being as a direct result of the Arab
Arab
conquest of North Africa, and the intermarriage between the Arabian and Persian people who immigrated to those regions and local mainly Roman Africans
Roman Africans
and other Berber people; in addition, Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
and Sulaym Arab
Arab
tribes originating in the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
invaded the region and intermarried with the local rural mainly Berber populations, and were a major factor in the linguistic, cultural and ethnic Arabization
Arabization
of the Maghreb.[12][13] Alongside Berber speakers, arabized Berbers
Berbers
form the core of the native populations of the Maghreb, namely Algeria, Libya, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia. [14][15] Arab- Berbers
Berbers
primarily speak variants of Maghrebi Arabic, also known as (Darija or Derja (Arabic: دارجة‎), which means "everyday/colloquial language".[16] The variants of Maghrebi derja have a significant Berber, Latin[17][18][19] and possibly Neo-Punic[20][21] substratum. However, they also have many loanwords from French,[22] Turkish,[22] Italian[22] and the languages of Spain.[22]

Contents

1 Historical perspective 2 Population genetics 3 See also 4 References

Historical perspective[edit] Further information: Ifriqiya, History of early Islamic Tunisia, and Barbary Coast Medieval Arabic
Arabic
sources refers to Northwest Africa as Ifriqiya, Mauretania or as Bilad Al Barbar ('Land of the Berbers') (Arabic: بلادالبربر). This designation may have given rise to the term Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
which was used by Europeans until the 19th century to refer to coastal Northwest Africa. Since the populations were partially affiliated with the Arab
Arab
Muslim culture, Northwest Africa also started to be referred to by the Arabic speakers as Al-Maġrib, the Maghreb
Maghreb
(meaning "The West") as it was considered as the western part of the known world. For historical references, medieval Arab
Arab
and Muslim historians and geographers used to refer to Morocco
Morocco
as Al-Maghrib al Aqşá ("The Farthest West"), disambiguating it from neighboring historical regions called Al-Maghrib al Awsat ("The Middle West", Algeria) and Al-Maghrib al Adna ("The Nearest West", Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(Tunisia)).[23] The Maghreb
Maghreb
was gradually arabized with the spread of Islam
Islam
in the 7th century AD, when the liturgical language Arabic
Arabic
was first brought to the Maghreb. However, the bulk of the population of northwestern Africa remained Berber or Roman Africans
Roman Africans
at least until the 14th century. Arabization
Arabization
was at least partly strengthened in the rural areas in the 11th century with the emigration of the Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
tribes from Egypt. However, many parts of the Maghreb
Maghreb
were only arabized relatively recently in the 19th and 20th centuries, such as the area of the Aurès (Awras) mountains. Lastly, the mass education and promotion of Arabic language
Arabic language
and culture through schools and mass media, during the 20th century, by the maghrebis governments, is regarded as the strongest contributor to the Arabization
Arabization
process in the Maghreb. Population genetics[edit] Various population genetics studies along with historians such as Gabriel Camps and Charles-André Julien lend support to the idea that the bulk of the gene pool of modern maghrebis, irrespective of linguistic group, is derived from the Berber populations of the pre-Islamic period.[24] See also[edit]

Maghrebis Arabs Banu Hilal Banu Sulaym Beni Hassan North Africa Maghreb Kouloughlis

References[edit]

^ Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census ^ "Estimé à six millions d'individus, l'histoire de leur enracinement, processus toujours en devenir, suscite la mise en avant de nombreuses problématiques...", « Être Maghrébins en France » in Les Cahiers de l’Orient, n° 71, troisième trimestre 2003 ^ Maghreb
Maghreb
people represent 45% of people born in Arab
Arab
countries who emigrated to Europe and N.America, they are 41% of the all Immigrants in Europe ^ css.escwa.org ^ Skutsch, C. (2013). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. Taylor & Francis. p. 119. ISBN 9781135193881. Retrieved 2017-03-03.  ^ Juergensmeyer, M.; Roof, W.C. (2011). Encyclopedia of Global Religion. SAGE Publications. p. 935. ISBN 9781452266565. Retrieved 2017-03-03.  ^ Suwaed, M. (2015). Historical Dictionary of the Bedouins. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 145. ISBN 9781442254510. Retrieved 2017-03-03.  ^ Brown, R.V.; Spilling, M. (2008). Tunisia. Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. p. 74. ISBN 9780761430377. Retrieved 2017-03-03.  ^ Bassiouni, M.C. (2013). Libya: From Repression to Revolution: A Record of Armed Conflict and International Law Violations, 2011-2013. Brill. p. 18. ISBN 9789004257351. Retrieved 2017-03-03.  ^ Simon, R.S.; Laskier, M.M.; Reguer, S. (2003). The Jews of the Middle East and North Africa
North Africa
in Modern Times. Columbia University Press. p. 444. ISBN 9780231507592. Retrieved 2017-03-03.  ^ Bosch, Elena et al. "Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by STR analysis." European Journal of Human Genetics (2000) 8, 360–366. Pg. 365 ^ Weiss, Bernard G. and Green, Arnold H.(1987) A Survey of Arab History American University in Cairo Press, Cairo, p. 129, ISBN 977-424-180-0 ^ Ballais, Jean-Louis (2000) "Chapter 7: Conquests and land degradation in the eastern Maghreb" p. 133 ^ Bekada A, Fregel R, Cabrera VM, Larruga JM, Pestano J, et al. (2013) Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African Landscape. PLoS ONE 8(2): e56775. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775 ^ Hajjej, A.; et al. (2006). "The contribution of HLA class I and II alleles and haplotypes to the investigation of the evolutionary history of Tunisians". HLA. 68 (2): 153–162. Retrieved 21 September 2017. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Wehr, Hans: Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic
Arabic
(2011); Harrell, Richard S.: Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
(1966) ^ (in French) Tilmatine Mohand, Substrat et convergences: Le berbére et l'arabe nord-africain (1999), in Estudios de dialectologia norteafricana y andalusi 4, pp 99–119 ^ (in Spanish) Corriente, F. (1992). Árabe andalusí y lenguas romances. Fundación MAPFRE. ^ (in French) Baccouche, T. (1994). L'emprunt en arabe moderne. Académie tunisienne des sciences, des lettres, et des arts, Beït al-Hikma. ^ Elimam, Abdou (1998). ' 'Le maghribi, langue trois fois millénaire. ELIMAM, Abdou (Éd. ANEP, Algiers 1997), Insaniyat. pp. 129–130.  ^ A. Leddy-Cecere, Thomas (2010). Contact, Restructuring, and Decreolization:The Case of Tunisian Arabic
Tunisian Arabic
(PDF). Linguistic Data Consortium, Department of Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Literatures. pp. 10–12–50–77.  ^ a b c d Zribi, I., Boujelbane, R., Masmoudi, A., Ellouze, M., Belguith, L., & Habash, N. (2014). A Conventional Orthography for Tunisian Arabic. In Proceedings of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC), Reykjavik, Iceland. ^ Yahya, Dahiru (1981). Morocco
Morocco
in the Sixteenth Century. Longman. p. 18.  ^ Arredi et al. A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa

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